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IEEE Spectrum

Volume 28 Issue 2 • Feb. 1991

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Displaying Results 1 - 9 of 9
  • Air traffic control: a system-wide upgrade races to replace two-decade-old equipment

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):22 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (793 KB)

    Near-term improvements in the air traffic control system are examined, and concerns over whether these changes will be comprehensive and made quickly enough to keep up with traffic growth are addressed. The abilities of the new host computers installed in the 20 US en route centers are discussed. The problem of too many pilots communicating with a controller on one radio frequency, which is nowher... View full abstract»

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  • Air traffic control: satellites and artificial intelligence promise improved safety and efficiency

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):27 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1170 KB)

    Longer-term solutions to air traffic management are examined. These include global networks of satellites for communications, navigation, and surveillance,which may upstage ground radars in the next century. Greater capability in the cockpits (including collision avoidance systems and flight computers with extensive libraries), better weather prediction and information transfer, and plans to artif... View full abstract»

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  • Air traffic control: expert observers define top priorities to ensure safe and accessible skies

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):33 - 36
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (545 KB)

    Opinions of 15 people, all well versed in air traffic control operations, on top priorities for safe and accessible air space are reported. Overwhelmingly cited as the top problem was the growing lack of throughput capacity, although the reasons given for this deficiency varied widely. Steps suggested to mitigate the problems include constructing additional airports and runways and installing new ... View full abstract»

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  • How to select tools for microcontroller software

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):37 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (415 KB)

    The factors that determine the choice of tools are identified. Symbolic versus source-level debugging, programming language tradeoffs, and assembler features are examined. The use of CASE (computer-aided software engineering) tools is briefly considered.<<ETX>> View full abstract»

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  • Embedding spectral analysis in equipment

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):40 - 43
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (542 KB)

    The use of digital signal processors (DSPs) that enable continuous estimates of signal frequency components to be incorporated into a broad range of real-time systems is considered. Classical spectral estimation methods are reviewed. Real-time implementation of the methods, all of which use some form of fast Fourier transform method, on DSP chips is discussed. Some applications of these chips are ... View full abstract»

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  • The case for object-oriented databases

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):44 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (11)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)

    The drawbacks of relational database management systems (DBMSs) for managing electronic design automation (EDA) data are discussed, focusing on the modeling of data. The object-oriented approach is explained, and it is shown how it meets the needs of EDA. Benchmarking of object-oriented DBMSs is briefly considered, and their use to support cooperative work is examined.<<ETX>> View full abstract»

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  • Ericsson bets on a cellular world

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):48 - 51
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (598 KB)

    The recent success of Ericsson Corp., the Swedish electronic company, in the cellular telephone market is examined. Ericsson's management and the history of its involvement with cellular technology are discussed. The company's decision to go with time-division multiaccess and the possible threat of code-division technology are considered. Other uncertainties facing the company because of new techn... View full abstract»

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  • Pushing the limits of standard CMOS

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):52 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)

    An improved clocking scheme and sharper circuit design and logic selection, which have yielded a five-to-tenfold increased in the speed of standard CMOS ICs, are discussed. The clocking strategy relies on a true single-phase clock, device sizes are varied to optimize their speed, and a precharged logic style reduces capacitive loads. The tradeoff is roughly a doubling of circuit area. The high-spe... View full abstract»

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  • A streetcar named light rail

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):54 - 56
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB)

    Light rail systems, which are descended from streetcars and interurban electric railroads, are coming into favor in North America. They differ from their progenitors in three main areas: the degree of separation between their tracks and other traffic, vehicle technology, and operating practices. Whereas streetcars intermingled with other street traffic throughout most of their routes, light rail v... View full abstract»

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