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Includes the top 50 most frequently accessed documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

  • Equations for induction motor torque and power

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s): 652
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (313 KB)

    THE EQUATIONS available for determining the developed torque and power of induction motors deserve critical review. Accurate and convenient equations are necessary to encourage designers to avoid approximate short-cut calculations. However, an even more important result of having improved equations available is that this can provide a first step toward the development of synthesis procedures1... View full abstract»

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  • Design and calculation of induction heating coils

    Publication Year: 1957, Page(s): 149
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (473 KB)

    WHEN ALTERNATING CURRENT flows in the coil turns of a typical induction heating load, such as shown in Fig. 1, three components of magnetic flux are established, i.e. (1) in the workpiece, (2) in the air gap, and (3) in the copper of the coil turns. This is characteristic of any induction heating load regardless of shape, size, or frequency, and a general equation can be written for total flux lin... View full abstract»

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  • A symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits

    Publication Year: 1938, Page(s):713 - 723
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2664 KB)

    IN THE CONTROL and protective circuits of complex electrical systems it is frequently necessary to make intricate interconnections of relay contacts and switches. Examples of these circuits occur in automatic telephone exchanges, industrial motor-control equipment, and in almost any circuits designed to perform complex operations automatically. In this paper a mathematical analysis of certain of t... View full abstract»

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  • Electric circuit models of partial differential equations

    Publication Year: 1948, Page(s):672 - 684
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (7735 KB)

    Electrical models of linear partial differential equations may serve several practical purposes: 1. If the networks are physically constructed, they actually may solve the equations within an accuracy of, say, one to five per cent, which is acceptable in many engineering applications. 2. If the networks are constructed only on paper, they supply a visualizable schedule of operations for the numeri... View full abstract»

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  • Tertiary windings in autotransformers

    Publication Year: 1961, Page(s): 359
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (491 KB)

    AUTOTRANSFORMERS in power systems are usually Y-connected and commonly have delta-connected tertiary windings. Is the tertiary winding needed? If needed, what should be its size? These are two questions to consider when applying an autotransformer. View full abstract»

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  • Three-phase systems with unbalanced wye-connected loads

    Publication Year: 1941, Page(s):80 - 85
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1175 KB)

    The various methods of solving three-phase unbalanced wye circuits, usually found separately in engineering literature, have been brought together here; each is illustrated by a specific example View full abstract»

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  • Tunnel diode operation and application

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):270 - 277
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5887 KB)

    The tunnel diode offers significant physical and electrical advantages over conventional semiconductor devices. Its impact on future transistor technology is evaluated in the light of these advantages. View full abstract»

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  • Saturated synchronous reactance

    Publication Year: 1935, Page(s):300 - 305
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1548 KB)

    It is well known that the effects of magnetic saturation are important in modifying the operating characteristics of synchronous machines. In this paper is shown a method of accurately taking into account these effects on the balanced steady-state operation of a cylindrical rotor synchronous machine by using a saturated value of the synchronous reactance. The expression for this reactance is deriv... View full abstract»

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  • Impulse generator circuit formulas

    Publication Year: 1934, Page(s):169 - 176
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1545 KB)

    With impulse voltage testing of electrical equipment becoming more widely used, it seems highly desirable to be able to calculate the circuit constants required to produce the desired test waves and to calculate the waves that any given circuit constants will give. In this paper the solution of the more commonly used impulse generator circuits is developed and summarized. Waves calculated by these... View full abstract»

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  • Effects of series capacitors in transmission lines

    Publication Year: 1951, Page(s):702 - 705
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (421 KB)

    THE LOAD capability and performance of high-voltage transmission lines can be improved by the installation of series capacitors. Some reasons for the application of series capacitors to transmission circuits are: 1. To effect the desired load division between parallel circuits. 2. To increase the load capacity of a transmission line by a nominal amount (0 to 50 per cent). 3. To provide increased l... View full abstract»

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  • The magnetic fluid clutch

    Publication Year: 1948, Page(s): 1167
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (565 KB)

    A new type of magnetic fluid and several classes of new devices utilizing this fluid have been developed at the National Bureau of Standards. One application of this fluid has been in electromagnetic clutches, but the electro-magnetically controlled mixture offers promise for other uses also. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical resistance to earth of a tree

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s): 629
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (317 KB)

    LIVE TREES are frequently struck by lightning with varying degrees of injury, from bark wounds that may heal so well in a few years that unnoticeable scars are left — to splitting and shattering of the trunk or extreme blasting of the bark, that results in early death of the tree. It is well known in high-voltage laboratories that extremely dry wood is none too reliable for use in surge vol... View full abstract»

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  • The direct- and quadrature-axis equivalent circuits of the synchronous machine

    Publication Year: 1945, Page(s):861 - 868
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2608 KB)

    THE EQUIVALENT-CIRCUIT method of analysis is a tool of unquestioned competence in the solution of machine and system problems involving a number of simultaneous equations. Its efficacy in obtaining practical results has been demonstrated in many diverse applications. In particular, the complete equivalent circuit of the synchronous machine — complete in the sense that the field-winding circ... View full abstract»

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  • Causes of corrosion of fine copper wires carrying a potential

    Publication Year: 1940, Page(s):357 - 360
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1676 KB)

    COPPER CORROSION is a serious problem in electrical equipment which uses very fine wires carrying a potential, the outstanding examples being various types of coils used in radios and ignition systems. The usual type of corrosion involves the formation of green material on the surface of the wire, which is obviously due to chemical reaction of the copper with materials in contact with it. As this ... View full abstract»

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  • The delta-grounded transformer

    Publication Year: 1954, Page(s): 156
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (267 KB)

    MANY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS are fed essentially from one high-voltage system through transformation. It is sometimes desirable to ground both systems at the substation which is the main source of supply to the distribution system. This grounding problem may be solved by using either a Y-Y-delta transformer with a tertiary delta winding or a conventional Y-delta bank with a separate grounding transfo... View full abstract»

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  • Oil circuit breaker for switching capacitors

    Publication Year: 1954, Page(s): 428
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (290 KB)

    LARGE BANKS of high-voltage capacitors are being used to an increasing extent for voltage regulation and reactive power generation. Recent experience switching 30,000 reactive kilovolt-amperes in two parallel banks at 115 kv on the Bonneville Power System has indicated the special nature of the switching problems associated with the use of oil circuit breakers for energizing and de-energizing such... View full abstract»

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  • Sliding contacts — A review of the literature

    Publication Year: 1953, Page(s):912 - 917
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1009 KB)

    The literature on sliding contacts is reviewed with emphasis placed on basic phenomena. The subject is covered under the headings of contact wear, contact configuration, contact resistance, generated noise, contact force, and contact surfaces. Each of these factors is evaluated in terms of its effect on sliding contacts. Recommendations for improving sliding contacts also are included. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic control for washing machines

    Publication Year: 1942, Page(s):89 - 92
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2563 KB)

    IN 1940 the American people spent $113,580,000 to buy 1,552,666 household washing machines. That is big business! But the only way the washing-machine industry could become a big business, and the only way it can remain a big business, is by supplying machines that fulfill the users' actual needs and desires. In practice, this means that the industry must anticipate by several years what features ... View full abstract»

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  • Semiconductor materials for thermoelectric power generation up to 700 C

    Publication Year: 1960, Page(s):450 - 459
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4013 KB)

    An investigation into the thermoelectric properties of semiconductor materials to uncover the feasibility of power-generating efficiencies at temperatures from 25 to 700 C. Discussion is centered on general considerations of efficiency factors leading to materials selection and some preliminary results in the evaluation of compound semiconductors and their solid-solution alloys. View full abstract»

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  • Two-reaction theory of synchronous machines — Part II

    Publication Year: 1933, Page(s):44 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB)

    RESULTS of certain mathematical investigations which have been found to be of practical use in the analysis of problems involving the transient behavior of interconnected machines are presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor by the Schwartz-Christoffel transformation

    Publication Year: 1937, Page(s):363 - 368
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1368 KB)

    AN EXACT method of calculating the capacitance of a parallel-plate air condenser, taking into account its fringing effect, has been suggested by J. J. Thomson1 and more completely worked out by A. E. H. Love.2 The purpose of this paper is to promote familiarity with this mathematical technique by making it more readily accessible to American engineers. In addition to the exac... View full abstract»

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  • D-C machine with solid-state commutation

    Publication Year: 1962, Page(s):879 - 884
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2767 KB)

    Three inherent functions necessary to the commutation of a d-c machine are: field position detection, switch selection, and the switching arrangement itself. Various means of performing these functions without using conventional commutators and brushes are analyzed and compared, and an experimental machine is discussed to demonstrate the use of solid-state devices to perform the function of commut... View full abstract»

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  • Application of capacitors for power-factor improvement of induction motors

    Publication Year: 1945, Page(s):274 - 278
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2669 KB)

    POWER-FACTOR improvement of induction-motor loads by means of shunt capacitors has been a common practice for many years. Recently, the practice of connecting the capacitors directly at the motor terminals has developed in order to permit switching of the capacitors and motor as a unit. This will not result in adverse motor operation if the number of capacitors is selected properly. There is very ... View full abstract»

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  • Some Navy electronics problems and a proposal for a radar patent pool

    Publication Year: 1945, Page(s):87 - 91
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (10778 KB)

    A proposal that $25,000,000 a year be set aside for a peacetime electronic research and development program for the Navy, a statement of the necessity of more thoroughgoing and extensive standardization of component parts, and a suggestion for a radar patent pool to solve the postwar radar problem are the high lights of this article. View full abstract»

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  • History and development of the electronic power converter

    Publication Year: 1944, Page(s):654 - 657
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2800 KB)

    THE TERM “electronic power converter” needs some definition. The object may be to convert power from direct current to alternating current for d-c power transmission, or to convert power from one frequency into another, or to serve as a commutator for operating an a-c motor at variable speed, or for transforming high-voltage direct current into low-voltage direct current. Other objec... View full abstract»

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  • Origin of the electric motor

    Publication Year: 1948, Page(s):1035 - 1040
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5165 KB)

    Had it not been for the efforts of men like Davenport, De Jacobi, and Page, the benefits of the electric motor would not be enjoyed today. It is the purpose of this article to trace briefly the early history of the science of electro-motion and, in particular, to bring to light and to honor the inventor of the electric motor. View full abstract»

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  • Substation 1-line diagrams

    Publication Year: 1953, Page(s):998 - 1002
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (840 KB)

    The scope of this article was to investigate the basic primary circuit electrical configurations for transmission and distribution substations. This study was made broad because, until voltage ratings have been assigned to the circuits in a substation diagram, it represents equally well the lowest to the highest voltage circuits. View full abstract»

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  • Application of the ohm and mho principles to protective relays

    Publication Year: 1946, Page(s):378 - 385
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1692 KB)

    THE mho relay unit was first used 15 years ago as the directional unit for an early-type reactance relay. Thus it can be said that “mho” applied to relays is a new term applied to an old principle. The mathematical justification for the term has been given in a paper1 describing the use of the mho unit in a carrier-current relaying scheme. The mho unit in its present form ... View full abstract»

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  • The zero-flux current transformer

    Publication Year: 1953, Page(s): 904
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (361 KB)

    THE VOLTAGE which must be induced in the secondary winding of a current transformer, in order to overcome the impedance of the circuit, gives rise to a corresponding magnetic flux in the core. It is the ampere turns needed to maintain the flux which constitute the error of the transformer. View full abstract»

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  • Armature leakage reactance of synchronous machines

    Publication Year: 1935, Page(s):1116 - 1118
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (966 KB)

    Discussion and authors' closure of a paper by L. A. March and S. B. Crary published in the April 1935 issue, pages 378–81, and presented for oral discussion at the electrical machinery session of the summer convention, Ithaca, N. Y., June 27, 1935. View full abstract»

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  • Two-phase A-C servo motor operation

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s): 924
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (442 KB)

    MANY PRESENT-DAY servo systems employ the 2-phase induction motor as the electromechanical energy conversion member. Common practice is to supply one phase from a suitable constant-voltage source while the pertinent control information is carried in the form of the voltage magnitude variation impressed on the second or control winding. This voltage is maintained displaced at 90 degrees from the ma... View full abstract»

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  • Minimum-resistance coil design

    Publication Year: 1961, Page(s):846 - 848
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (975 KB)

    Significant reduction of coil resistance is possible through use of a divided-winding technique. Since the two portions of the winding have equal resistance and the same number of turns, they may be connected in parallel as well as in series One of the most frequent problems in electrical engineering is the design of a coil to produce a magnetic field within a pole. The device may be a relay, a fi... View full abstract»

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  • Charging-current limitations in cable lines

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s): 511
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (435 KB)

    THE CAPABILITY of high-voltage cable lines to deliver power diminishes rapidly as the length of line increases. This is shown in Fig. 1 which is valid for the cable sizes commonly used for operation at 132 kilovolts and higher voltages. Rough approximations for general use may also be taken from these curves for 66-kv cables, but new curves would have to be prepared for greater than 15-per-cent ac... View full abstract»

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  • 3-Conductor cable resistance and inductance

    Publication Year: 1948, Page(s): 1184
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)

    In studying the general problem of weight reduction in shipboard equipment, consideration has been given to the use of higher frequency power. This has required an investigation of the operating characteristics of 3-conductor cables. The characteristics of interest are the effective or a-c resistance and inductance when the cable is operated in a 3-phase circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of short circuits on power systems

    Publication Year: 1932, Page(s): 131
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (329 KB)

    CURVES presented in the companion paper “Standard Decrement Curves” are sufficiently accurate for most commercial work, particularly circuit breaker applications. Many special cases arise, however, for which these curves are not applicable. Of this character are relay applications on power systems involving several machines having different time constants and located unsymmetrically ... View full abstract»

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  • Mercury rectifiers vs. rotary converters

    Publication Year: 1933, Page(s):194 - 196
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (425 KB)

    This article discusses 4 years' experience in the operation of unattended automatic mercury arc rectifier and rotary converter substations supplying 600-volt d-c energy to overhead trolleys in interurban territory. The seriousness of minor failures in control equipment ordinarily employed in automatic stations is emphasized, and the replacement of some integral parts of automatic station control s... View full abstract»

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  • Harmonic-current-restrained relays for transformer differential protection

    Publication Year: 1941, Page(s):377 - 382
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2000 KB)

    Differential protection, employing percentage-differential relays, has1 long been the accepted method of fault protection for large power transformers. This method, illustrated by the schematic diagram, figure 1, is quite satisfactory in most respects but is subject to false tripping on the transient magnetizing-inrush current which flows when the transformer is energized. This current,... View full abstract»

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  • Safety in substation design

    Publication Year: 1950, Page(s):412 - 415
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4824 KB)

    IT CANNOT be emphasized too strongly that safety must be designed into substation structures and equipment installations. It is believed that many tragic accidents which have occurred in substations had their inception when unnecessary hazards were built into the stations. The combination of an unsafe condition and an unsafe act usually results in a personal injury and is generally recorded as a c... View full abstract»

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  • Design concepts for an exploding bridge-wire electronic ignition system

    Publication Year: 1962, Page(s):523 - 528
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1511 KB)

    An exploding bridge wire (EBW) is a fine wire conductor that is fused and vaporized by the discharge of a discrete package of electric energy in an extremely short time period. It can be used as a localized source of heat. Electrical and mechanical design features of the electronic firing unit used to actuate the various EBW devices on space vehicles are described and advantages of this ignition s... View full abstract»

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  • On eddy currents in a rotating disk

    Publication Year: 1942, Page(s):681 - 684
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (994 KB)

    A DEVICE which often occurs in electric machines and instruments consists of a relatively thin conducting disk rotating between the pole pieces of a permanent magnet or electromagnet. The author has received inquiries as to the method of calculating the paths of the eddy currents and the torque in such cases. The following rather simple method, which is quite accurate for a permanent magnet, seems... View full abstract»

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  • Effect of synchronous-machine transient rotor saliency

    Publication Year: 1955, Page(s): 123
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (194 KB)

    IN most studies of power system disturbances made on the a-c network analyzer, the transient rotor saliency of the synchronous machines is neglected. The validity of this assumption is well established. However, in some cases it has been desirable to measure the variations in several of the bus voltages during the disturbance. When the bus is electrically near to a synchronous machine (in the limi... View full abstract»

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  • Transformer magnetizing inrush currents and influence on system operation

    Publication Year: 1944, Page(s):366 - 374
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3710 KB)

    WHEN a transformer is energized, a transient current, known as magnetizing inrush current, generally flows for a short period of time until normal flux conditions are established. Under most practical system conditions, this current transient is of little consequence. However, in very rare cases a combination of circumstances may be obtained which results in this inrush being of such consequence a... View full abstract»

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  • The linear pulse stretching circuit

    Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):176 - 179
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1051 KB)

    Accurate determination of the width of short-duration pulses, using common low-bandwidth equipment, is accomplished by the linear pulse stretching circuit. An unknown input pulse may be elongated by a known factor, and the wider pulse is more easily measured. Also included is an analysis of the associated wave-shaper, two methods of readout using available equipment, and the results of measurement... View full abstract»

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  • Voltage notation conventions

    Publication Year: 1948, Page(s):41 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2078 KB)

    A critical analysis of voltage conventions and double subscript notations reveals that great confusion in electrical engineering literature is caused by the lack of uniformity in designating voltages and potential differences. A possible set of standards is offered for consideration. View full abstract»

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  • Equivalent circuits for power-flow studies

    Publication Year: 1949, Page(s): 794
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (555 KB)

    NETWORK ANALYZER STUDIES of power-flow conditions on large interconnected systems frequently require preliminary simplification and reduction of the network because of the limited number of analyzer circuits and sources available. Even in smaller systems which do not exceed the capacity of the analyzer being used, it is sometimes desirable to represent in detail only a portion of the system, simpl... View full abstract»

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  • Current-carrying capacity of acsr

    Publication Year: 1958, Page(s): 719
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    THE CONTINUOUS current-carrying capacity of transmission lines is dependent upon the allowable temperature of operation of the conductors. A great deal of test work has been performed in the investigation of this problem on ACSR (aluminum cable, steel reinforced). However, two factors—the effect of the sun and of the altitude of the line—have not received consideration heretofore. View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric strength of mineral oils

    Publication Year: 1935, Page(s):50 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1298 KB)

    The correlation of the pressure and temperature effects in determining the dielectric strength of mineral insulating oils is considered in this paper. The effect which gas dissolved in the oil has on the dielectric strength of the oil is shown by experimental results of tests on the effect of temperature and pressure. Based upon these results, simple formulas for expressing the dielectric strength... View full abstract»

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  • Skin effect in rectangular conductors

    Publication Year: 1933, Page(s):636 - 639
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1415 KB)

    A method of measurement of skin effect in rectangular conductors is presented in this article, and experimental data are included which facilitate the calculation of the a-c resistance of such conductors at commercial frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • The tensor — A new engineering tool

    Publication Year: 1936, Page(s):856 - 862
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1721 KB)

    The application of tensor analysis to the problems of electrical engineering results in a great simplification of the mathematics involved in such a complicated system as that of a rotating machine, for tensor analysis provides the ability to generalize from simple individual cases to complicated groups and systems. Originally, tensor analysis was developed as a tool in advanced geometrical analys... View full abstract»

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  • Power-system transients caused by switching and faults

    Publication Year: 1939, Page(s):386 - 396
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3725 KB)

    This paper summarizes the results of an investigation of transient voltages on power systems caused by switching and faults. The transient voltages on power systems as measured by the “klydonograph” are reviewed and compared with the flash-over values of transmission-line insulation. It is shown that the higher values of transient voltages are produced by intermittent arcs. In part I... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased publication in 1963. The current retitled publication is IEEE Spectrum.

Full Aims & Scope