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# Proceedings of the IEE - Part B: Radio and Electronic Engineering

Includes the top 50 most frequently accessed documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

• ### The properties of manganese-zinc ferrites and the physical processes governing them

Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):165 - 173
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (1269 KB)

The paper outlines some of the electrical and physical properties of manganese-zinc ferrites and the mechanisms by which they occur. Initial permeability is shown to depend on stoichiometry, granular structure and composition, while the temperature coefficient of permeability is shown to be controllable by the addition of small amounts of trivalent metallic impurities. The influence of composition... View full abstract»

• ### On the surface impedance of a corrugated waveguide

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):501 - 502
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (229 KB)

An examination of experimental results on corrugated surface waveguides as reported recently by Barlow and Karbowiak is carried out. An empirical modification to the theoretical formula for the surface impedance is derived which is applicable for all values of surface parameters, provided that the pitch of corrugation is less than about one-quarter of the wavelength. View full abstract»

• ### Non-uniform transmission lines as impedance transformers

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):166 - 172
Cited by:  Papers (7)
| | PDF (703 KB)

The equation for the reflection coefficient at one end of a non-uniform transmission line matched at the other end is considered, and an approximate form of solution is suggested which enables such lines to be designed for optimum performance as matching sections. A number of examples are calculated, and the results are compared with lines previously described in literature. View full abstract»

• ### Standard waveguides and couplings for microwave equipment

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):493 - 499
Cited by:  Papers (5)
| | PDF (1368 KB)

An account is given of the development and standardization of waveguides, couplings and adaptors for microwave equipment. Whilst these items were primarily intended for use in Service electronic equipment, they have proved to be of considerable use in commercial applications. The appropriate sizes of waveguide to cover the whole microwave spectrum are discussed, and reasons are given for the stand... View full abstract»

• ### Some theoretical and practical considerations of the Johnsen-Rahbek effect

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):125 - 131
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (1028 KB)

A theory of electrostatic attraction, influenced by field emission, is proposed to explain the Johnsen-Rahbek effect between the flat and polished surfaces of a metal and a semi-conductor in contact. The application and advantages of the effect as a clutch are described, and the results of a large number of life tests are summarized. It is concluded that the unreliability of such a clutch, due mai... View full abstract»

• ### The 'stereosonic' recording and reproducing system. A two-channel system for domestic tape records

Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):417 - 432
| | PDF (2504 KB)

The paper reviews briefly the history of stereophonic reproduction. The principal basic systems with their underlying ideas are described and compared. Some account is given of the supposed mechanism of natural binaural listening from the viewpoint of direction localization. The principles and practice are discussed of a particular system for domestic use, derived from the early work of A. D. Blum... View full abstract»

• ### TACAN: a navigation system for aircraft

Publication Year: 1958, Page(s):298 - 306
| | PDF (1321 KB)

TACAN is the latest form of rho-theta navigation system for aircraft and embodies certain novel features. The system characteristics are briefly described and a short history of its beginning and development are given. Basic principles of operation are followed by a description of the apparatus required, and the advantages of the system for bad site operation is discussed. Additional facilities ar... View full abstract»

• ### Theory of the measurement of the elements of the permeability tensor of a ferrite by means of a resonant cavity

Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):307 - 315
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (1150 KB)

The intrinsicÂ¿ and externalÂ¿ permeabilities of a ferrite are defined, and the relationship between the elements of these tensors is discussed. The derivation from Maxwell's equations is given of the magnetic field in a ferrite sphere when this is placed in a uniform microwave field perpendicular to the polarizing field. This result is used in the calculation of the frequency shift which takes ... View full abstract»

• ### Minority-carrier storage in semi-conductor diodes

Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):318 - 332
| | PDF (1941 KB)

Hole storage is an effect which takes place in semi-conductor valves using n-type base material; it has a counterpart in electron storage in p-type material. It gives rise to several electrical effects, particularly to transient reverse currents in diodes on the application of a reverse bias. The effects are deduced, quantitatively, by solving the continuity equation with boundary conditions appro... View full abstract»

• ### A new form of hybrid junction for microwave frequencies

Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):261 - 264
Cited by:  Papers (8)
| | PDF (523 KB)

The principle of the branch-waveguide directional coupler has been applied to the design of a new form of hybrid junction for microwave frequencies. An equal division of power between the main and subsidiary waveguides is achieved by arranging the voltage coupling coefficients of the branch waveguides in accordance with the coefficients in a binomial expansion. Details of design and performance of... View full abstract»

• ### Some applications of ferrites to microwave directional couplers, switches, and cavity filters

Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):388 - 394
| | PDF (963 KB)

The paper reviews some of the research and development projects which led to the designs for a ferrite directional coupler, a ferrite microwave switch and ferrite-loaded cavity filters. Directional coupling is accomplished at microwave frequencies by extending a ferrite cylinder through the common wall of two rectangular waveguides joined at the broad face. Experimental data for coupling and direc... View full abstract»

• ### Non-reciprocal network theory applied to ferrite microwave devices

Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):316 - 319
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (333 KB)

First Page of the Article
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• ### The reduction of low-frequency noise in feedback integrators

Publication Year: 1958, Page(s):532 - 544
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (1371 KB)

Two methods of designing a feedback integrator for use with repetitive inputs are described. Each results in a considerable improvement in signal/noise ratio compared with that of a conventional direct-coupled integrator. The first method uses an error amplifier containing a single CR coupling. In the second, phase correction is applied to the output from a low-accuracy direct-coupled integrator, ... View full abstract»

• ### A transistor high-gain chopper-type d.c. amplifier

Publication Year: 1958, Page(s):258 - 272
| | PDF (1230 KB)

In transistor d.c. amplifiers, the sensitivity is mainly limited by drift of operating point caused by changes in ambient temperature. A modulated amplifier is necessary to obtain a high sensitivity without recourse to methods of drift compensation requiring the adjustment of several balancing controls. The paper describes a modulated system consisting of a transistor input chopper, a high-gain tr... View full abstract»

• ### An approach to the design of constant-resistance amplitude equalizer networks

Publication Year: 1958, Page(s):185 - 189
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (565 KB)

It is often desirable to correct or to adjust the amplitude/frequency response of a network to meet certain stated requirements. Although it is usually not difficult to calculate the insertion loss of a correcting network, the inverse is rather more difficult. The paper suggests a method of designing constant-resistance amplitude equalizers to give a desired slope over the working range concerned.... View full abstract»

• ### The application of printed-circuit techniques to the design of microwave components

Publication Year: 1958, Page(s):155 - 172
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (2666 KB)

A brief rÃ©sumÃ© is given of the basic theory of strip transmission lines including unwanted effects such as spurious mode transmission and radiation. A variety of materials and different printed-circuit techniques have been tried and the relative merits of each are discussed. A technique of measurement is described and details are given of two pieces of specially developed measuring equipment in ... View full abstract»

• ### Broad-band slot-coupled microstrip directional couplers

Publication Year: 1958, Page(s):147 - 154
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (954 KB)

The paper describes a new design technique for directional couplers in a printed strip-above-ground microwave transmission system (microstrip). The two transmission lines are mounted back to back and coupled through slots in the common ground plane. The coupling factors of isolated slots of different shape are calculated and are found to be in good agreement with measured results. A specific desig... View full abstract»

• ### The preparation of magnesium-manganese ferrite for microwave applications

Publication Year: 1957, Page(s):159 - 164
| | PDF (713 KB)

The conditions for the preparation of a magnesium-manganese ferrite have been investigated, and a suitable process is described. Low loss, an essential feature for microwave use, has been shown to be related to the equilibrium oxygen content of the final product. The course of the solid reactions during firing have been investigated by means of the thermobalance and chemical examination of fired m... View full abstract»

• ### A multi-input analogue adder for use in a fast binary multiplier

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):515 - 519
| | PDF (556 KB)

The paper describes the design and mode of operation of an analogue adding system which has many input and output channels. When several of the input channels are simultaneously excited, an output indication is provided on a single output channel, the particular one selected depending on the total number of input channels excited at that time. In this instance, the device has been used in the desi... View full abstract»

• ### Nickel-chromium-aluminium-copper resistance wire

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):439 - 447
Cited by:  Papers (3)
| | PDF (1436 KB)

A review is given of the principal materials used for the construction of resistance standards. The difficulty of producing manganin and constantan commercially with the requisite small value of temperature coefficient at room temperature makes attractive the newer alloys, whose temperature coefficients can be controlled by simple heat treatment. One of these alloys, having the additional advantag... View full abstract»

• ### The choice of impedance for coaxial radio-frequency cables

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):804 - 814
| | PDF (1486 KB)

The choice of characteristic impedance of a coaxial cable is discussed. Among the cable properties considered are attenuation per unit length, voltage rating and power ratings based upon thermal and voltage limitations. A method is given for determining the optimum proportioning to satisfy a specification of two or more cable properties. It is shown that the criterion of cable diameter leads to co... View full abstract»

• ### On distributed amplification

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):689 - 697
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (1010 KB)

The response characteristics of a distributed amplifier are discussed. It is shown that they may be improved by making the delay characteristics of the anode line and the grid line different. This method, which may be called Â¿staggering,Â¿ may be applied with advantage to almost all the conventional circuits employed in constructing distributed amplifiers. It enables one to obtain a flatter gain/... View full abstract»

• ### The launching of a plane surface wave

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):237 - 246
| | PDF (1230 KB)

The subject of the paper is a theoretical and experimental investigation of surface-wave propagation over a plane conductor with dielectric coating. Special reference is made to the problem of launching such a wave. Two experimental surfaces have been constructed, and a series of measurements has confirmed the properties of the waves as reported in the literature. A number of trials of various pos... View full abstract»

• ### Pattern recognition by means of automatic analogue apparatus

Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):198 - 209
| | PDF (1784 KB)

The problem of synthesizing apparatus that will automatically simulate man's ability to recognize and to learn to recognize patterns is discussed and it is concluded that analogue circuits, rather than the digital switching circuits that have been employed in the past, provide the simpler solution. A new circuit unit that possesses many of the essential functional characteristics exhibited by nerv... View full abstract»

• ### The properties of artificial dielectrics at centimetre wavelengths

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):11 - 16
Cited by:  Papers (13)
| | PDF (830 KB)

The properties of an artificial dielectric at centimetre wavelengths are compared with those of a solid material, and the possible definitions of the refractive index and the wave impedance are examined. It is concluded that the most appropriate definition of the latter is in terms of the reflection coefficient at an interface between the artificial dielectric and free space. The reactive fields w... View full abstract»

• ### Breakdown of solid dielectrics in divergent fields

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):725 - 727
| | PDF (350 KB)

First Page of the Article
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• ### Determination of the reflection coefficient of the sea, for radar-coverage calculation, by an optical analogy method

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):827 - 830
| | PDF (535 KB)

An approach to the solution of the problem of the effect of a rough sea surface on the vertical coverage of a radar set, by means of an optical analogy, is suggested. The reflection of light waves by a ground-glass surface is considered, and the results of optical experiments are applied to the case of radio waves reflected by the surface of the sea. The method does not yield a precise solution to... View full abstract»

• ### Residual effects in the Campbell bridge method for the absolute measurement of resistance, and a note on a new bridge

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):729 - 730
| | PDF (253 KB)

First Page of the Article
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• ### Field-dependent conductivity in non-uniform fields and its relation to electrical breakdown

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):723 - 725
| | PDF (319 KB)

First Page of the Article
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• ### The application of the Hall effect in a semi-conductor to the measurement of power in an electromagnetic field

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):179 - 185
Cited by:  Papers (4)
| | PDF (1012 KB)

The paper deals with the application of the Hall effect in a semi-conductor, like germanium, to the measurement of power transmitted along a line or a hollow metal waveguide. It is shown that the expression for the instantaneous value of the Hall e.m.f. generated in a small piece of semi-conductor erected in an electromagnetic field is of exactly the same form as the expression for the instantaneo... View full abstract»

• ### Surface roughness and attenuation of precision-drawn, chemically polished, electropolished, electroplated and electroformed waveguides

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):251 - 259
Cited by:  Papers (5)
| | PDF (1655 KB)

Detailed examinations of certain 3cm waveguides have shown that the surface finish of precision-drawn tubing as manufactured at present is quite adequate for most applications. Such surfaces, however, may be improved, if desired, by careful chemical or electrolytic polishing or electroplating in bright baths under closely controlled conditions. Some information on the surface finish of copper guid... View full abstract»

• ### Theory of imperfect waveguides: the effect of wall impedance

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):698 - 708
Cited by:  Papers (21)
| | PDF (1198 KB)

Wave propagation in waveguides whose walls exhibit an arbitrary but small surface impedance is studied. It is shown that, although in the case of circular waveguides all E-and H-modes are stable, in the case of rectangular waveguides all E-modes and higher-order H-modes are unstable, leaving only H modes that can propagate without change of form. General formulae are derived from which the propaga... View full abstract»

• ### The integral-of-error-squared criterion for servo mechanisms

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):602 - 607
| | PDF (743 KB)

A graphical method is given for obtaining the integral of error-squared for a servo mechanism supplied with a given input signal, and the usefulness of this criterion is discussed. The servo mechanism is characterized by its open-loop response locus, and the input signal by its power spectrum. The method is extended to allow for noise at the input. View full abstract»

• ### The relative permittivity of tetragonal arrays of perfectly conducting thin discs

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):37 - 42
Cited by:  Papers (4)
| | PDF (891 KB)

The methods available for the calculation of the interaction field of an array of dipoles are discussed with reference to an artificial dielectric formed from a tetragonal array of conducting discs. A modified method is described and used to derive a formula for the relative permittivity, valid when the discs are not too closely spaced. For closely packed discs, the fields due to higher-order mult... View full abstract»

• ### A new perturbation method for measuring microwave fields in free space

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):836 - 844
Cited by:  Papers (32)
| | PDF (1114 KB)

A perturbation method for measuring free-space microwave fields is described. A short thin metal rod forms the perturbing element. In order to avoid confusing the reflection from this rod with unwanted reflection the rod is arranged to spin about an axis perpendicular to its length. The perturbation of the field at the source is therefore modulated at a characteristic frequency, and by using an a.... View full abstract»

• ### An investigation of slot radiators in rectangular metal plates

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):103 - 109
Cited by:  Papers (4)
| | PDF (773 KB)

The radiation from slots cut in conducting surfaces of limited extent is discussed. Equatorial plane patterns of an axial half-wave slot in a rectangular metal plate are measured in the X band. The experimental results compare favourably with the calculated patterns on the assumption that the plate can be represented by a thin elliptic cylinder or ribbon of infinite length. It is observed that, if... View full abstract»

• ### Electrical analogues for heat exchangers

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):65 - 82
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (2019 KB)

The paper is concerned with the derivation of dynamically accurate electrical analogues for heat exchangers with a view to their application in the solution of automatic-control problems relating to the latter. The analogues are based on idealized equations describing the behaviour of the thermal processes involved. Two heat exchangers, both distributed-parameter systems, are considered, and two a... View full abstract»

• ### Time sharing as a basis for electronic telephone switching. A switched-highways system

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):722 - 742
| | PDF (2249 KB)

All telephone systems incorporate time-sharing techniques in order to economize in apparatus, but the extent of their application depends upon the operating speeds and adaptability of the components used. The introduction of electronic techniques enables various switching, coding and sampling techniques to be used to achieve a higher degree of time sharing than has previously been possible. In a s... View full abstract»

• ### A bridge for the measurement of permittivity

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):704 - 707
Cited by:  Papers (3)
| | PDF (552 KB)

A description is given of a null method for the measurement of the complex permittivity of dielectrics. The direct admittance of a 3-terminal capacitor with the sample as dielectric is measured as a complex capacitance, the two components being indicated directly on two 3-terminal variable air capacitors. In addition to these the bridge network comprises transformer ratio-arms and an amplifier who... View full abstract»

• ### Discussion on "The application of the Hall effect in a semi-conductor to the measurement of power in an electromagnetic field" and "The design of semi-conductor wattmeters for power-frequency and audio-frequency applications"

Publication Year: 1956
| PDF (177 KB)
• ### Discussion on A study of ionospheric propagation by means of ground back-scatter, The technique of ionospheric investigation using ground back-scatter, An experiment to test the reciprocal radio transmission conditions over an ionospheric path of 740 km and An experimental test of reciprocal transmission over two long-distance high-frequency radio circuits before the Radio and Telecommunication Section, 31st October, 1955

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):232 - 234
| PDF (578 KB)
• ### Design of microwave filters with quarter-wave couplings

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):173 - 177
Cited by:  Papers (11)
| | PDF (618 KB)

Resonator diaphragms are constructed from triplets of inductive posts, whose spacings and radii are chosen to prevent the generation of the first five non-propagating modes. This is sufficient to ensure negligible coupling at quarter-wave separation. Measurements on filters at 4000 Mc/s indicate a satisfactory performance. View full abstract»

• ### The dual-input describing function and its use in the analysis of non-linear feedback systems

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):463 - 473
Cited by:  Papers (11)
| | PDF (1328 KB)

A new method is presented for the frequency-response analysis of non-linear elements. This involves evaluating the gain of one of the frequency components in passing through the non-linear element when the input to the element consists of two sinusoidal waves of differing amplitudes, phases and frequencies. A cubic characteristic is analysed fully as an example. The paper describes the use of this... View full abstract»

• ### The programming strategy used with the Manchester University Mark I computer

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):151 - 157
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (1012 KB)

The paper gives an account of the programming strategy developed for use with the University of Manchester electronic computer Mark I, a typical 2-level storage machine of which a brief description is included. The topics dealt with include: the method of storing and calling in routines; the representation of instructions outside the machine (tracing the reasons for the use of a teleprint or scale... View full abstract»

• ### A comparison of the noise, and random frequency and amplitude fluctuations in different types of oscillator

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):182 - 189
| | PDF (967 KB)

No oscillator gives a pure sine-wave output. There is always some random noise present in the oscillator circuit, if only that due to thermal agitation. Because of this, noise will appear in the output even if steps are taken to stabilize the output amplitude. Also, the output power is spread over a finite frequency band, and not concentrated at a single frequency. The nature of the random fluctua... View full abstract»

• ### On the measurement of attenuation in ultrasonic delay lines

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):773 - 780
Cited by:  Papers (6)
| | PDF (998 KB)

A theoretical and experimental study has been made of the effects of coupling films on the propagation of compressional waves from a transducer to a solid medium. In practice it has been found that wringingÂ¿ the transducer to the specimen with oil as a coupling medium produces a film of non-uniform thickness. Although the variations in thickness are of the order of a wavelength of light, these v... View full abstract»

• ### The design and operation of a parallel-type cathode-ray-tube storage system

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):319 - 326
| | PDF (1239 KB)

The paper describes the design and construction of a parallel-type cathode-ray-tube storage system built to operate with the Manchester University Mark II machine. The term read around ratioÂ¿ is defined and a new method for its measurement is described. An address-control system and a method for displaying the contents of the main store are also discussed. View full abstract»

• ### An experimental design study of some S- and X-band helical aerial systems

Publication Year: 1956, Page(s):764 - 771
| | PDF (1153 KB)

The general characteristics of helical aerials are summarized and the results of polar-diagram measurements in the S- and X-bands are given for single and multiple helices. Reference is made to methods of widening both the beam width and the bandwidth obtained with a helical aerial by means such as end loading and tapering. The possibility of adapting helical aerials to give wide-band linearly pol... View full abstract»

• ### Thermionic valves of improved quality for government and industrial purposes

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):343 - 357
| | PDF (2448 KB)

The paper embraces the principal facets of thermionic valve reliability. It begins by defining the various types of reliability requirements and then deals with the authors' own work in designing and manufacturing Â¿trustworthyÂ¿ valves with the objective that they shall give trouble-free service under conditions of vibration and shock. It is stated that, although work was concentrated on only one... View full abstract»

• ### Coupled transmission lines as symmetrical directional couplers

Publication Year: 1955, Page(s):383 - 392
Cited by:  Papers (15)
| | PDF (1510 KB)

If two similar unbalanced transmission lines are coupled together by sharing a common outer conductor for part of their length, so as to form a 3-conductor line, they constitute a symmetrical directional coupler. The output ratio of this varies sinusoidally with frequency, being greatest for lengths equal to an odd number of quarter-wavelengths; the characteristic impedance is independent of frequ... View full abstract»

## Aims & Scope

Published from 1955-1958, the Proceedings of the IEE - Part B: Radio and Electronic Engineering included all specialized papers on radio and electronic engineering (including communication engineering) that were presented to the Institution. Also included were the formal proceedings of the Radio Section of the Institution and the papers which were read before that Section, together with discussions on them.

Full Aims & Scope