IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems

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  • Resolved Motion Rate Control of Manipulators and Human Prostheses

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):47 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (760)  |  Patents (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1587 KB)

    The kinematics of remote manipulators and human prostheses is analyzed for the purpose of deriving resolved motion rate control. That is, the operator is enabled to call for the desired hand motion directly along axes relevant to the task environment. The approach suggests solutions to problems of coordination, motion under task constraints, and appreciation of forces encountered by the controlled... View full abstract»

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  • AI in CAI: An Artificial-Intelligence Approach to Computer-Assisted Instruction

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):190 - 202
    Cited by:  Papers (238)  |  Patents (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3282 KB)

    The main purpose of the research reported here is to show that a new and more powerful type of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), based on extensive application of artificial-intelligence (AI) techniques, is feasible, and to demonstrate some of its major capabilities. A set of computer programs was written and given the name SCHOLAR. Due to its complexity, only the conception and educational asp... View full abstract»

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  • Information Transmission by Phantom Sensations

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):85 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (85)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1628 KB)

    A sensory-aids display system that transmits information to its user through the location of a vibratory sensation on the skin has been developed. The sensation location is controlled by use of the phantom-sensation phenomenon. The development of the display included the determination of sensory and mechanical characteristics of the skin. The system was evaluated as a kinesthetic feedback display ... View full abstract»

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  • Choice of Stimulator Frequency for Tactile Arrays

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):5 - 11
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1632 KB)

    An experiment is described that tested subjects' ability to recognize letters presented tactually by an array of airjets in a manner simulating a moving belt. Recognition accuracy was measured as a function of reading rate and stimulator frequency. For constant stimulus pulsewidth, performance increased significantly as stimulator-repetition rate was increased from 20 to 160 pps. A second experime... View full abstract»

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  • A Model for Human Controller Remnant

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):101 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (46)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2038 KB)

    A model for human controller remnant is postulated in which remnant is considered to arise from an equivalent observation noise vector whose components are linearly independent white noise processes. Extensive analysis of data obtained from simple manual control systems verifies that this model structure holds over a wide range of input amplitudes and bandwidths, vehicle dynamics, and display loca... View full abstract»

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  • Tactile Television - Mechanical and Electrical Image Projection

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):65 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (71)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2768 KB)

    The feasibility of communicating pictorial information through the skin has been demonstrated. A tactile television system has permitted blind subjects to determine the position, size, shape, and orientation of visible objects and to track moving targets. The system comprises 1) a vidicon camera utilizing a zoom lens, 2) a digital switching matrix to sequentially connect each element of the photoc... View full abstract»

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  • Optical-to-Tactile Image Conversion for the Blind

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):58 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (133)  |  Patents (147)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5232 KB)

    This paper describes two optical-to-tactile imageconversion systems being developed for the blind. The first is a reading aid in which an area on the printed page about the size of a letterspace is translated into a corresponding vibratory tactile image. The tactile image is produced by a 24-by-6 array of pins driven by piezoelectric bimorphs. The array of 144 pins fits on the distal and a portion... View full abstract»

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  • An Electrotactile Display

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):72 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (41)  |  Patents (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2708 KB)

    An explorable electrotactile display has been constructed and tested. A thus far neglected sensation was identified and has been shown to be more useful than the more common electrotactile sensations. Exploration of the surface of the electrotactile display elicits a sensation describable as texture. Experiments have indicated that the intensity of this texture sensation is due primarily to the pe... View full abstract»

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  • A Physiologically Based Model of Neuromuscular System Dynamics

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):21 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)

    A model of the neuromuscular system based on the physiology of muscle is described. All elements of the model have been discussed in earlier literature but certain new implications are considered here. View full abstract»

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  • Kinesthetic Sensing for the EMG Controlled "Boston Arm"

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):110 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (46)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2882 KB)

    The contribution of a novel cutaneous display of elbow angle to an amputee's ability to position an EMG-controlled externally powered elbow prosthesis was objectively evaluated. Comparisons were made between the amputee's positional control of his conventional mechanical cable-operated elbow and the EMG "Boston Arm"l elbow, with and without angle feedback, in REACHING tasks with vision occluded in... View full abstract»

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  • A Queueing Model of Visual Sampling Experimental Validation

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):82 - 87
    Cited by:  Papers (49)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2072 KB)

    Carbonell [1] recently proposed an economic model of a pilot's visual sampling behavior based on queueing theory. The results of a validation study of this model have been completed. This validation was based on instrument data and eye-movement data taken during mission flights using a Link trainer. The results of the simulation using the queueing model are shown to correlate well with eye-movemen... View full abstract»

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  • A Provisional Bibliography on Tactile Displays

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):101 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2375 KB)

    First Page of the Article
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  • A Neuromuscular Actuation System Model

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):61 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (66)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2150 KB)

    Recently, both high quality physiological data and human-operator-describing function data of low variability and large dynamic range have become available. These data lead to control engineering descriptions for neuromuscular actuation systems that are compatible with the available data and that provide insight into the overall human control structure (e.g., the types of feedback systems used for... View full abstract»

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  • Braille, the Language, Its Machine Translation and Display

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):96 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2276 KB)

    The manufacture of Braille textbooks has, in the past, been accomplished in two ways. The first is the large-scale production, utilizing zinc plate embossing presses. The second is hand production, done by a large number of dedicated volunteers. This paper outlines the trend in the last few years toward automatic Braille production and describes the development of a low-cost Braille translation an... View full abstract»

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  • A Describing Function Analysis of Tracking Performance Using Two Tactile Displays

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):92 - 101
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4785 KB)

    A display consisting of two vibrators attached to the body was tested using three different error signal-to-vibration amplitude transformations. In addition, a novel ripple display consisting of seven sequentially activated air-jet stimulators was tested on a compensatory tracking task. For both displays the range of gains and body locations were determined by both describing-function and error-po... View full abstract»

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  • Neurophysiological Basis of a Tactile Vision-Substitution System

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):108 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1239 KB)

    The instrumentation produced and the results obtained with the tactile vision-substitution system (TVSS) developed in our laboratories have been described by Collins [1] and White [2]. With the TVSS, the information from a TV camera is carried to the brain by means of the tactile receptors in the skin of the back and their neural pathways. Such information produces subjective impressions in blind ... View full abstract»

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  • Variable Perception Time in Car Following and Its Effect on Model Stability

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):149 - 156
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1981 KB)

    The functional variation of perception time T in car following is studied for the purpose of introducing a variable time delay into a previously proposed nonlinear model. The basic hypothesis is that the ratio of a just noticeable difference in visual angle (Δθ) to the visual angle (θ) is a constant. This hypothesis leads to a model in which perception time T is proportiona... View full abstract»

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  • Bond Graphs and ENPORT in Elementary Physics Instruction

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):170 - 174
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1058 KB)

    This paper describes a problem-oriented programming system in which students can construct models of physical systems. The "bond-graph" notation is used for representing physical and engineering components and their interconnections, whether as a general and descriptive model or a specific and quantitative one. Using a simple linear notation the student enters the model into the computer via a sta... View full abstract»

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  • A Relatively High-Resolution Reading Aid for the Blind

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (41)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3911 KB)

    Many direct-translation reading aids for the blind have been built in the past, employing an auditory output consisting of a combination of tones indicating the black regions in a vertical slice through a letter space, or a tactile output consisting of a raised or vibrating image of the letter shapes. Maximum reading rates obtained by the majority of subjects with these reading aids have been less... View full abstract»

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  • The Surge Model of the Well-Trained Human Operator in Simple Manual Control

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):2 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1910 KB)

    A new model of the human operator, termed the surge model, is developed. It is dual mode, containing a linearized constant coefficient model and an optimum second-order controller model. The equations describing its performance are written in the time domain. When the absolute values of the system error and of the first error derivative are less than certain specified bounds, the linear constant c... View full abstract»

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  • Display Design: Principles and Procedures

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):181 - 193
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1859 KB)

    The history of research on display design is described briefly and the general problems of real/artificial displays and new/stored information are discussed with particular emphasis on compatibility The main discussion centres on the advantages and limitations of the three general approaches to display design: use of checklists, use of formal procedures and use of behaviour theory. A checklist for... View full abstract»

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  • Perceptual Findings with the Vision-Substitution System

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):54 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3947 KB)

    The initial evaluation of a system for converting an optical image into a tactile display is reported. A 400-tactor array has proved capable of providing blind and sighted subjects with useful information about the disposition of objects in three dimensions. External localization of percepts was greatly facilitated by giving observers control of the sensing and imaging device, a television camera.... View full abstract»

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  • Subjective Magnitude Functions for Vibrotaction

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):19 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1184 KB)

    An investigation of the subjective magnitude of vibrotaction was undertaken in order to 1) determine the growth of sensation as a function of intensity at a number of different frequencies; 2) establish contours of equal subjective intensity for vibrotaction; and 3) compare the psychophysical methods of direct scaling and intensity matching for a wide range of intensity and frequency. The results ... View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Display Gain on Human Operator Information Processing Rate in a Rate Control Tracking Task

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):123 - 131
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2851 KB)

    A single-axis rate control tracking experiment was conducted to determine the sensitivity of transinformation (information processing rate in bits/s) to display gain, display type (pursuit or compensatory), and forcing function bandwidth. Four other performance measures were also derived: relative error, relative noiseless error, relative remnant, and system open-loop crossover frequency. It was s... View full abstract»

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  • Man-Computer Interaction: A Challenge for Human Factors Research

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):164 - 180
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3666 KB)

    This paper claims that the increasing heterogeneity of the community of conmputer users poses a challenge to psychologists and human factors researchers. There follows a brief discussion of why this challenge apparently has not yet evoked a strong response. Three problems, or problem areas, are identified as being particularly in need of human factors research. These are (1) the development and ev... View full abstract»

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  • Theory of Manual Vehicular Control

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):257 - 291
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5486 KB)

    The analytical basis of manual vehicular control theory is a combination of feedback systems analysis and mathematical models for human operators engaged in control tasks. Simplified representations for the operator-system combination are provided by the 'crossover model', which is described in detail. The system dynamics and average performance of the crossover model system are developed. With th... View full abstract»

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  • On Adaptive Manual Control

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):292 - 331
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (9006 KB)

    Experimental studies and control descriptions of the human operator in recent years have extended the knowledge of adaptive behaviour in manual control from vague generalities about his versatility to quantitative descriptions. Considerable data have been gathered on the ability of the human to adapt to changes in input spectra, controlled element gain, polarity and dynamics, display modality, and... View full abstract»

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