IEEE Annals of the History of Computing

Includes the top 50 most frequently accessed documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

  • The Origins of the Architectural Metaphor in Computing: Design and Technology at IBM, 1957–1964

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):61 - 70
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The familiarity of the term computer architecture makes it easy to forget the fundamental strangeness of the comparison it implies. When we speak about a buildings architecture, we suggest that it has an aesthetic as well as a utilitarian function. An architect seeks not just to shelter the users of a building from the elements but also to give shape and meaning to the activities that take place w... View full abstract»

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  • Why the Arpanet Was Built

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):4 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The who, what, when, and how of the Arpanet is usually told in heroic terms-Licklider's vision, the fervor of his disciples, the dedication of computer scientists and engineers, the work of graduate students, and so forth. Told by one of the key actors in this salient part of US and Internet history, this article addresses why the Arpanet was built. View full abstract»

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  • Sixty Years of Software Development Life Cycle Models

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):41 - 54
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Sixty years ago, in 1956, the first explicit representation of a software development life cycle model was presented by Herbert Benington. Since then, software development life cycle models have come a long way, and the current article provides an overview of that development. View full abstract»

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  • Aspects of the History of Computing in Modern Greece

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):47 - 60
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (367 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article aims to shed light on notable aspects of the history of computing in Greece, starting from 1920. We cover six areas, including the early days of computing in the country, the transition to the Internet era, the formation of a computer-related educational infrastructure, the evolution of data networks, and the growth of the software and hardware industry. In each area we highlight find... View full abstract»

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  • Less Is More in the Fifties: Encounters between Logical Minimalism and Computer Design during the 1950s

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):19 - 45
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2092 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article frames some important computing developments of the 1950s, connecting them to two older traditions, one within (mathematical) logic and one within engineering. Both traditions could be termed logical minimalism, meaning the systematic use of (mathematical) logic in designing minimal systems and devices. The logical tradition is part of the more general research programme into the foun... View full abstract»

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  • What Makes the History of Software Hard

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):8 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (267 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Creating software for work in the world has meant translating into computational models the knowledge and practices of the people who have been doing that work without computers. What people know and do reflects their particular historical experience, which also shapes decisions about what can be automated and how. Software thus involves many histories and a variety of sources to be read in new wa... View full abstract»

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  • The Origins and Early History of Computer Engineering in the United States

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):6 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article examines the origins and early history of the field of computer engineering in the United States, from the mid-1940s to mid-1950s. The account is based on both primary and secondary sources and draws theory from technology studies and the sociology of professions. The author begins by discussing roles played by engineers and engineering during the development of some of the first high... View full abstract»

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  • Thomas Harold (“Tommy”) Flowers: Designer of the Colossus Codebreaking Machines

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):72 - 82
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (307 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Tommy Flowers, born 22 December 1905, died 28 October 1998, designed the Colossus codebreaking machines. View full abstract»

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  • Implications of Historical Trends in the Electrical Efficiency of Computing

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):46 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (90)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1790 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The electrical efficiency of computation has doubled roughly every year and a half for more than six decades, a pace of change comparable to that for computer performance and electrical efficiency in the microprocessor era. These efficiency improvements enabled the creation of laptops, smart phones, wireless sensors, and other mobile computing devices, with many more such innovations yet to come. ... View full abstract»

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  • Measuring Risk: Computer Security Metrics, Automation, and Learning

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):32 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Risk management is widely seen as the basis for cybersecurity in contemporary organizations, but practitioners continue to dispute its value. This article analyzes debate over computer security risk management in the 1970s and 1980s United States, using this debate to enhance our understanding of the value of computer security metrics more generally. Regulators placed a high value on risk analysis... View full abstract»

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  • Establishing Moore's Law

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):62 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (63)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The seemingly unshakeable accuracy of Moore's law - which states that the speed of computers; as measured by the number of transistors that can be placed on a single chip, will double every year or two - has been credited with being the engine of the electronics revolution, and is regarded as the premier example of a self-fulfilling prophecy and technological trajectory in both the academic and po... View full abstract»

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  • First draft of a report on the EDVAC

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):27 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (69)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (10296 KB)

    The first draft of a report on the EDVAC written by John von Neumann is presented. This first draft contains a wealth of information, and it had a pervasive influence when it was first written. Most prominently, Alan Turing cites it in his proposal for the Pilot automatic computing engine (ACE) as the definitive source for understanding the nature and design of a general-purpose digital computer.<... View full abstract»

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  • A Brief History of Software Engineering

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):32 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This personal perspective on the art of programming begins with a look at the state of programming from about 1960, and it follows programming's development through the present day. The article examines key contributions to the field of software engineering and identifies major obstacles, which persist even today. View full abstract»

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  • Finding a History for Software Engineering

    Publication Year: 2004, Page(s):8 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (362 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Historians and software engineers are both looking for a history for software engineering. For historians, it is a matter of finding a point of perspective from which to view an enterprise that is still in the process of defining itself. For software engineers, it is the question of finding a usable past, as they have sought to ground their vision of the enterprise on historical models taken from ... View full abstract»

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  • The History of the History of Software

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):40 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (149 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Just as the fields of software and hardware development have evolved, the field of software history has likewise matured. At first, the history of software was exclusively focused on technology. Later, there were historical explorations of the software industry and professions. Today the emphasis is on applications and the societal changes resulting from software. View full abstract»

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  • IBM Relational Database Systems: The Early Years

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):38 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The relational data model, proposed by E.F. Codd in 1970, inspired several research projects at IBM and elsewhere. Among these was System R, which demonstrated the commercial viability of relational database systems. This article describes the research challenges faced by the System R team and how the technology they created has influenced the development of the modern database industry. View full abstract»

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  • Race and Computing: The Problem of Sources, the Potential of Prosopography, and the Lesson of Ebony Magazine

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):29 - 51
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (585 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Historians recognize the need to examine race and technology, but published scholarship has not kept pace. This has been attributed to the absence of archival source materials. In response, scholars have approached "race" from a broad definition, rather than having sought to place persons of color who contributed to the development and innovative application of computing into the historical record... View full abstract»

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  • Imagining the Personal Computer: Conceptualizations of the Homebrew Computer Club 1975–1977

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):27 - 39
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Homebrew Computer Club was a hobbyist group in the San Francisco Bay Area dedicated to helping people build their own home personal computers. I analyze their writings between 1975 and 1977, in order to understand how their values became embedded in the technology they built, establishing how the personal computer should be used and thought of. These values were based in ideals of open informa... View full abstract»

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  • The chromium-plated tabulator: institutionalizing an electronic revolution, 1954-1958

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):75 - 104
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (203 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The computer promised business of the 1950s an administrative revolution. What it delivered was data processing-a hybrid of new technology and existing punched card machines, people, and attitudes. The author examines how first-generation computers were sold and purchased, and describes the occupations (analyst, programmer, and operator) and departments that emerged around them. This illuminates c... View full abstract»

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  • Raymond Tomlinson: Email Pioneer, Part 1

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):72 - 79
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Raymond (Ray) Tomlinson was a computer engineer best known for developing the TENEX operating system and implemented the first email program on the Arpanet system in 1971. In its official biography, the Internet Hall of Fame states that "Tomlinson's email program brought about a complete revolution, fundamentally changing the way people communicate." This interview is the first in a ... View full abstract»

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  • Infrastructure, Representation, and Historiography in BBN's Arpanet Maps

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):44 - 57
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2179 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The earliest and most widespread representation of the Arpanet were network graphs or maps that, arguably, remain its most prominent artifact. In an earlier article, the authors analyzed how the maps were created, what they represented, and how histories of the network parallel their emphases and omissions. Here, the authors begin a retooling of the maps to highlight further what is missing from t... View full abstract»

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  • Guest Editors' Introduction: History of Database Management Systems

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):3 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (526 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This issue tells the history of database management systems through a series of pioneer recollections, principally from people who founded the major DBMS companies or were heavily involved in the growth and development of these products and companies. These eight recollections cover the principal DBMS software products for IBM mainframe computers. IBM itself was a significant player in this market... View full abstract»

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  • Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):16 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Augusta Ada Lovelace worked with Charles Babbage to create a description of Babbage's unbuilt invention, the analytical engine, a highly advanced mechanical calculator often considered a forerunner of the electronic calculating computers of the 20th century. Ada Lovelace's "notes," describing the analytical engine, published in Taylor's scientific memoirs in 1843, contained a ground-breaking descr... View full abstract»

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  • Women and gender in the history of computing

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):4 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (226 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    First Page of the Article
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  • Anne-Louise Guichard Radimsky: An Educator and a Champion for Diversity in Computing

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):81 - 84
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (70 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The life and career of Anne-Louise Radimsky intersects continents, cultures, and disciplines, and reveals the pathways available to women in the early years of computer science in the United States and in France. Having accepted a scholarship to study computer science in the United States in 1966, a young aerospace engineer, Anne-Louise Guichard (later Radimsky) embarked on the lifelong journey to... View full abstract»

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  • Hearing Aids and the History of Electronics Miniaturization

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):24 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4270 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Electrical hearing aids were the principal site for component miniaturization and compact assembly before World War II. After the war, hearing aid users became the first consumer market for printed circuits, transistors, and integrated circuits. Due to the stigmatization of hearing loss, users generally demanded small or invisible devices. In addition to being early adopters, deaf and hard of hear... View full abstract»

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  • The Dawn of Digital Light

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):74 - 91
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (956 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Digital pictures and computers are now inseparable, so it's surprising how generally unremarked their association was in the beginning. Records reveal that the first digital pictures--the first still pictures, videogames, and computer animations--were made on the earliest computers. Historians have noted this before, but individually without a unifying context. This article shows that the original... View full abstract»

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  • The Birth and Death of the Orange Book

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):19 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article traces the origins of US government-sponsored computer security research and the path that led from a focus on government-funded research and system development to a focus on the evaluation of commercial products. That path led to the creation of the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC), or Orange Book. The TCSEC placed great emphasis on requirements for mandatory secur... View full abstract»

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  • "The Spitting Image of a Woman Programmer": Changing Portrayals of Women in the American Computing Industry, 1958-1985

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):49 - 64
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)

    This paper examines the cultural climate faced by women in the American computer industry from the 1960s to the early 1980s, a period in which the percentage of the industry workforce that was female almost tripled. Drawing on a comprehensive study of articles and advertisements in the trade journal Datamation, sources from IBM, Control Data, and the Burroughs Corporation, and the records of the u... View full abstract»

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  • The “IBM Family”: American Welfare Capitalism, Labor, and Gender in Postwar Germany

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):12 - 26
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (133 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article examines corporate labor and gender relations in transatlantic perspective. It argues that the gendered communication of IBM's Thomas Watson Sr. shaped labor relations in his company's West German subsidiary. In the United States, Watson acted as a business progressive, expanding internationally, opening professional careers to young women, and implementing welfare capitalist measures... View full abstract»

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  • Computing for Democracy: The Asociación de Técnicos de Informática and the Professionalization of Computing in Spain

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):30 - 48
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (717 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The professionalization of computing in Spain had a key player in the Association of Information Technology Technicians (ATI), that fought for better working conditions, promotion of academic programs in computer science, and lobbying for the regulation of computing. View full abstract»

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  • The Korean Character Code: A National Controversy, 1987-1995

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):40 - 53
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2652 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Adequately representing the Korean language has been a challenge since the earliest introduction of digital computing and computer-mediated communication. As a local solution to the more general problem of the internationalization of computer languages, the Korean government introduced a new standard character code known as KSC-5601 in 1987. This article traces the history of the Korean character ... View full abstract»

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  • The Internet Design Tension between Surveillance and Security

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):72 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (710 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The design tension between security and surveillance has existed for decades. This article specifically examines the protocol design tension between national security interests in surveillance versus network security in the early decades of the Internet and its predecessor networks. Using archival research and protocol-specific case studies, this article describes episodes in which the Internet En... View full abstract»

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  • The Production and Interpretation of ARPANET Maps

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):44 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2383 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article explores a 20-year series of ARPANET maps produced by the firm Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN). These BBN maps signify the earliest efforts to represent an early and central piece of the modern Internet, and they wind up as illustrations in contemporary discussions of ARPANET history and the early Internet. Once a functional tool for engineers, they now serve as an aesthetic backdrop us... View full abstract»

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  • Computer Dealer Demos: Selling Home Computers with Bouncing Balls and Animated Logos

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):56 - 68
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (575 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Computer dealer demos, such as Boing Ball for the Commodore Amiga, were used to impress trade show audiences and retail customers. Dealer demos, such as those used by Commodore International, Atari, and Apple, illustrate how the home computer was socially constructed as a consumer commodity through the interdependent activities of software companies and user communities rather than simply through ... View full abstract»

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  • US Government Computer Penetration Programs and the Implications for Cyberwar

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):4 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1059 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The US Department of Defense was the driving force behind the development of sophisticated computer penetration methodologies. By analyzing the security of the nation's time-sharing computer systems, security analysts developed an expert understanding of computer penetration. Eventually, the US and its intelligence agencies utilized computer penetration techniques to wage offensive cyberattacks. View full abstract»

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  • A Company of Legend: The Legacy of Fairchild Semiconductor

    Publication Year: 2010, Page(s):60 - 74
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (774 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Founded in 1957 by eight dissidents from Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, Fairchild Semiconductor developed some of the most important innovations in 20th century technology and sowed the seeds of the microelectronic-driven computer industry of today. This article surveys some of the key personalities who worked at the company and describes their technological and management contributions. View full abstract»

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  • The History and Growth of IBM's DB2

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):54 - 66
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1853 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    IBM's Database 2 (DB2) relational database management system (RDBMS) shipped in the early 1980s and drove billions of dollars of revenue to IBM and other firms within its first decade. The product spawned a wealth of add-on tools, shaped the future of mainframe computing, and provided independent software vendors with a strong, reliable, and scalable platform for mission-critical applications. Tod... View full abstract»

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  • “Only the Initiates Will Have the Secrets Revealed”: Computational Chemists and the Openness of Scientific Software

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):40 - 58
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (445 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Computational chemistry is a scientific field within which the computer is a pivotal element. This scientific community emerged in the 1980s and was involved with two major industries: the computer manufacturers and the pharmaceutical industry, the latter becoming a potential market for the former through molecular modeling software packages. We aim to address the difficult relationships between s... View full abstract»

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  • Videogames in Computer Space: The Complex History of Pong

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):5 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5283 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The earliest digital games emerged out of laboratories and research centers in the 1960s and 1970s. The intertwined histories of Nolan Bushnell's Computer Space and Pong illustrate the transition from these "university games" to accessible entertainment and educational games as well as the complicated historical relationship among the arcade, computer, and videogames. View full abstract»

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  • Remembering the Office of the Future: The Origins of Word Processing and Office Automation

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):6 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1189 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Historians have not yet explored word processing's development, and so to provide a rounded treatment, we examine the story from multiple perspectives. We review the conceptual development of word processing and office automation; the development of word processing's constituent hardware and software technologies; the relationship of word processing to changes in the organization of office work; a... View full abstract»

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  • 'Rough Consensus and Running Code' and the Internet-OSI Standards War

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):48 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (197 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Internet historians recognize the technical achievements but often overlook the bureaucratic innovations of Internet pioneers. The phrase, "We reject: kings, presidents, and voting. We believe in: rough consensus and running code," was coined by David Clark in 1992. This article explains how the phrase captured the technical and political values of Internet engineers during a crucial phase in the ... View full abstract»

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  • Constructions of gender in the history of artificial intelligence

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):47 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (996 KB)

    Key developments in the history of artificial intelligence are described in terms of a model of gender (Man of Reason), drawn from the work of philosopher Genevieve Lloyd, and informed by research in gender and technology and feminist epistemology. Significantly, the model demonstrates the elevation of mental knowledge over corporeal knowledge. Recent attempts to address the problem of embodiment ... View full abstract»

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  • Three faces of human-computer interaction

    Publication Year: 2005, Page(s):46 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Human-computer interaction is considered a core element of computer science. Yet it has not coalesced; many researchers who identify their focus as human-computer interaction reside in other fields. The author examines the origins and evolution of three HCI research foci: computer operation, information systems management, and discretionary use. The author describes efforts to find common ground a... View full abstract»

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  • A history of computer applications in libraries: prolegomena

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s):4 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (270 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Modern libraries are constituted within and by a tradition of techniques and practices that represent 100 years of codified professional knowledge. This article provides a historical overview of this tradition that created a complex environment of expectation and misunderstanding for introducing library automation. A generation of systems development was needed to assimilate and further develop th... View full abstract»

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  • The Relational Model: Beginning of an Era

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):30 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (158 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Serving as an informal technical introduction to this Annals special issue on relational database management systems, this article gives an introductory overview of the relational model and discusses the value of Edgar F. (Ted) Codd's model. Then, after providing an account of Chris Date's contributions, the author assesses the relational model's effect on the industry and how it might affect futu... View full abstract»

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  • The Origin and Early History of the Computer Security Software Products Industry

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):46 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the second half of the 1970s, established computer firms and new IT start-ups chose alternative paths to offer commercial access control systems to organizational mainframe computer users. These developments in effect launched the computer security software products industry with IBM's Resource Access Control Facility (RACF) and SKK's Access Control Facility 2 (ACF2). View full abstract»

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  • General-purpose electronic analog computing: 1945-1965

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):8 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1682 KB)

    An account of the development and commercialization of general-purpose electronic analog computing in Britain and the United States of America from 1945 to the mid-1990s is presented. It is argued that the principal influence on the growth and maturation of postwar commercial analog computing was the demand for aids to calculation in aeronautical design. The drive to develop military aircraft, gui... View full abstract»

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  • Command and control, documentation, and library science: the origins of information science at the University of Pittsburgh

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):4 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3704 KB)

    This article describes the history of the first information science department formed in the United States-at the University of Pittsburgh-and the roles of two of its principal faculty members: Allen Kent and Anthony Debons. In particular, it looks at the origins of the program in command-and-control systems, documentation of scientific literature, and library automation View full abstract»

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  • Computer Science Curriculum Developments in the 1960s

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):40 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The computer science discipline was born in the early 1960s. Important conferences analyzed the nature of CS, the pros and cons of what the new discipline should encompass, and whether universities should offer CS programs. The culmination of these efforts was the ACM Curriculum 68, a series of reports and recommendations that ultimately influenced CS programs worldwide. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Annals of the History of Computing serves as a record of vital contributions which recount, preserve, and analyze the history of computing and the impact of computing on society.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Nathan Ensmenger
Indiana University, School of Informatics & Computing
nensmeng@indiana.edu