IEEE Annals of the History of Computing

Includes the top 50 most frequently accessed documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

  • Common Language: Business Programming Languages and the Legibility of Programming

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):17 - 31
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2169 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The English-like business programming language COBOL saw widespread use from its introduction in 1960 well into the 1980s, despite being disdained by computer science academics. This article traces out decisions made during COBOLs development, and argues that its English-like appearance was a rhetorical move designed to make the concept of code itself more legible to non-programming management at ... View full abstract»

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  • Race and Computing: The Problem of Sources, the Potential of Prosopography, and the Lesson of Ebony Magazine

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):29 - 51
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (585 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Historians recognize the need to examine race and technology, but published scholarship has not kept pace. This has been attributed to the absence of archival source materials. In response, scholars have approached "race" from a broad definition, rather than having sought to place persons of color who contributed to the development and innovative application of computing into the historical record... View full abstract»

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  • Three faces of human-computer interaction

    Publication Year: 2005, Page(s):46 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Human-computer interaction is considered a core element of computer science. Yet it has not coalesced; many researchers who identify their focus as human-computer interaction reside in other fields. The author examines the origins and evolution of three HCI research foci: computer operation, information systems management, and discretionary use. The author describes efforts to find common ground a... View full abstract»

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  • Sixty Years of Software Development Life Cycle Models

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):41 - 54
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Sixty years ago, in 1956, the first explicit representation of a software development life cycle model was presented by Herbert Benington. Since then, software development life cycle models have come a long way, and the current article provides an overview of that development. View full abstract»

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  • A Brief History of Software Engineering

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):32 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This personal perspective on the art of programming begins with a look at the state of programming from about 1960, and it follows programming's development through the present day. The article examines key contributions to the field of software engineering and identifies major obstacles, which persist even today. View full abstract»

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  • CTSS-the compatible time-sharing system

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):31 - 54
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (315 KB)

    Excerpts are presented from a 1962 paper by Fernando Corbato, M. Merwin-Daggett, and R.C. Daley. The selection from the paper, which reported work completed in late 1961, is reprinted from Proc. Spring Joint Computer Conf., vol.21, 1962. In this system, the time-sharing occurs among four users, three of whom are online each at a typewriter in a foreground system, and a fourth passive user of the b... View full abstract»

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  • Why the Arpanet Was Built

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):4 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The who, what, when, and how of the Arpanet is usually told in heroic terms-Licklider's vision, the fervor of his disciples, the dedication of computer scientists and engineers, the work of graduate students, and so forth. Told by one of the key actors in this salient part of US and Internet history, this article addresses why the Arpanet was built. View full abstract»

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  • Establishing Moore's Law

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):62 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (73)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The seemingly unshakeable accuracy of Moore's law - which states that the speed of computers; as measured by the number of transistors that can be placed on a single chip, will double every year or two - has been credited with being the engine of the electronics revolution, and is regarded as the premier example of a self-fulfilling prophecy and technological trajectory in both the academic and po... View full abstract»

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  • Videogames in Computer Space: The Complex History of Pong

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):5 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5283 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The earliest digital games emerged out of laboratories and research centers in the 1960s and 1970s. The intertwined histories of Nolan Bushnell's Computer Space and Pong illustrate the transition from these "university games" to accessible entertainment and educational games as well as the complicated historical relationship among the arcade, computer, and videogames. View full abstract»

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  • The Origins and Early History of Computer Engineering in the United States

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):6 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article examines the origins and early history of the field of computer engineering in the United States, from the mid-1940s to mid-1950s. The account is based on both primary and secondary sources and draws theory from technology studies and the sociology of professions. The author begins by discussing roles played by engineers and engineering during the development of some of the first high... View full abstract»

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  • The March of IDES: Early History of Intrusion-Detection Expert Systems

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):42 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (183 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    As part of a broader prehistory and history of early intrusion-detection systems (IDSs), this article focuses on the first such system, Intrusion Detection Expert System (IDES), which was developed in the second half of the 1980s at SRI International (and SRI's follow-on Next Generation Intrusion Detection Expert System, or NIDES, in the early-to-mid 1990s). It also briefly recounts other early ID... View full abstract»

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  • Guest Editors' Introduction: History of Database Management Systems

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):3 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (526 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This issue tells the history of database management systems through a series of pioneer recollections, principally from people who founded the major DBMS companies or were heavily involved in the growth and development of these products and companies. These eight recollections cover the principal DBMS software products for IBM mainframe computers. IBM itself was a significant player in this market... View full abstract»

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  • Implications of Historical Trends in the Electrical Efficiency of Computing

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):46 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (131)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1790 KB) | HTML iconHTML Multimedia Media

    The electrical efficiency of computation has doubled roughly every year and a half for more than six decades, a pace of change comparable to that for computer performance and electrical efficiency in the microprocessor era. These efficiency improvements enabled the creation of laptops, smart phones, wireless sensors, and other mobile computing devices, with many more such innovations yet to come. ... View full abstract»

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  • What Makes the History of Software Hard

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):8 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (267 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Creating software for work in the world has meant translating into computational models the knowledge and practices of the people who have been doing that work without computers. What people know and do reflects their particular historical experience, which also shapes decisions about what can be automated and how. Software thus involves many histories and a variety of sources to be read in new wa... View full abstract»

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  • Cybernetics, Automata Studies, and the Dartmouth Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):5 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, held at Datrmouth College in 1956, is regarded as the official "birthplace" of Al. This article draws on unpublished archives to shed new light on the origins of the conference and the complex relationships between cybernetics, automata studies, and Al in the 1950s. View full abstract»

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  • Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):16 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Augusta Ada Lovelace worked with Charles Babbage to create a description of Babbage's unbuilt invention, the analytical engine, a highly advanced mechanical calculator often considered a forerunner of the electronic calculating computers of the 20th century. Ada Lovelace's "notes," describing the analytical engine, published in Taylor's scientific memoirs in 1843, contained a ground-breaking descr... View full abstract»

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  • Oral History of Joe Thompson

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):6 - 16
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (283 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Joseph Walter Thompson, born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1933, was the first person trained as an operator of the 1951 Whirlwind computer at the MIT Digital Computer Laboratory. In this interview, he discusses his early career at MIT running Whirlwind, and then his long employment at RAND/SDC as a programmer and eventual group manager working on the SAGE continental air defense system software. Tho... View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • The Origin and Early History of the Computer Security Software Products Industry

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):46 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the second half of the 1970s, established computer firms and new IT start-ups chose alternative paths to offer commercial access control systems to organizational mainframe computer users. These developments in effect launched the computer security software products industry with IBM's Resource Access Control Facility (RACF) and SKK's Access Control Facility 2 (ACF2). View full abstract»

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  • Selected Papers On Computer Science

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):82 - 83
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  • Grounding Digital History in the History of Computing

    Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):72 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In this brief article, we use the relatively recent publication of a number of books on the subject as a launching point to argue that digital history should be grounded in the history of computing. View full abstract»

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  • The Origins of Word Processing Software for Personal Computers: 1976-1985

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):32 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2322 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Since Electric Pencil first debuted in 1976, more than 400 other word processing packages have emerged, most fading into oblivion. This article recounts the history of microcomputer word processing software - focuses on three of the earliest word processing software packages, Electric Pencil, EasyWriter, and WordStar, which was the mid-1980s leader in the CP/M, PC-DOS, and MS-DOS operating system ... View full abstract»

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  • Hopper and Dijkstra: Crisis, Revolution, and the Future of Programming

    Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):64 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (294 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the late 1960s, tensions were erupting in corporate and academic computing cultures in the United States and abroad with competing views about the state of computer programming and possible future implications. A discourse of "software crisis" was ignited in 1968 when NATO hosted a conference on the topic of software engineering. The author examines the rhetoric of crisis, revolution, and promi... View full abstract»

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  • Aspects of the History of Computing in Modern Greece

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):47 - 60
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (367 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article aims to shed light on notable aspects of the history of computing in Greece, starting from 1920. We cover six areas, including the early days of computing in the country, the transition to the Internet era, the formation of a computer-related educational infrastructure, the evolution of data networks, and the growth of the software and hardware industry. In each area we highlight find... View full abstract»

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  • The Birth and Death of the Orange Book

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):19 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article traces the origins of US government-sponsored computer security research and the path that led from a focus on government-funded research and system development to a focus on the evaluation of commercial products. That path led to the creation of the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC), or Orange Book. The TCSEC placed great emphasis on requirements for mandatory secur... View full abstract»

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  • Alan Kay: Transforming the Computer into a Communication Medium

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):18 - 30
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2332 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Alan Kay is referred to as the "father of the personal computer" because his 1969 doctoral thesis described an early prototype of personal computing. Kay's ideas contributed to the transformation of the computer from a calculating machine to a communication medium. This article focuses on Kay's vision for personal computing. View full abstract»

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  • A history of computer applications in libraries: prolegomena

    Publication Year: 2002, Page(s):4 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (270 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Modern libraries are constituted within and by a tradition of techniques and practices that represent 100 years of codified professional knowledge. This article provides a historical overview of this tradition that created a complex environment of expectation and misunderstanding for introducing library automation. A generation of systems development was needed to assimilate and further develop th... View full abstract»

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  • First draft of a report on the EDVAC

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):27 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (91)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (10296 KB)

    The first draft of a report on the EDVAC written by John von Neumann is presented. This first draft contains a wealth of information, and it had a pervasive influence when it was first written. Most prominently, Alan Turing cites it in his proposal for the Pilot automatic computing engine (ACE) as the definitive source for understanding the nature and design of a general-purpose digital computer.&... View full abstract»

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  • Telematics and the Early History of International Digital Information Flows

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):32 - 47
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (762 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The origins of telematics and the early history of international information flows is recounted. As a result of post-World War II efforts to encourage the free flow of data in the service of peacemaking and economic growth, the computer utility, distributed data processing services, and the post-industrial information society were born. Hand in hand with these developments emerged political and te... View full abstract»

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  • Thomas Harold (“Tommy”) Flowers: Designer of the Colossus Codebreaking Machines

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):72 - 82
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (307 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Tommy Flowers, born 22 December 1905, died 28 October 1998, designed the Colossus codebreaking machines. View full abstract»

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  • The Oracle Story, Part 1: 1977-1986

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):51 - 57
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Starting in 1977, the founders of the Oracle Corporation created a product and a company which in less than 20 years would come to dominate the DBMS marketplace, and become one of the world's largest computer software and services companies. With virtually no outside financial investment, the founders bootstrapped the company by developing project software under contract while working overtime to ... View full abstract»

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  • Susan Kare: Design Icon

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):48 - 61
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1103 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Susan Kare is best known for designing the distinctive icons, typefaces, and other graphic elements that gave the Apple Macintosh its characteristic-and widely emulated-look and feel. Since then, Kare has spent the last three decades designing user interface elements for many of the leading software and Internet firms. If you have clicked on a desktop icon to save a file or tapped your smart phone... View full abstract»

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  • Measuring Risk: Computer Security Metrics, Automation, and Learning

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):32 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Risk management is widely seen as the basis for cybersecurity in contemporary organizations, but practitioners continue to dispute its value. This article analyzes debate over computer security risk management in the 1970s and 1980s United States, using this debate to enhance our understanding of the value of computer security metrics more generally. Regulators placed a high value on risk analysis... View full abstract»

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  • Reconsidering the Stored-Program Concept

    Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):4 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (331 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The first in a three-part series in IEEE Annals, this article gives a historical explanation of the endemic confusion surrounding the stored-program concept. The authors suggest the adoption of more precisely defined alternatives to capture specific aspects of the new approach to computing associated with the 1945 work of von Neumann and his collaborators. The second article, "Engineering--The Mir... View full abstract»

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  • The Proliferation and Consolidation of Word Processing Software: 1985-1995

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):48 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1709 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Following development of the early word processing software packages $Electric Pencil, EasyWriter, and WordStar - and the IBM PC's arrival, the race among vendors began in earnest to win market share. Of the more than 400 software packages available in the mid-1980s, only a scant few survived. This article tells the story of how word processing software evolved in response to market pressures, new... View full abstract»

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  • The Intel 4004 microprocessor: what constituted invention?

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):4 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1107 KB)

    Investigates the context for the development of one of the earliest microprocessors, the Intel 4004. It considers the contributions made by Intel employees, most notably Marcian E. "Ted" Hoff, Jr. and Federico Faggin, and the contributions other people made to this development who are not generally known, most notably Tadashi Sasaki and Masatoshi Shima. This paper represents a case study of how co... View full abstract»

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  • Women and gender in the history of computing

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):4 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (226 KB) | HTML iconHTML
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  • 'Rough Consensus and Running Code' and the Internet-OSI Standards War

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):48 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (197 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Internet historians recognize the technical achievements but often overlook the bureaucratic innovations of Internet pioneers. The phrase, "We reject: kings, presidents, and voting. We believe in: rough consensus and running code," was coined by David Clark in 1992. This article explains how the phrase captured the technical and political values of Internet engineers during a crucial phase in the ... View full abstract»

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  • Embodied Software: Patents and the History of Software Development, 1946-1970

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):8 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1429 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the late 1960s, attorneys and programmers used the term "embodying software"' in reference to a patent-drafting technique for software inventions. This strategy consisted of claiming a computer in which a program served as the control system instead of claiming the program itself. If the application was successful, this machine would receive patent protection in lieu of the program. This articl... View full abstract»

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  • Finding a History for Software Engineering

    Publication Year: 2004, Page(s):8 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (362 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Historians and software engineers are both looking for a history for software engineering. For historians, it is a matter of finding a point of perspective from which to view an enterprise that is still in the process of defining itself. For software engineers, it is the question of finding a usable past, as they have sought to ground their vision of the enterprise on historical models taken from ... View full abstract»

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  • Raymond Tomlinson: Email Pioneer, Part 1

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):72 - 79
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Raymond (Ray) Tomlinson was a computer engineer best known for developing the TENEX operating system and implemented the first email program on the Arpanet system in 1971. In its official biography, the Internet Hall of Fame states that "Tomlinson's email program brought about a complete revolution, fundamentally changing the way people communicate." This interview is the first in a two-part Annal... View full abstract»

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  • Appropriating American Technology in the 1960s: Cold War Politics and the GDR Computer Industry

    Publication Year: 2010, Page(s):32 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (429 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Paradoxically, at the height of the Cold War, the Eastern and Western Blocs became increasingly technologically entangled. From 1964 onward, the German Democratic Republic drew greatly from US companies as role models when building a national computer industry. Numerous challenges and conflicts arose from appropriating knowledge and artifacts while politically rejecting the society in which they o... View full abstract»

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  • History of The CA IDMS Database Management System

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):100 - 106
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (233 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The origins of IDMS can be traced from Charles Bachman's work on IDS at GE in the 1960s, through its formative years at B.F. Goodrich in the 1970s and its introduction into the commercial market by Cullinane/Cullinet Software into the 1980s. The modern CA IDMS evolved from a network model DBMS to one that supports multiple data models and an entire line of database administration and application d... View full abstract»

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  • The SAP Story: Evolution of SAP within the German Software Industry

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):60 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (399 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The success of the German company SAP and its enterprise software contradicts the widespread assumption of American dominance in the computer software industry. In this combined business and technology history of SAP, the author explores the individuals and ideas behind the concept of standardized, integrated business software and how SAP developed from a small company to a global market leader. View full abstract»

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  • Notes on the Evolution of Computer Security Policy in the US Government, 1965-2003

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):8 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (182 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The United States government and military helped lead the information technology revolution and were among the first to warn of its consequent dangers to privacy and national security. This article discusses White House, congressional, and high-level US Department of Defense (DoD) policy documents that illustrate the direction and pace of Washington's recognition of potential foreign threats to US... View full abstract»

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  • Once Upon a Pocket: Programmable Calculators from the Late 1970s and Early 1980s and the Social Networks Around Them

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):55 - 66
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1722 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Programmable pocket calculators of the mid-1970s opened up a new segment of the personal computing devices market. Calculator users established clubs, magazines, and conferences, and their interaction with manufacturers shaped the products' further development. This article explores one of the understudied roots of personal computing, through the evolution of the user communities formed around the... View full abstract»

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  • Less Is More in the Fifties: Encounters between Logical Minimalism and Computer Design during the 1950s

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):19 - 45
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2092 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article frames some important computing developments of the 1950s, connecting them to two older traditions, one within (mathematical) logic and one within engineering. Both traditions could be termed logical minimalism, meaning the systematic use of (mathematical) logic in designing minimal systems and devices. The logical tradition is part of the more general research programme into the foun... View full abstract»

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  • Programming on the Univac 1: a woman's account

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):48 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1079 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Although women's role in the computer field has been fairly well documented, their role in the programming arena has not. The author's account of her programming experience on the Universal Automatic Computer (Univac 1), for the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation reveals much about the early workplace conditions - namely, a workplace surprisingly free of restrictions in an era when most married w... View full abstract»

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  • The Relational Model: Beginning of an Era

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):30 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (158 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Serving as an informal technical introduction to this Annals special issue on relational database management systems, this article gives an introductory overview of the relational model and discusses the value of Edgar F. (Ted) Codd's model. Then, after providing an account of Chris Date's contributions, the author assesses the relational model's effect on the industry and how it might affect futu... View full abstract»

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  • The Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratory's Photolithographic Approach to Microcircuits

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):48 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    From 1952 to 1958, Jay Lathrop worked on a project at the National Bureau of Standards (later the US Army Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratory) to develop microminiaturized, transistorized hybrid integrated circuits for radio proximity fuzes. In this article, Lathrop describes his experiences during this project, the development of photolithography, and how photolithography became critical in the firs... View full abstract»

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  • The Technical Development of Internet Email

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):3 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (405 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Development and evolution of the technologies and standards for Internet email took formatting more than 20 years, and arguably is still under way. The protocols to move email between systems and the rules for formatting messages have evolved, and- been largely replaced at least once. This article traces that evolution, with a focus on why things look as they do today. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Annals of the History of Computing serves as a record of vital contributions which recount, preserve, and analyze the history of computing and the impact of computing on society.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Nathan Ensmenger
Indiana University, School of Informatics & Computing
nensmeng@indiana.edu