IEEE Annals of the History of Computing

Includes the top 50 most frequently accessed documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

  • The Origins and Early History of Computer Engineering in the United States

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):6 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (445 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article examines the origins and early history of the field of computer engineering in the United States, from the mid-1940s to mid-1950s. The account is based on both primary and secondary sources and draws theory from technology studies and the sociology of professions. The author begins by discussing roles played by engineers and engineering during the development of some of the first high... View full abstract»

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  • What Makes the History of Software Hard

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):8 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (267 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Creating software for work in the world has meant translating into computational models the knowledge and practices of the people who have been doing that work without computers. What people know and do reflects their particular historical experience, which also shapes decisions about what can be automated and how. Software thus involves many histories and a variety of sources to be read in new wa... View full abstract»

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  • Establishing Moore's Law

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):62 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (79)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The seemingly unshakeable accuracy of Moore's law - which states that the speed of computers; as measured by the number of transistors that can be placed on a single chip, will double every year or two - has been credited with being the engine of the electronics revolution, and is regarded as the premier example of a self-fulfilling prophecy and technological trajectory in both the academic and po... View full abstract»

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  • Why the Arpanet Was Built

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):4 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The who, what, when, and how of the Arpanet is usually told in heroic terms-Licklider's vision, the fervor of his disciples, the dedication of computer scientists and engineers, the work of graduate students, and so forth. Told by one of the key actors in this salient part of US and Internet history, this article addresses why the Arpanet was built. View full abstract»

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  • Sixty Years of Software Development Life Cycle Models

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):41 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Sixty years ago, in 1956, the first explicit representation of a software development life cycle model was presented by Herbert Benington. Since then, software development life cycle models have come a long way, and the current article provides an overview of that development. View full abstract»

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  • "The Spitting Image of a Woman Programmer": Changing Portrayals of Women in the American Computing Industry, 1958-1985

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):49 - 64
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This paper examines the cultural climate faced by women in the American computer industry from the 1960s to the early 1980s, a period in which the percentage of the industry workforce that was female almost tripled. Drawing on a comprehensive study of articles and advertisements in the trade journal Datamation, sources from IBM, Control Data, and the Burroughs Corporation, and the records of the u... View full abstract»

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  • Cryptography, Capitalism, and National Security

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):80 - 84
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (137 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    I call into question a line of thinking about the societal consequences of distributed network architectures. Empirically, this work centers its explanation on aberrant historical conditions, most notably the early Arpanet-centered Internet. Conceptually, despite an effort to identify a new order, it replicates foundational assumptions of exchange in (classical) markets. Drawing on recent talks an... View full abstract»

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  • Videogames in Computer Space: The Complex History of Pong

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):5 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5283 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The earliest digital games emerged out of laboratories and research centers in the 1960s and 1970s. The intertwined histories of Nolan Bushnell's Computer Space and Pong illustrate the transition from these "university games" to accessible entertainment and educational games as well as the complicated historical relationship among the arcade, computer, and videogames. View full abstract»

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  • Implications of Historical Trends in the Electrical Efficiency of Computing

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):46 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (152)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1790 KB) | HTML iconHTML Multimedia Media

    The electrical efficiency of computation has doubled roughly every year and a half for more than six decades, a pace of change comparable to that for computer performance and electrical efficiency in the microprocessor era. These efficiency improvements enabled the creation of laptops, smart phones, wireless sensors, and other mobile computing devices, with many more such innovations yet to come. ... View full abstract»

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  • Hearing Aids and the History of Electronics Miniaturization

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):24 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4270 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Electrical hearing aids were the principal site for component miniaturization and compact assembly before World War II. After the war, hearing aid users became the first consumer market for printed circuits, transistors, and integrated circuits. Due to the stigmatization of hearing loss, users generally demanded small or invisible devices. In addition to being early adopters, deaf and hard of hear... View full abstract»

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  • Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):16 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Augusta Ada Lovelace worked with Charles Babbage to create a description of Babbage's unbuilt invention, the analytical engine, a highly advanced mechanical calculator often considered a forerunner of the electronic calculating computers of the 20th century. Ada Lovelace's "notes," describing the analytical engine, published in Taylor's scientific memoirs in 1843, contained a ground-breaking descr... View full abstract»

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  • DLL Hell: Software Dependencies, Failure, and the Maintenance of Microsoft Windows

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):28 - 51
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (283 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Software is relational. It can only operate in correlation with the other software that enables it, the hardware that runs it, and the communities who make, own, and maintain it. Here, we consider a phenomenon called “DLL hell,” a case in which those relationships broke down, endemic to the Microsoft Windows platform in the mid-to-late 1990s. Software applications often failed because they require... View full abstract»

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  • Hacking the Cis-tem

    Publication Year: 2019, Page(s):20 - 33
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1722 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This paper looks at the case of transgender Britons who tried to correct the gender listed on their government-issued ID cards, but ran up against the British government's increasingly computerized methods for tracking, identifying, and defining citizens. These newly computerizing systems show some of the earliest examples of transphobic algorithmic bias: explicit attempts to program trans people ... View full abstract»

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  • Colossus and Programmability

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):5 - 27
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1278 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We analyze the capabilities of the Colossus codebreaking devices, built in 1943-1945 under the direction of Tommy Flowers of the UK General Post Office. Colossus is often described as a programmable computer, a misconception we trace to old battles about the “first computer” and to former secrecy about its actual capabilities. In fact, Colossus was not called a computer at the time, and does not m... View full abstract»

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  • A Brief History of Software Engineering

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):32 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This personal perspective on the art of programming begins with a look at the state of programming from about 1960, and it follows programming's development through the present day. The article examines key contributions to the field of software engineering and identifies major obstacles, which persist even today. View full abstract»

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  • Susan Kare: Design Icon

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):48 - 61
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1103 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Susan Kare is best known for designing the distinctive icons, typefaces, and other graphic elements that gave the Apple Macintosh its characteristic-and widely emulated-look and feel. Since then, Kare has spent the last three decades designing user interface elements for many of the leading software and Internet firms. If you have clicked on a desktop icon to save a file or tapped your smart phone... View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Program for Philosophers to Study Computer Science

    Publication Year: 2019, Page(s):58 - 60
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (147 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Reports on college programs that offered philosophy students courses in computer education. View full abstract»

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  • The Origins of PostScript

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):68 - 76
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1107 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Introduced by Adobe Systems in 1984, PostScript was a unique device-independent approach to describing the appearance of a printed page, for the first time allowing pages to be printed on a range of devices of different resolutions. From 1984 to 1987, the use of PostScript by printer manufacturers grew to the point that it became the de facto standard. This article describes the 11-year sequence o... View full abstract»

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  • The Restructuring of Internet Standards Governance: 1987-1992

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):25 - 43
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1320 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In June 1992, the Internet Activities Board sought to push the Internet Engineering Task Force into a solution for the Internet's address depletion problem. Its actions provoked a management crisis that forced a restructuring of the Internet standards governance process. Although the events have been characterized as a revolt by the Internet Engineering Task Force, this article revisits the preced... View full abstract»

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  • The Origin and Early History of the Computer Security Software Products Industry

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):46 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the second half of the 1970s, established computer firms and new IT start-ups chose alternative paths to offer commercial access control systems to organizational mainframe computer users. These developments in effect launched the computer security software products industry with IBM's Resource Access Control Facility (RACF) and SKK's Access Control Facility 2 (ACF2). View full abstract»

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  • The Role of Governments in the Spread of Novel Computing Devices in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century United States

    Publication Year: 2019, Page(s):7 - 19
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (212 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Nineteenth and early twentieth century American governments-local, state, and national-profoundly shaped diffusion of novel mathematical instruments. The federal government ran an office that judged what inventions were patentable and a legal system for those who defended or challenged patent rights. Governments at all levels employed inventors. Sometimes new laws required extensive calculations p... View full abstract»

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  • IBM Relational Database Systems: The Early Years

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):38 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The relational data model, proposed by E.F. Codd in 1970, inspired several research projects at IBM and elsewhere. Among these was System R, which demonstrated the commercial viability of relational database systems. This article describes the research challenges faced by the System R team and how the technology they created has influenced the development of the modern database industry. View full abstract»

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  • TeX: A Branch of Desktop Publishing, Part 1

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):78 - 93
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2983 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Donald Knuth began the development of TEX in 1977 and had an initial version running in 1978, with the aim of typesetting mathematical documents with the highest quality, and with archival reproducibility far into the future. Its usage spread, and today the TEX system remains in use by a vibrant user community. However, the world of TEX has always been somewhat out... View full abstract»

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  • The Industrial Organization of Hong Kong's Progression Toward a Cashless Economy (1960s-2000s)

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):54 - 65
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2389 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    A dramatic change occurred in retail banking technology in Hong Kong between 1960 and 2000. Initially, the relevant technologies were installed and managed within the boundaries of large banks, such as HSBC. Over the course of this period, however, the industrial organization of the relevant technologies transformed to include provisions outsourced to nonbank institutions. This article seeks to ac... View full abstract»

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  • “The Official Response is Never Enough”

    Publication Year: 2019, Page(s):34 - 46
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2275 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Rockefeller Foundation shipped two Apple II computers with VisiCalc to the Tunisian Ministry of Agriculture to address a grain shortage in the early 1980s. The foundation believed that VisiCalc would enable the speedy and complex analytical modeling necessary to improve the management and, consequently, the production of grain resources. The foundation also argued that VisiCalc would empower i... View full abstract»

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  • First draft of a report on the EDVAC

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):27 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (108)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (10296 KB)

    The first draft of a report on the EDVAC written by John von Neumann is presented. This first draft contains a wealth of information, and it had a pervasive influence when it was first written. Most prominently, Alan Turing cites it in his proposal for the Pilot automatic computing engine (ACE) as the definitive source for understanding the nature and design of a general-purpose digital computer.&... View full abstract»

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  • Grounding Digital History in the History of Computing

    Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):72 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (153 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In this brief article, we use the relatively recent publication of a number of books on the subject as a launching point to argue that digital history should be grounded in the history of computing. View full abstract»

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  • Flowcharting Templates

    Publication Year: 2019, Page(s):55 - 57
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2782 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Smithsonian has begun to post online descriptions of objects in its collections. Figures and accounts are now available for roughly 2500 objects from the math and computer collections- perhaps a quarter of the total. Our focus has been on small objects that are easily examined. Hence I recently cataloged the two dozen flowcharting templates in the collections. This brief account is intended to... View full abstract»

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  • The women of ENIAC

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):13 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3044 KB)

    A group of young women college graduates involved with the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) are identified. As a result of their education, intelligence, as well as their being at the right place and at the right time, these young women were able to perform important computer work. Many learned to use effectively "the machine that changed the world" to assist in solving some of... View full abstract»

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  • Studying IBM's History When You Are Part of It

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):64 - 68
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (145 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    James W. Cortada is an unusual computing historian in that he was academically trained in history and has written extensively about computing history, but his primary career was spent working within the computing industry at IBM. Here, Cortada describes a slowly evolving 40-year effort to write an appropriate history of IBM. His connections within IBM gave him unusual access while also giving him ... View full abstract»

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  • Guest Editors' Introduction: History of Database Management Systems

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):3 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (526 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This issue tells the history of database management systems through a series of pioneer recollections, principally from people who founded the major DBMS companies or were heavily involved in the growth and development of these products and companies. These eight recollections cover the principal DBMS software products for IBM mainframe computers. IBM itself was a significant player in this market... View full abstract»

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  • Cybernetics, Automata Studies, and the Dartmouth Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):5 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, held at Datrmouth College in 1956, is regarded as the official "birthplace" of Al. This article draws on unpublished archives to shed new light on the origins of the conference and the complex relationships between cybernetics, automata studies, and Al in the 1950s. View full abstract»

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  • Three faces of human-computer interaction

    Publication Year: 2005, Page(s):46 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Human-computer interaction is considered a core element of computer science. Yet it has not coalesced; many researchers who identify their focus as human-computer interaction reside in other fields. The author examines the origins and evolution of three HCI research foci: computer operation, information systems management, and discretionary use. The author describes efforts to find common ground a... View full abstract»

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  • Colossus: its origins and originators

    Publication Year: 2004, Page(s):38 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The British Colossus computer was one of the most important tools in the wartime effort to break German codes. Based on interviews and on recently declassified documents, this article clarifies the roles played by Thomas Flowers, Alan Turing, William Tutte, and Max Newman in the events leading to the installation of the first Colossus at Bletchley Park, Britain's wartime code-breaking establishmen... View full abstract»

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  • The Virtual Wall of the Fourth Amendment

    Publication Year: 2019, Page(s):47 - 50
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (729 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The evolution of computing cannot be fully explained without consideration of the legal and social friction that challenged individuals at the frontier of computer development. The incorporation of the personal computer into nearly every American household has made the technology central to modern social interaction and has expanded daily life into cyberspace. How do fundamental laws, such as the ... View full abstract»

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  • Constructions of gender in the history of artificial intelligence

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):47 - 53
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (996 KB)

    Key developments in the history of artificial intelligence are described in terms of a model of gender (Man of Reason), drawn from the work of philosopher Genevieve Lloyd, and informed by research in gender and technology and feminist epistemology. Significantly, the model demonstrates the elevation of mental knowledge over corporeal knowledge. Recent attempts to address the problem of embodiment ... View full abstract»

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  • Edge Cryptography and the Codevelopment of Computer Networks and Cybersecurity

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):55 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1136 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Developed around 1973 by BBN under contract from DARPA, the private line interface (PLI), a cryptographic cybersecurity device used on the Arpanet, operated with minimal modification of the existing network infrastructure, sitting at the "edge" of the network between the network switches and the connected host computers. As a result of the developmental and infrastructural trajectory set in motion... View full abstract»

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  • The March of IDES: Early History of Intrusion-Detection Expert Systems

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):42 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (183 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    As part of a broader prehistory and history of early intrusion-detection systems (IDSs), this article focuses on the first such system, Intrusion Detection Expert System (IDES), which was developed in the second half of the 1980s at SRI International (and SRI's follow-on Next Generation Intrusion Detection Expert System, or NIDES, in the early-to-mid 1990s). It also briefly recounts other early ID... View full abstract»

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  • Privatizing the Internet: Competing Visions and Chaotic Events, 1987–1995

    Publication Year: 2010, Page(s):10 - 22
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The US National Science Foundation played a key role in the history of the Internet by overseeing its transition from government to private operation. In the process, NSF was forced to balance the competing visions of scientists, politicians, and private industry. This article describes the conflicts, trade-offs, and unexpected events that led to a technical and social transformation of the Intern... View full abstract»

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  • The Manchester Computer: A Revised History Part 2: The Baby Computer

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):22 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The logical design of the 1948 Manchester Baby was virtually identical to a 1946 Princeton design. However, thanks to F.C. Williams' and Tom Kilburn's groundbreaking cathode ray tube (CRT) memory and their innovative engineering, the universal electronic digital computer made its world debut in Manchester. This article reassesses the place of Williams and Kilburn in the history of computing. View full abstract»

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  • The Manchester Computer: A Revised History Part 1: The Memory

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):4 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (242 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Manchester Baby, built by F.C. Williams and Tom Kilburn and operational in June 1948, was the first stored-program electronic computer. The Williams-Kilburn tube memory, pioneered in the Baby, was subsequently adopted in many first-generation computers, including the Princeton IAS machine and the IBM 701. Part 1 of this article provides an overview of the Manchester project and its personnel a... View full abstract»

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  • The Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratory's Photolithographic Approach to Microcircuits

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):48 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    From 1952 to 1958, Jay Lathrop worked on a project at the National Bureau of Standards (later the US Army Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratory) to develop microminiaturized, transistorized hybrid integrated circuits for radio proximity fuzes. In this article, Lathrop describes his experiences during this project, the development of photolithography, and how photolithography became critical in the firs... View full abstract»

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  • The Internet Design Tension between Surveillance and Security

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):72 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (710 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The design tension between security and surveillance has existed for decades. This article specifically examines the protocol design tension between national security interests in surveillance versus network security in the early decades of the Internet and its predecessor networks. Using archival research and protocol-specific case studies, this article describes episodes in which the Internet En... View full abstract»

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  • Programming on the Univac 1: a woman's account

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):48 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1079 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Although women's role in the computer field has been fairly well documented, their role in the programming arena has not. The author's account of her programming experience on the Universal Automatic Computer (Univac 1), for the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation reveals much about the early workplace conditions - namely, a workplace surprisingly free of restrictions in an era when most married w... View full abstract»

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  • The Xerox Alto Publishing Platform

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):38 - 54
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1331 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Starting in 1973, researchers at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) built the first networked workstation platform (Alto and Ethernet) and a suite of applications and services to explore office automation. Separate interactive tools allowed people to create and edit different sorts of document content, which were then merged onto pages using Press files, a page description file format. View full abstract»

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  • Finding a History for Software Engineering

    Publication Year: 2004, Page(s):8 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (362 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Historians and software engineers are both looking for a history for software engineering. For historians, it is a matter of finding a point of perspective from which to view an enterprise that is still in the process of defining itself. For software engineers, it is the question of finding a usable past, as they have sought to ground their vision of the enterprise on historical models taken from ... View full abstract»

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  • The Early History of ICs at Texas Instruments: A Personal View

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):37 - 47
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (547 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Charles Phipps performed the functions of business development and then marketing for integrated circuits at Texas Instruments from the beginning of this technology in 1959 through the mid-1960s. In this article, he details IC development at TI during this period, the creation of markets for this technology in military and commercial computing, and the defining roles of Patrick Haggerty and Jack K... View full abstract»

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  • Hopper and Dijkstra: Crisis, Revolution, and the Future of Programming

    Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):64 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (294 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the late 1960s, tensions were erupting in corporate and academic computing cultures in the United States and abroad with competing views about the state of computer programming and possible future implications. A discourse of "software crisis" was ignited in 1968 when NATO hosted a conference on the topic of software engineering. The author examines the rhetoric of crisis, revolution, and promi... View full abstract»

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  • Notes on the Evolution of Computer Security Policy in the US Government, 1965-2003

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):8 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (182 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The United States government and military helped lead the information technology revolution and were among the first to warn of its consequent dangers to privacy and national security. This article discusses White House, congressional, and high-level US Department of Defense (DoD) policy documents that illustrate the direction and pace of Washington's recognition of potential foreign threats to US... View full abstract»

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  • The Dark Side of Computing: SRI International and the Study of Computer Crime

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):3 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (285 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    From the perspective of an information security researcher and consultant who studied crime for 40 years, this brief history of computer crime delves into study methods and presents findings from many years of National Science Foundation and US department of justice grant-supported research and business support at SRI International View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Annals of the History of Computing serves as a record of vital contributions which recount, preserve, and analyze the history of computing and the impact of computing on society.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Gerardo Con Diaz
University of California, Davis
condiaz@ucdavis.edu