IEEE Annals of the History of Computing

Includes the top 50 most frequently accessed documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

  • Sixty Years of Software Development Life Cycle Models

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):41 - 54
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Sixty years ago, in 1956, the first explicit representation of a software development life cycle model was presented by Herbert Benington. Since then, software development life cycle models have come a long way, and the current article provides an overview of that development. View full abstract»

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  • A Brief History of Software Engineering

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):32 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This personal perspective on the art of programming begins with a look at the state of programming from about 1960, and it follows programming's development through the present day. The article examines key contributions to the field of software engineering and identifies major obstacles, which persist even today. View full abstract»

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  • Common Language: Business Programming Languages and the Legibility of Programming

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):17 - 31
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2169 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The English-like business programming language COBOL saw widespread use from its introduction in 1960 well into the 1980s, despite being disdained by computer science academics. This article traces out decisions made during COBOLs development, and argues that its English-like appearance was a rhetorical move designed to make the concept of code itself more legible to non-programming management at ... View full abstract»

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  • Why the Arpanet Was Built

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):4 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The who, what, when, and how of the Arpanet is usually told in heroic terms-Licklider's vision, the fervor of his disciples, the dedication of computer scientists and engineers, the work of graduate students, and so forth. Told by one of the key actors in this salient part of US and Internet history, this article addresses why the Arpanet was built. View full abstract»

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  • The Origins and Early History of Computer Engineering in the United States

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):6 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article examines the origins and early history of the field of computer engineering in the United States, from the mid-1940s to mid-1950s. The account is based on both primary and secondary sources and draws theory from technology studies and the sociology of professions. The author begins by discussing roles played by engineers and engineering during the development of some of the first high... View full abstract»

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  • The Early History of ICs at Texas Instruments: A Personal View

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):37 - 47
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (547 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Charles Phipps performed the functions of business development and then marketing for integrated circuits at Texas Instruments from the beginning of this technology in 1959 through the mid-1960s. In this article, he details IC development at TI during this period, the creation of markets for this technology in military and commercial computing, and the defining roles of Patrick Haggerty and Jack K... View full abstract»

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  • Implications of Historical Trends in the Electrical Efficiency of Computing

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):46 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (129)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1790 KB) | HTML iconHTML Multimedia Media

    The electrical efficiency of computation has doubled roughly every year and a half for more than six decades, a pace of change comparable to that for computer performance and electrical efficiency in the microprocessor era. These efficiency improvements enabled the creation of laptops, smart phones, wireless sensors, and other mobile computing devices, with many more such innovations yet to come. ... View full abstract»

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  • Oral History of Joe Thompson

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):6 - 16
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (283 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Joseph Walter Thompson, born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1933, was the first person trained as an operator of the 1951 Whirlwind computer at the MIT Digital Computer Laboratory. In this interview, he discusses his early career at MIT running Whirlwind, and then his long employment at RAND/SDC as a programmer and eventual group manager working on the SAGE continental air defense system software. Tho... View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Less Is More in the Fifties: Encounters between Logical Minimalism and Computer Design during the 1950s

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):19 - 45
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2092 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article frames some important computing developments of the 1950s, connecting them to two older traditions, one within (mathematical) logic and one within engineering. Both traditions could be termed logical minimalism, meaning the systematic use of (mathematical) logic in designing minimal systems and devices. The logical tradition is part of the more general research programme into the foun... View full abstract»

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  • Telematics and the Early History of International Digital Information Flows

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):32 - 47
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (762 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The origins of telematics and the early history of international information flows is recounted. As a result of post-World War II efforts to encourage the free flow of data in the service of peacemaking and economic growth, the computer utility, distributed data processing services, and the post-industrial information society were born. Hand in hand with these developments emerged political and te... View full abstract»

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  • Three faces of human-computer interaction

    Publication Year: 2005, Page(s):46 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Human-computer interaction is considered a core element of computer science. Yet it has not coalesced; many researchers who identify their focus as human-computer interaction reside in other fields. The author examines the origins and evolution of three HCI research foci: computer operation, information systems management, and discretionary use. The author describes efforts to find common ground a... View full abstract»

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  • Establishing Moore's Law

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):62 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (73)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The seemingly unshakeable accuracy of Moore's law - which states that the speed of computers; as measured by the number of transistors that can be placed on a single chip, will double every year or two - has been credited with being the engine of the electronics revolution, and is regarded as the premier example of a self-fulfilling prophecy and technological trajectory in both the academic and po... View full abstract»

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  • Susan Kare: Design Icon

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):48 - 61
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1103 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Susan Kare is best known for designing the distinctive icons, typefaces, and other graphic elements that gave the Apple Macintosh its characteristic-and widely emulated-look and feel. Since then, Kare has spent the last three decades designing user interface elements for many of the leading software and Internet firms. If you have clicked on a desktop icon to save a file or tapped your smart phone... View full abstract»

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  • What Makes the History of Software Hard

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):8 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (267 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Creating software for work in the world has meant translating into computational models the knowledge and practices of the people who have been doing that work without computers. What people know and do reflects their particular historical experience, which also shapes decisions about what can be automated and how. Software thus involves many histories and a variety of sources to be read in new wa... View full abstract»

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  • First draft of a report on the EDVAC

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):27 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (86)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (10296 KB)

    The first draft of a report on the EDVAC written by John von Neumann is presented. This first draft contains a wealth of information, and it had a pervasive influence when it was first written. Most prominently, Alan Turing cites it in his proposal for the Pilot automatic computing engine (ACE) as the definitive source for understanding the nature and design of a general-purpose digital computer.&... View full abstract»

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  • Measuring Risk: Computer Security Metrics, Automation, and Learning

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):32 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Risk management is widely seen as the basis for cybersecurity in contemporary organizations, but practitioners continue to dispute its value. This article analyzes debate over computer security risk management in the 1970s and 1980s United States, using this debate to enhance our understanding of the value of computer security metrics more generally. Regulators placed a high value on risk analysis... View full abstract»

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  • Women and gender in the history of computing

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):4 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (226 KB) | HTML iconHTML
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  • Imagining the Personal Computer: Conceptualizations of the Homebrew Computer Club 1975–1977

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):27 - 39
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Homebrew Computer Club was a hobbyist group in the San Francisco Bay Area dedicated to helping people build their own home personal computers. I analyze their writings between 1975 and 1977, in order to understand how their values became embedded in the technology they built, establishing how the personal computer should be used and thought of. These values were based in ideals of open informa... View full abstract»

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  • Selected Papers On Computer Science

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):82 - 83
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  • The Origins of the Architectural Metaphor in Computing: Design and Technology at IBM, 1957–1964

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):61 - 70
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The familiarity of the term computer architecture makes it easy to forget the fundamental strangeness of the comparison it implies. When we speak about a buildings architecture, we suggest that it has an aesthetic as well as a utilitarian function. An architect seeks not just to shelter the users of a building from the elements but also to give shape and meaning to the activities that take place w... View full abstract»

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  • The Technical Development of Internet Email

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):3 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (405 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Development and evolution of the technologies and standards for Internet email took formatting more than 20 years, and arguably is still under way. The protocols to move email between systems and the rules for formatting messages have evolved, and- been largely replaced at least once. This article traces that evolution, with a focus on why things look as they do today. View full abstract»

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  • Hearing Aids and the History of Electronics Miniaturization

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):24 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4270 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Electrical hearing aids were the principal site for component miniaturization and compact assembly before World War II. After the war, hearing aid users became the first consumer market for printed circuits, transistors, and integrated circuits. Due to the stigmatization of hearing loss, users generally demanded small or invisible devices. In addition to being early adopters, deaf and hard of hear... View full abstract»

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  • History of COMTRAC: Development of the Innovative Traffic-Control System for Shinkansen

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):11 - 21
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6411 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    First introduced together with the extension of Tokaido-Shinkansen railway in 1972, the COMTRAC large-scale command-and-control system efficiently controls the train's high-speed, high-frequency, high-diversity operations. This article introduces COMTRAC's technological features and gives an overview of its 50-year history, including the early days of R&D and the subsequent system developm... View full abstract»

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  • Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):16 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Augusta Ada Lovelace worked with Charles Babbage to create a description of Babbage's unbuilt invention, the analytical engine, a highly advanced mechanical calculator often considered a forerunner of the electronic calculating computers of the 20th century. Ada Lovelace's "notes," describing the analytical engine, published in Taylor's scientific memoirs in 1843, contained a ground-breaking descr... View full abstract»

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  • Aspects of the History of Computing in Modern Greece

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):47 - 60
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (367 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article aims to shed light on notable aspects of the history of computing in Greece, starting from 1920. We cover six areas, including the early days of computing in the country, the transition to the Internet era, the formation of a computer-related educational infrastructure, the evolution of data networks, and the growth of the software and hardware industry. In each area we highlight find... View full abstract»

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  • Grounding Digital History in the History of Computing

    Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):72 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In this brief article, we use the relatively recent publication of a number of books on the subject as a launching point to argue that digital history should be grounded in the history of computing. View full abstract»

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  • This Is Not a Computer: Negotiating the Microprocessor

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):48 - 54
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (735 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Intel 4004 μ-Computer is the earliest known microprocessor-based hardware distributed by Intel. This article relates the information concerning the 4004 μ-Computer in an effort to gain a more complete historical perspective on the liminal period in the corporate history of Intel when, soon after the introduction of its first microprocessor, the company was wrestling with the "one-chip CPU--com... View full abstract»

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  • Guest Editors' Introduction: History of Database Management Systems

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):3 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (526 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This issue tells the history of database management systems through a series of pioneer recollections, principally from people who founded the major DBMS companies or were heavily involved in the growth and development of these products and companies. These eight recollections cover the principal DBMS software products for IBM mainframe computers. IBM itself was a significant player in this market... View full abstract»

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  • Edge Cryptography and the Codevelopment of Computer Networks and Cybersecurity

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):55 - 73
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1136 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Developed around 1973 by BBN under contract from DARPA, the private line interface (PLI), a cryptographic cybersecurity device used on the Arpanet, operated with minimal modification of the existing network infrastructure, sitting at the "edge" of the network between the network switches and the connected host computers. As a result of the developmental and infrastructural trajectory set in motion... View full abstract»

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  • Cybernetics, Automata Studies, and the Dartmouth Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):5 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, held at Datrmouth College in 1956, is regarded as the official "birthplace" of Al. This article draws on unpublished archives to shed new light on the origins of the conference and the complex relationships between cybernetics, automata studies, and Al in the 1950s. View full abstract»

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  • Hopper and Dijkstra: Crisis, Revolution, and the Future of Programming

    Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):64 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (294 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the late 1960s, tensions were erupting in corporate and academic computing cultures in the United States and abroad with competing views about the state of computer programming and possible future implications. A discourse of "software crisis" was ignited in 1968 when NATO hosted a conference on the topic of software engineering. The author examines the rhetoric of crisis, revolution, and promi... View full abstract»

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  • The Industrial Organization of Hong Kong's Progression Toward a Cashless Economy (1960s-2000s)

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):54 - 65
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2389 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    A dramatic change occurred in retail banking technology in Hong Kong between 1960 and 2000. Initially, the relevant technologies were installed and managed within the boundaries of large banks, such as HSBC. Over the course of this period, however, the industrial organization of the relevant technologies transformed to include provisions outsourced to nonbank institutions. This article seeks to ac... View full abstract»

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  • The March of IDES: Early History of Intrusion-Detection Expert Systems

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):42 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (183 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    As part of a broader prehistory and history of early intrusion-detection systems (IDSs), this article focuses on the first such system, Intrusion Detection Expert System (IDES), which was developed in the second half of the 1980s at SRI International (and SRI's follow-on Next Generation Intrusion Detection Expert System, or NIDES, in the early-to-mid 1990s). It also briefly recounts other early ID... View full abstract»

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  • The SAP Story: Evolution of SAP within the German Software Industry

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):60 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (399 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The success of the German company SAP and its enterprise software contradicts the widespread assumption of American dominance in the computer software industry. In this combined business and technology history of SAP, the author explores the individuals and ideas behind the concept of standardized, integrated business software and how SAP developed from a small company to a global market leader. View full abstract»

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  • The Birth and Death of the Orange Book

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):19 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article traces the origins of US government-sponsored computer security research and the path that led from a focus on government-funded research and system development to a focus on the evaluation of commercial products. That path led to the creation of the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC), or Orange Book. The TCSEC placed great emphasis on requirements for mandatory secur... View full abstract»

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  • Intel 8080 CPU Chip Development

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):70 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (64 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Within a year of the introduction of Intel's first 8-bit CPU chip, the 8008, in April 1972, the author was working on the design specification for a faster and more capable CPU chip, the 8080. Here, the author describes the development of the 8080 chip that helped launch the personal computer industry. The author also addresses two common complaints about the 8080's architecture - its lack of regi... View full abstract»

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  • The Korean Character Code: A National Controversy, 1987-1995

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):40 - 53
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2652 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Adequately representing the Korean language has been a challenge since the earliest introduction of digital computing and computer-mediated communication. As a local solution to the more general problem of the internationalization of computer languages, the Korean government introduced a new standard character code known as KSC-5601 in 1987. This article traces the history of the Korean character ... View full abstract»

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  • The History of the History of Software

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):40 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (149 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Just as the fields of software and hardware development have evolved, the field of software history has likewise matured. At first, the history of software was exclusively focused on technology. Later, there were historical explorations of the software industry and professions. Today the emphasis is on applications and the societal changes resulting from software. View full abstract»

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  • Notes on the Evolution of Computer Security Policy in the US Government, 1965-2003

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):8 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (182 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The United States government and military helped lead the information technology revolution and were among the first to warn of its consequent dangers to privacy and national security. This article discusses White House, congressional, and high-level US Department of Defense (DoD) policy documents that illustrate the direction and pace of Washington's recognition of potential foreign threats to US... View full abstract»

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  • Speech processing at BBN

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):32 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (522 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This survey of speech processing activities covers a period that began around 1971. Areas of importance - technical as well as historical - include speech recognition and understanding, speech coding, speaker recognition, and speech modification. A number of today's best-regarded techniques in speech and language processing stem from BBN's early work. View full abstract»

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  • The Origin of the Integrated Data Store (IDS): The First Direct-Access DBMS

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):42 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The integrated data store (IDS), the first direct-access database management system, was developed at General Electric in the early 1960s. Revisiting the development challenges that lead to its first production version reveals the origins of DBMSs and their impact on software development and business management. IDS and its derivative systems are still in use today, supporting a thousand mainframe... View full abstract»

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  • Thomas Harold (“Tommy”) Flowers: Designer of the Colossus Codebreaking Machines

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):72 - 82
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (307 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Tommy Flowers, born 22 December 1905, died 28 October 1998, designed the Colossus codebreaking machines. View full abstract»

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  • Studying History as it Unfolds, Part 1: Creating the History of Information Technologies

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):20 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    As part of a two-part series, this article explores the development of the early history of information technologies from the 1940s to the present. Looking at how historians wrestled with the history of computing is a useful modern case that can offer tactical recommendations for those in other fields of technology. View full abstract»

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  • The Internet Design Tension between Surveillance and Security

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):72 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (710 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The design tension between security and surveillance has existed for decades. This article specifically examines the protocol design tension between national security interests in surveillance versus network security in the early decades of the Internet and its predecessor networks. Using archival research and protocol-specific case studies, this article describes episodes in which the Internet En... View full abstract»

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  • The “IBM Family”: American Welfare Capitalism, Labor, and Gender in Postwar Germany

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):12 - 26
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (133 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article examines corporate labor and gender relations in transatlantic perspective. It argues that the gendered communication of IBM's Thomas Watson Sr. shaped labor relations in his company's West German subsidiary. In the United States, Watson acted as a business progressive, expanding internationally, opening professional careers to young women, and implementing welfare capitalist measures... View full abstract»

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  • The Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratory's Photolithographic Approach to Microcircuits

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):48 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    From 1952 to 1958, Jay Lathrop worked on a project at the National Bureau of Standards (later the US Army Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratory) to develop microminiaturized, transistorized hybrid integrated circuits for radio proximity fuzes. In this article, Lathrop describes his experiences during this project, the development of photolithography, and how photolithography became critical in the firs... View full abstract»

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  • Embodied Software: Patents and the History of Software Development, 1946-1970

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):8 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1429 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the late 1960s, attorneys and programmers used the term "embodying software"' in reference to a patent-drafting technique for software inventions. This strategy consisted of claiming a computer in which a program served as the control system instead of claiming the program itself. If the application was successful, this machine would receive patent protection in lieu of the program. This articl... View full abstract»

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  • Los Alamos Bets on ENIAC: Nuclear Monte Carlo Simulations, 1947-1948

    Publication Year: 2014, Page(s):42 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2028 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In April 1948 a team including John and Klara von Neumann and Nick Metropolis ran the first of a series of calculations on ENIAC. These were not only the first computerized Monte Carlo simulations, but also the first code written in the modern paradigm, usually associated with the "stored program concept," ever to be executed. This article--the third in a three-part series published in Annals--rec... View full abstract»

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  • How Data Got its Base: Information Storage Software in the 1950s and 1960s

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):6 - 25
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3003 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Generalized report generation and file maintenance programs were widely used in the 1950s, standardized by the Share user group with 9PAC and Surge. By the 1960s the first recognizable DBMS systems, such IMS and IDS, had evolved to address the challenges of disk drives and MIS projects. Finally, in the late 1960s Codasyl's Data Base Task Group formulated the DBMS concept itself. View full abstract»

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  • Graphics remembrances

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):35 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2758 KB)

    The article is a collection of reminiscences that capture some of the spirit of the past days of computer graphics. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Annals of the History of Computing serves as a record of vital contributions which recount, preserve, and analyze the history of computing and the impact of computing on society.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Nathan Ensmenger
Indiana University, School of Informatics & Computing
nensmeng@indiana.edu