IEEE Annals of the History of Computing

Includes the top 50 most frequently accessed documents for this publication according to the usage statistics for the month of

  • Implications of Historical Trends in the Electrical Efficiency of Computing

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):46 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (136)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1790 KB) | HTML iconHTML Multimedia Media

    The electrical efficiency of computation has doubled roughly every year and a half for more than six decades, a pace of change comparable to that for computer performance and electrical efficiency in the microprocessor era. These efficiency improvements enabled the creation of laptops, smart phones, wireless sensors, and other mobile computing devices, with many more such innovations yet to come. ... View full abstract»

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  • Sixty Years of Software Development Life Cycle Models

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):41 - 54
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Sixty years ago, in 1956, the first explicit representation of a software development life cycle model was presented by Herbert Benington. Since then, software development life cycle models have come a long way, and the current article provides an overview of that development. View full abstract»

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  • Finding a History for Software Engineering

    Publication Year: 2004, Page(s):8 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (362 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Historians and software engineers are both looking for a history for software engineering. For historians, it is a matter of finding a point of perspective from which to view an enterprise that is still in the process of defining itself. For software engineers, it is the question of finding a usable past, as they have sought to ground their vision of the enterprise on historical models taken from ... View full abstract»

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  • Why the Arpanet Was Built

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):4 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The who, what, when, and how of the Arpanet is usually told in heroic terms-Licklider's vision, the fervor of his disciples, the dedication of computer scientists and engineers, the work of graduate students, and so forth. Told by one of the key actors in this salient part of US and Internet history, this article addresses why the Arpanet was built. View full abstract»

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  • Establishing Moore's Law

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):62 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (74)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The seemingly unshakeable accuracy of Moore's law - which states that the speed of computers; as measured by the number of transistors that can be placed on a single chip, will double every year or two - has been credited with being the engine of the electronics revolution, and is regarded as the premier example of a self-fulfilling prophecy and technological trajectory in both the academic and po... View full abstract»

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  • TeX: A Branch of Desktop Publishing, Part 1

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):78 - 93
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2983 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Donald Knuth began the development of TEX in 1977 and had an initial version running in 1978, with the aim of typesetting mathematical documents with the highest quality, and with archival reproducibility far into the future. Its usage spread, and today the TEX system remains in use by a vibrant user community. However, the world of TEX has always been somewhat out... View full abstract»

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  • The Origins of PostScript

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):68 - 76
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1107 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Introduced by Adobe Systems in 1984, PostScript was a unique device-independent approach to describing the appearance of a printed page, for the first time allowing pages to be printed on a range of devices of different resolutions. From 1984 to 1987, the use of PostScript by printer manufacturers grew to the point that it became the de facto standard. This article describes the 11-year sequence o... View full abstract»

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  • Imagining the Personal Computer: Conceptualizations of the Homebrew Computer Club 1975–1977

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):27 - 39
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Homebrew Computer Club was a hobbyist group in the San Francisco Bay Area dedicated to helping people build their own home personal computers. I analyze their writings between 1975 and 1977, in order to understand how their values became embedded in the technology they built, establishing how the personal computer should be used and thought of. These values were based in ideals of open informa... View full abstract»

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  • Hearing Aids and the History of Electronics Miniaturization

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):24 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4270 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Electrical hearing aids were the principal site for component miniaturization and compact assembly before World War II. After the war, hearing aid users became the first consumer market for printed circuits, transistors, and integrated circuits. Due to the stigmatization of hearing loss, users generally demanded small or invisible devices. In addition to being early adopters, deaf and hard of hear... View full abstract»

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  • Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'

    Publication Year: 2003, Page(s):16 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Augusta Ada Lovelace worked with Charles Babbage to create a description of Babbage's unbuilt invention, the analytical engine, a highly advanced mechanical calculator often considered a forerunner of the electronic calculating computers of the 20th century. Ada Lovelace's "notes," describing the analytical engine, published in Taylor's scientific memoirs in 1843, contained a ground-breaking descr... View full abstract»

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  • The Origins and Early History of Computer Engineering in the United States

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):6 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article examines the origins and early history of the field of computer engineering in the United States, from the mid-1940s to mid-1950s. The account is based on both primary and secondary sources and draws theory from technology studies and the sociology of professions. The author begins by discussing roles played by engineers and engineering during the development of some of the first high... View full abstract»

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  • A Brief History of Software Engineering

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):32 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This personal perspective on the art of programming begins with a look at the state of programming from about 1960, and it follows programming's development through the present day. The article examines key contributions to the field of software engineering and identifies major obstacles, which persist even today. View full abstract»

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  • The Intel 4004 microprocessor: what constituted invention?

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):4 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1107 KB)

    Investigates the context for the development of one of the earliest microprocessors, the Intel 4004. It considers the contributions made by Intel employees, most notably Marcian E. "Ted" Hoff, Jr. and Federico Faggin, and the contributions other people made to this development who are not generally known, most notably Tadashi Sasaki and Masatoshi Shima. This paper represents a case study of how co... View full abstract»

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  • Common Language: Business Programming Languages and the Legibility of Programming

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):17 - 31
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2169 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The English-like business programming language COBOL saw widespread use from its introduction in 1960 well into the 1980s, despite being disdained by computer science academics. This article traces out decisions made during COBOLs development, and argues that its English-like appearance was a rhetorical move designed to make the concept of code itself more legible to non-programming management at ... View full abstract»

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  • The Xerox Alto Publishing Platform

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):38 - 54
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1331 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Starting in 1973, researchers at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) built the first networked workstation platform (Alto and Ethernet) and a suite of applications and services to explore office automation. Separate interactive tools allowed people to create and edit different sorts of document content, which were then merged onto pages using Press files, a page description file format. View full abstract»

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  • How Modeless Editing Came To Be

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):55 - 67
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Several word processing and desktop publishing innovations grew out of 1970s research by Larry Tesler and his collaborators at Stanford and Xerox PARC. One prototype was PUB, a markup language for print publishing. Another was Gypsy, a text editor with a cut/copy/paste command suite that became the de facto standard in desktop publishing and most other applications. View full abstract»

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  • Rocappi: Computerizing the Publishing Industry

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):8 - 24
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1649 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In 1963, John Seybold started the company Rocappi to use computer technology to produce and typeset complex, high-quality books, catalogs, directories, manuals, magazines, and other typeset documents. Over the next seven years, with the participation of his son, Jonathan W. Seybold, Rocappi pioneered the use of computers for publishing. View full abstract»

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  • Susan Kare: Design Icon

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):48 - 61
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1103 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Susan Kare is best known for designing the distinctive icons, typefaces, and other graphic elements that gave the Apple Macintosh its characteristic-and widely emulated-look and feel. Since then, Kare has spent the last three decades designing user interface elements for many of the leading software and Internet firms. If you have clicked on a desktop icon to save a file or tapped your smart phone... View full abstract»

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  • Cybernetics, Automata Studies, and the Dartmouth Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):5 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, held at Datrmouth College in 1956, is regarded as the official "birthplace" of Al. This article draws on unpublished archives to shed new light on the origins of the conference and the complex relationships between cybernetics, automata studies, and Al in the 1950s. View full abstract»

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  • Three faces of human-computer interaction

    Publication Year: 2005, Page(s):46 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Human-computer interaction is considered a core element of computer science. Yet it has not coalesced; many researchers who identify their focus as human-computer interaction reside in other fields. The author examines the origins and evolution of three HCI research foci: computer operation, information systems management, and discretionary use. The author describes efforts to find common ground a... View full abstract»

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  • IBM Relational Database Systems: The Early Years

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):38 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The relational data model, proposed by E.F. Codd in 1970, inspired several research projects at IBM and elsewhere. Among these was System R, which demonstrated the commercial viability of relational database systems. This article describes the research challenges faced by the System R team and how the technology they created has influenced the development of the modern database industry. View full abstract»

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  • Telematics and the Early History of International Digital Information Flows

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):32 - 47
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (762 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The origins of telematics and the early history of international information flows is recounted. As a result of post-World War II efforts to encourage the free flow of data in the service of peacemaking and economic growth, the computer utility, distributed data processing services, and the post-industrial information society were born. Hand in hand with these developments emerged political and te... View full abstract»

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  • "The Spitting Image of a Woman Programmer": Changing Portrayals of Women in the American Computing Industry, 1958-1985

    Publication Year: 2017, Page(s):49 - 64
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This paper examines the cultural climate faced by women in the American computer industry from the 1960s to the early 1980s, a period in which the percentage of the industry workforce that was female almost tripled. Drawing on a comprehensive study of articles and advertisements in the trade journal Datamation, sources from IBM, Control Data, and the Burroughs Corporation, and the records of the u... View full abstract»

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  • Constructions of gender in the history of artificial intelligence

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):47 - 53
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (996 KB)

    Key developments in the history of artificial intelligence are described in terms of a model of gender (Man of Reason), drawn from the work of philosopher Genevieve Lloyd, and informed by research in gender and technology and feminist epistemology. Significantly, the model demonstrates the elevation of mental knowledge over corporeal knowledge. Recent attempts to address the problem of embodiment ... View full abstract»

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  • The March of IDES: Early History of Intrusion-Detection Expert Systems

    Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):42 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (183 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    As part of a broader prehistory and history of early intrusion-detection systems (IDSs), this article focuses on the first such system, Intrusion Detection Expert System (IDES), which was developed in the second half of the 1980s at SRI International (and SRI's follow-on Next Generation Intrusion Detection Expert System, or NIDES, in the early-to-mid 1990s). It also briefly recounts other early ID... View full abstract»

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  • Interview with Charles Bigelow

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):95 - 103
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Charles Bigelows career parallels the development of digital font technology. He has designed fonts and consulted about font technology to many of the companies that created desktop publishing systems. He has also written extensively on digital font technology and taught at RISD, Stanford, and RIT. View full abstract»

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  • The Origin and Early History of the Computer Security Software Products Industry

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):46 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the second half of the 1970s, established computer firms and new IT start-ups chose alternative paths to offer commercial access control systems to organizational mainframe computer users. These developments in effect launched the computer security software products industry with IBM's Resource Access Control Facility (RACF) and SKK's Access Control Facility 2 (ACF2). View full abstract»

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  • The SAP Story: Evolution of SAP within the German Software Industry

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):60 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (399 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The success of the German company SAP and its enterprise software contradicts the widespread assumption of American dominance in the computer software industry. In this combined business and technology history of SAP, the author explores the individuals and ideas behind the concept of standardized, integrated business software and how SAP developed from a small company to a global market leader. View full abstract»

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  • Guest Editors' Introduction: History of Database Management Systems

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):3 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (526 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This issue tells the history of database management systems through a series of pioneer recollections, principally from people who founded the major DBMS companies or were heavily involved in the growth and development of these products and companies. These eight recollections cover the principal DBMS software products for IBM mainframe computers. IBM itself was a significant player in this market... View full abstract»

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  • Selected Papers On Computer Science

    Publication Year: 1998, Page(s):82 - 83
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  • The Oracle Story, Part 1: 1977-1986

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):51 - 57
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Starting in 1977, the founders of the Oracle Corporation created a product and a company which in less than 20 years would come to dominate the DBMS marketplace, and become one of the world's largest computer software and services companies. With virtually no outside financial investment, the founders bootstrapped the company by developing project software under contract while working overtime to ... View full abstract»

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  • Understanding 'How Computing Has Changed the World'

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):52 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (290 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    How can we satisfactorily address the history of computing, recognizing that computing artifacts and practices are often shaped by local circumstances and cultures, and yet also capture the longer-term processes by which computing has shaped the world? This article reviews three traditions of scholarly work, proposes a new line of scholarship, and concludes with thoughts on collaborative, internat... View full abstract»

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  • The Early History of ICs at Texas Instruments: A Personal View

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):37 - 47
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (547 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Charles Phipps performed the functions of business development and then marketing for integrated circuits at Texas Instruments from the beginning of this technology in 1959 through the mid-1960s. In this article, he details IC development at TI during this period, the creation of markets for this technology in military and commercial computing, and the defining roles of Patrick Haggerty and Jack K... View full abstract»

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  • The Origin of the Integrated Data Store (IDS): The First Direct-Access DBMS

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):42 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The integrated data store (IDS), the first direct-access database management system, was developed at General Electric in the early 1960s. Revisiting the development challenges that lead to its first production version reveals the origins of DBMSs and their impact on software development and business management. IDS and its derivative systems are still in use today, supporting a thousand mainframe... View full abstract»

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  • The Oracle Story: 1984-2001

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):10 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (623 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article tells the story of Oracle from 1984 through 2001, primarily through the author's experiences during those years. Andrew Mendelsohn worked on the software development team that built the Oracle relational database management system (RDBMS). During this time, Oracle went from being a small niche software company to becoming one of the giants in the software industry. Although many obser... View full abstract»

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  • First draft of a report on the EDVAC

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):27 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (96)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (10296 KB)

    The first draft of a report on the EDVAC written by John von Neumann is presented. This first draft contains a wealth of information, and it had a pervasive influence when it was first written. Most prominently, Alan Turing cites it in his proposal for the Pilot automatic computing engine (ACE) as the definitive source for understanding the nature and design of a general-purpose digital computer.&... View full abstract»

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  • The Birth and Death of the Orange Book

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):19 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article traces the origins of US government-sponsored computer security research and the path that led from a focus on government-funded research and system development to a focus on the evaluation of commercial products. That path led to the creation of the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC), or Orange Book. The TCSEC placed great emphasis on requirements for mandatory secur... View full abstract»

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  • This Is Not a Computer: Negotiating the Microprocessor

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):48 - 54
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (735 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The Intel 4004 μ-Computer is the earliest known microprocessor-based hardware distributed by Intel. This article relates the information concerning the 4004 μ-Computer in an effort to gain a more complete historical perspective on the liminal period in the corporate history of Intel when, soon after the introduction of its first microprocessor, the company was wrestling with the "one-chip CPU--com... View full abstract»

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  • US Government Computer Penetration Programs and the Implications for Cyberwar

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):4 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1059 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The US Department of Defense was the driving force behind the development of sophisticated computer penetration methodologies. By analyzing the security of the nation's time-sharing computer systems, security analysts developed an expert understanding of computer penetration. Eventually, the US and its intelligence agencies utilized computer penetration techniques to wage offensive cyberattacks. View full abstract»

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  • Videogames in Computer Space: The Complex History of Pong

    Publication Year: 2009, Page(s):5 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5283 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The earliest digital games emerged out of laboratories and research centers in the 1960s and 1970s. The intertwined histories of Nolan Bushnell's Computer Space and Pong illustrate the transition from these "university games" to accessible entertainment and educational games as well as the complicated historical relationship among the arcade, computer, and videogames. View full abstract»

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  • Thomas Harold (“Tommy”) Flowers: Designer of the Colossus Codebreaking Machines

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):72 - 82
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (307 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Tommy Flowers, born 22 December 1905, died 28 October 1998, designed the Colossus codebreaking machines. View full abstract»

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  • Alan Kay: Transforming the Computer into a Communication Medium

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):18 - 30
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2332 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Alan Kay is referred to as the "father of the personal computer" because his 1969 doctoral thesis described an early prototype of personal computing. Kay's ideas contributed to the transformation of the computer from a calculating machine to a communication medium. This article focuses on Kay's vision for personal computing. View full abstract»

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  • The Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratory's Photolithographic Approach to Microcircuits

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):48 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    From 1952 to 1958, Jay Lathrop worked on a project at the National Bureau of Standards (later the US Army Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratory) to develop microminiaturized, transistorized hybrid integrated circuits for radio proximity fuzes. In this article, Lathrop describes his experiences during this project, the development of photolithography, and how photolithography became critical in the firs... View full abstract»

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  • The Production and Interpretation of ARPANET Maps

    Publication Year: 2015, Page(s):44 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2383 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article explores a 20-year series of ARPANET maps produced by the firm Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN). These BBN maps signify the earliest efforts to represent an early and central piece of the modern Internet, and they wind up as illustrations in contemporary discussions of ARPANET history and the early Internet. Once a functional tool for engineers, they now serve as an aesthetic backdrop us... View full abstract»

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  • Less Is More in the Fifties: Encounters between Logical Minimalism and Computer Design during the 1950s

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):19 - 45
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2092 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article frames some important computing developments of the 1950s, connecting them to two older traditions, one within (mathematical) logic and one within engineering. Both traditions could be termed logical minimalism, meaning the systematic use of (mathematical) logic in designing minimal systems and devices. The logical tradition is part of the more general research programme into the foun... View full abstract»

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  • The Relational Model: Beginning of an Era

    Publication Year: 2012, Page(s):30 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (158 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Serving as an informal technical introduction to this Annals special issue on relational database management systems, this article gives an introductory overview of the relational model and discusses the value of Edgar F. (Ted) Codd's model. Then, after providing an account of Chris Date's contributions, the author assesses the relational model's effect on the industry and how it might affect futu... View full abstract»

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  • The Media are the Message: 'The Influencers'

    Publication Year: 2006, Page(s):74 - 79
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (90 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The author reflects on the impact of media and other opinion leaders in the 1970s and early 1980s on the emerging software industry: The fortunes of companies in the nascent personal computer market rose or fell, depending on what these opinion magnates said, wrote, or did (or did not) View full abstract»

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  • The Technical Development of Internet Email

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):3 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (405 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Development and evolution of the technologies and standards for Internet email took formatting more than 20 years, and arguably is still under way. The protocols to move email between systems and the rules for formatting messages have evolved, and- been largely replaced at least once. This article traces that evolution, with a focus on why things look as they do today. View full abstract»

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  • Aspects of the History of Computing in Modern Greece

    Publication Year: 2018, Page(s):47 - 60
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (367 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This article aims to shed light on notable aspects of the history of computing in Greece, starting from 1920. We cover six areas, including the early days of computing in the country, the transition to the Internet era, the formation of a computer-related educational infrastructure, the evolution of data networks, and the growth of the software and hardware industry. In each area we highlight find... View full abstract»

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  • SQL/DS: IBM's First RDBMS

    Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):69 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (125 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the late 1970s, IBM software labs were aligned with the IBM hardware families. The decisions to commercialize the relational database prototype called System R, which had been developed during the 1970s at the IBM Research facility in San Jose, California, were made based on a hardware family business case. The Endicott Lab, supporting the small- to mid-sized mainframe environments running VM a... View full abstract»

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