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Popular Articles (March 2015)

Includes the top 50 most frequently downloaded documents for this publication according to the most recent monthly usage statistics.
  • 1. On the History of the Minimum Spanning Tree Problem

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 43 - 57
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (20059 KB)  

    It is standard practice among authors discussing the minimum spanning tree problem to refer to the work of Kruskal(1956) and Prim (1957) as the sources of the problem and its first efficient solutions, despite the citation by both of Boruvka (1926) as a predecessor. In fact, there are several apparently independent sources and algorithmic solutions of the problem. They have appeared in Czechoslovakia, France, and Poland, going back to the beginning of this century. We shall explore and compare these works and their motivations, and relate them to the most recent advances on the minimum spanning tree problem. View full abstract»

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  • 3. A Survey of Russian Approaches to Perebor (Brute-Force Searches) Algorithms

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 384 - 400
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (23988 KB)  

    Concerns about computational problems requiring brute-force or exhaustive search methods have gained particular attention in recent years because of the widespread research on the "P = NP?" question. The Russian word for "brute-force search" is "perebor. " It has been an active research area in the Soviet Union for several decades. Disputes about approaches to perebor had a certain influence on the development, and developers, of complexity theory in the Soviet Union. This paper is a personal account of some events, ideas, and academic controversies that surrounded this topic and to which the author was a witness and-to some extent-a participant. It covers a period that started in the 1950s and culminated with the discovery and investigation of non-deterministic polynomial (NP)-complete problems independently by S. Cook and R. Karp in the United States and L. Levin in the Soviet Union. View full abstract»

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  • 4. Biographies [John von Neumann, 1903-1957]

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 157 - 181
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (33576 KB)  

    The author starts with a short chronological life history of John von Neumann (1903-1957), followed by a few words on his personal characteristics. The bulk of the biography is an account of von Neumann's diverse achievements, in which each contribution is described, analyzed, and its ultimate importance and influence explained. The breadth of von Neumann's interests and accomplishments was such that this paper reviews "a large part of the whole scientific development" of the three decades preceding his death. The biography is remarkable for the grace, skill, and comprehensiveness with which the author shows von Neumann's accomplishments and puts them into the appropriate scientific and historical context. The author is in a unique position to do this: he writes extremely well, he has the ability to make difficult things un derstandable, and he knew von Neumann for 25 years. He is also a leading mathematician and has the background and ability to comment on von Neumann's work. View full abstract»

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  • 5. Brief Summary of the Early History of COBOL

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 288 - 303
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (23968 KB)  

    The two definitive presentations of the history of programming languages are: Programming Languages: History and Fundamentals, by Jean E. Sammet, and History of Programming Languages, edited by R. L. Wexelblat. The former was not intended to be just a history, but was an exposition of the state of the programming language field circa 1966-1967; the detailed descriptions of the origins of the languages in the book were at that time the most complete history published. In 1978 Sammet chaired the ACM/SIGPLAN Conference on the History of Programming Languages (HOPL) from which the text of the same title was created. In that volume are both a formal paper on the history of COBOL and the transcript of Sammet's presentation. This following article is an unedited extract from the formal paper, reprinted with the permission of ACM and Academic Press. We chose not to reprint the complete paper here because it is readily accessible, but we are printing a significant portion of it to provide Annals readers with an overview of the early COBOL development. The full version of the paper was reviewed in draft form by most of the key participants of that time period; they generally did not object to the information provided. Thus, that paper and the extract printed here present an accurate description of which people participated, or played major roles, or did not participate in the language definition. View full abstract»

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  • 6. An Annotated Bibliography of Secondary Sources on the History of Software

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 291 - 343
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (56574 KB)  

    This bibliography is a product of the National Collection Strategy (NCS) program being undertaken by the Charles Babbage Institute. NCS is a three-year program to develop a national collecting strategy for preserving the historic records of computing, made possible through the generous support of the AT&T Foundation, IBM Corporation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and Unisys Corporation. View full abstract»

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  • 7. How Polish Mathematicians Broke the Enigma Cipher

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 213 - 234
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (25439 KB)  

    The paper gives a personal view of work in the Polish Cipher Bureau from 1932 to 1939 as mathematicians worked to decipher the codes of the military version of the Enigma. The author, who was a participant, relates details of the device and the successes and frustrations involved in the work. He also describes mathematical principles that enabled him and his colleagues to break successive versions of the Enigma code and to construct technical devices (cyclometers and "bombs") that facilitated decipherment of Enigma-coded messages. View full abstract»

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  • 8. A Perspective on SAGE: Discussion

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 375 - 398
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (36341 KB)  

    On October 26, 1982, several people who had participated in the design and development of the SAGE system gathered at the MITRE Corporation to discuss their work and its ramifications. Henry S. Tropp was moderator. Kent C. Redmond and Thomas M. Smith, authors of "Project Whirlwind" (Digital Press, 1980), who are writing a book on the SAGE project, were also present. View full abstract»

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  • 9. Electrical Computers for Fire Control

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 218 - 244
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (41909 KB)  

    Bell Laboratories digital computers were used during World War II principally in the design and testing of electrical analog gun directors. These computers evolved from the pioneer work of George R. Stibitz (in the period from 1937 to 1940), who designed and put to work at Bell Laboratories the first electromechanical digital computer. View full abstract»

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  • 10. First General-Purpose Electronic Computer

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 310 - 389
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (103466 KB)  

    The conception, development, and design of the ENIAC are presented in the context of a causal history. Early influences, particularly the differential analyzer and the work of Atanasoff, are detailed. Architecture, electronic and logical designs, basic elements, main units, and problem setup are described, together with the historical contributions to each aspect. Finally, the place of the ENIAC in the history of computers is delineated, both quantitatively and qualitatively, through a comparison with machines from the mechanical, electromechanical, and electronic technologies. Reproduced here with permission of Arthur W. Burks and Alice R. Burks View full abstract»

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  • 11. Data Communications at the National Physical Laboratory (1965-1975)

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 221 - 247
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (33598 KB)  

    This paper describes the data communications activity at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) during the period 1965-1975. The key feature of the NPL work was the development of the principle of packet switching, which was first proposed in a data communications context by D. W. Davies of the NPL in 1965. The report focuses on the construction of the NPL Data Communications Network, which first became operational in 1970. This network served both as a model for a possible U.K. national network and as a practical local area network (LAN) for the NPL site. The report describes the impact of the NPL work on other early networks, such as ARPANET and the British Experimental Packet-Switched Service (EPSS), and on data communications in general. View full abstract»

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  • 12. An Annotated Bibliography on the Origins of Digital Computers

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 101 - 207
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (105372 KB)  

    The bibliography contains nearly 750 annotated and indexed citations to papers, books, and other items relating to the origins of the modern electronic computer. The topics covered range from early digital calculating devices and mechanical automata to the first stored program computers. New entries were added up to June 1979. View full abstract»

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  • 13. History of Mechanical Computing Machinery

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 198 - 226
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (34704 KB)  

    A brief (25 page) history of mechanical computing machinery, from the abacus to Aiken's Mark I. View full abstract»

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  • 14. History of the Design of the SAGE Computer-The AN/FSQ-7

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 340 - 349
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (14158 KB)  

    This paper tells the story of the development of the SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) air-defense computer, the AN/FSQ-7. At the time of its operational deployment in 1958, the AN/FSQ-7 was the first large-scale, real-time digital control computer supporting a major military mission. The AN/FSQ-7 design, including its architecture, components, and computer programs, drew on research and development programs throughout the United States, but mostly on work done at MIT's Project Whirlwind and at IBM. View full abstract»

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  • 15. Design of the B 5000 System

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 16 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8879 KB)  

    Computing systems have conventionally been designed via the 'hardware' route. Subsequent to design, these systems have been handed over to programming systems people for the development of a programming package to facilitate the use of the hardware. In contrast to this, the B 5000 system was designed from the start as a total hardware-software system. The assumption was made that higher level programming languages, such as ALGOL, should be used to the virtual exclusion of machine language programming, and that the system should largely be used to control its own operation. A hardware-free notation was utilized to design a processor with the desired word and symbol manipulative capabilities. Subsequently this model was translated into hardware specifications at which time cost constraints were considered. View full abstract»

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  • 16. Advent of Electronic Digital Computing

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 229 - 282
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (77717 KB)  

    The author touches on the nebulous beginnings of his interest in computing, and how, when specific problems arose, the computers of the day were used and analyzed. The first choice he made was between analog and digital computers. After study, digital computers seemed better for most purposes, but no computer in existence met his requirements. Thus he was led to a more exact study of the logic of digital computing: medium for the computer structure, base of the numbers for the computer, slow and fast memory, computing by logic and not by enumeration, data in and data out, carry-over, etc. A prototype and an ABC were constructed. Several basic concepts developed in that day are in use in modern computers. The subsequent litigations and controversies are discussed in some detail. View full abstract»

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  • 17. Some Approaches to, and Illustrations of, Programming Language History

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 33 - 50
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (20024 KB)  

    This paper describes some factors in, approaches to, and specific elements of, programming language history. It first lists a number of general factors and approaches which can be used to discuss the history of programming languages. After presenting a life cycle for programming language development, it provides numerous illustrations of programming language history and chronology from many of the viewpoints indicated earlier. There is a brief discussion of relevant literature and a section indicating some of the reasons for the vast proliferation of programming languages. Various charts and lists are included. This paper should be viewed as one approach to considering the history of programming languages, rather than as a history of programming languages per se. View full abstract»

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  • 18. Christopher Strachey, 1916-1975: A Biographical Note

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 19 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (33283 KB)  

    Christopher Strachey was one of the most original computer scientists of his generation: his fields were computer design and programming, and he made important contributions to them both. He liked to say (not quite accurately) that he had changed the direction of his career every seven years. The different phases of his life and career are reflected in the five sections of this note. View full abstract»

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  • 19. How the SAGE Development Began

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 196 - 226
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (41225 KB)  

    Events leading to the adoption of voice telephone lines for air-defense operational messages are described. This process paved the way for the use of operational data lines in the SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) system. The paper describes the early considerations leading to the use of a digital computer in SAGE, and how Whirlwind was chosen to be that computer. The context of the development of magnetic core memory is illuminated. The attitudes of engineering professionals toward digital equipment are reviewed. The author reveals how the name "Ground Environment" was created. View full abstract»

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  • 20. Early Work on Computers at Bletchley

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 38 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (13306 KB)  

    Pioneering work on computers was carried out at Bletchley, England, during World War II, for the cryptanalysis of the messages enciphered on the German cryptographic machines, the Enigma and the Geheimschreiber. The work is discussed and thumbnail sketches of some of the people involved are included. The account is written in an autobiographical spirit, but some references to other sources are given. View full abstract»

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  • 21. Production of Large Computer Programs

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 350 - 361
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (15693 KB)  

    The paper is adapted from a presentation at a symposium on advanced programming methods for digital computers sponsored by the Navy Mathematical Computing Advisory Panel and the Office of Naval Research in June 1956. The author describes the techniques used to produce the programs for the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system. View full abstract»

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  • 22. Lady Lovelace and Charles Babbage

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 299 - 329
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (35313 KB)  

    This paper is centered on the correspondence that took place between Lady Lovelace and Charles Babbage, particularly during her writing of the extensive notes that accompany her translation of Menabrea's paper on Babbage's Analytical Engine. The material is selective. Her mathematical background and studies are given in some detail, while little mention is made of her other great interest, music. Her travels and family relationships are not mentioned except where they directly apply to her work or to her relationship with Charles Babbage. Most of the material has been gathered from original sources. Through the courtesy of the Rt. Hon. Earl of Lytton, O.B.E. (great-grandson of the Countess of Lovelace), and his son, Viscount Knebworth, access was granted to the Lovelace-Byron papers deposited in the Bodleian Library, Oxford University. The Babbage Correspondence in the British Library, London was another source. Also of value were the letters of the Somerville Collection owned by Lady Fairfax Lucy and deposited in the Bodleian Library. View full abstract»

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  • 23. A Historical Overview of Computer Architecture

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 277 - 303
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (34710 KB)  

    Computer architecture concentrates on the logical aspects of computer design as opposed to the physical or electronic aspects. The underlying logical design of most modern computers is still based on that of the earliest electronic computers despite decades of progress in electronic circuitry. the innovations that have occurred in computer architecture have been driven by two different goals: higher performance and lower cost. Performance driven improvements have yielded computer systems with increasingly higher computation speeds and throughput. Cost driven improvements have yielded systems that are easier to use and applicable to a broader range of automatic control problems. Improvements in electronic circuitry have not led directly to architectural innovations; computers that pioneered new circuit technologies usually relied on older architectural concepts. View full abstract»

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  • 24. John Mauchly's Early Years

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 116 - 138
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (32182 KB)  

    The paper describes John W. Mauchly's experiences and experiments that led to his concept of an electronic digital computer based on mechanical desk calculators during the years he was teaching at Ursinus College (1933-1941), his interaction with John V. Atanasoff of Iowa State College, and the environment at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania that led to the eventual proposal (1943) for building the electronic ENIAC. View full abstract»

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  • 25. Programming the Pilot ACE: Early Programming Activity at the National Physics Laboratory

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 133 - 162
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (35382 KB)  

    The design of the ACE was the subject of a report written by A M Turing in 1945. A pilot model of the ACE was completed at the National Physical Laboratory, England, in late 1951. By early 1952 a basic programming system had been established and the machine began regular operation This paper describes the development of this programming system and a matrix interpretive scheme that was subsequently developed. The paper concludes with an assessment of the programming activity and of the Pilot ACE itself. View full abstract»

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  • 26. The Promptuary Papers

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 35 - 67
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    First Page of the Article
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  • 27. The CDC 6600 Project

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 338 - 348
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (10903 KB)  

    This article is an account of the development of the Control Data 6600 computer first developed in 1964. Of historical interest is the design team approach adopted by Control Data in which a small staff of engineers was isolated from the main operations of the company. Some review is made of the design process as well as the unique features of the machine. The article also includes some comments in retrospect about the results of certain of the initial design objectives. View full abstract»

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  • 28. Electronics Technology and Computer Science, 1940-1975: A Coevolution

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 257 - 275
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (21904 KB)  

    This paper explores the relation ship between two disciplines: electrical engineering and computer science, over the past 40 years. The author argues that it was the technology of electronics - the exploitation of the properties of free electrons - that finally permitted Babbage's concepts of automatic computing machines to be practically realized. Electrical Engineering (EE) activities thus "took over" and dominated the work of those involved with computing. Once that had been done (around the mid-1950s), the reverse takeover happened: the science of computing then "took over" the discipline of EE, in the sense that its theory of digital switches and separation of hardware and software offered EE a guide to designing and building ever more complex circuits. View full abstract»

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  • 29. SAGE Overview

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 323 - 329
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    Editor's Note: I would like to thank Jack Jacobs for this overview, which gives a brief review of the history of SAGE and of some of the organizations involved. I cannot think of anyone better able to discuss SAGE than Jake who, along with his many other contributions, created and ran the Systems Office that coordinated the design efforts of the numerous organizations having subsystem design responsibilities. View full abstract»

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  • 30. Early Meetings of the Conference on Data Systems Languages

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 316 - 325
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (11868 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
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  • 31. Programming the Mark I: Early Programming Activity at the University of Manchester

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 130 - 168
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (41556 KB)  

    Computer activity at Manchester University began in 1946 with the construction of a CRT-based memory, which was followed by a series of prototype computers. The work culminated in the Ferranti Mark I, completed in early 1951. This paper describes the programming systems devised, first for the prototype and then for the production Mark I, and includes an account of two novel automatic coding schemes developed during 1952 and 1954.The paper concludes with an assessment of the programming activity. View full abstract»

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  • 32. Origins of Recursive Function Theory

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 52 - 67
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (20563 KB)  

    For over two millenia mathematicians have used particular examples of algorithms for determining the values of functions. The notion of "?-definability" was the first of what are now accepted as equivalent exact mathematical descriptions of the class of the functions for which algorithms exist. This article explains the notion and traces the investigation in 1931-1933 by which the notion was quite unexpectedly so accepted. The Herbrand-Gödel notion of "general recursiveness" in 1934 and the Turing notion of "computability" in 1936 were the second and third equivalent notions. Techniques developed in the study of ?-definability were applied in the analysis of general recursiveness and Turing compatibility. View full abstract»

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  • 33. The Logical-Numerical System of Inca Quipus

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 268 - 278
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (14066 KB)  

    Quipus, used by the Incas during the sixteenth century, were sophisticated devices for recording and transmitting codified information. They are a part of the global history of data handling and computation. This paper describes the logical-numerical system expressed through these multicolored spatial arrays of knotted cords. included are basic ideas about the logical structures of some quipu formats and the means of encoding quantitative and nonquantitative data. Several specific examples are given of quipus containing arithmetic and logical relationships. View full abstract»

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  • 34. Early Computers at IBM

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 163 - 182
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (26409 KB)  

    This paper describes the principal computers designed by IBM beginning with its first computer, the 701 delivered in 1952, through its first transistorized computer, STRETCH, and its first commercial process-control computer, the 1710 delivered in 1961. The ideas behind some of IBM's methods and decisions are described. View full abstract»

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  • 35. MOBIDIC and Fieldata

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 137 - 182
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (54346 KB)  

    In the 1950s, the "Golden Age of the Signal Corps, " a farsighted U.S. Army Signal Corps program foreshadowed many of the advanced computing and communications technologies that were not to be generally available for several decades. These technologies included compatible computers made by several manufacturers, high-availability systems, standardized interfaces and communication codes, and large-capacity disk files. The early genesis of Fieldata is described as well as the development program for the MOBIDIC machines. Details on machine reliability are provided, together with descriptions of the Fieldata code, the MOBIDIC instruction set, the operation of the MOBIDIC I/O converters, and the MOBIDIC real-time system. View full abstract»

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  • 36. John von Neumann's Contributions to Computing and Computer Science

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 189 - 195
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    Aspray emphasizes von Neumann's critical role in the formation of modern computing and celebrates von Neumann as the scientific legitimizer of computing. He provides a survey of von Neumann's many important contributions to computer architecture, hardware, design and construction, programming, numerical analysis, scientific computation, and the theory of computing. Aspray's essay stresses especially the importance of von Neumann's work to promote the development of logical design. View full abstract»

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  • 37. The History of Computing in the History of Technology

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 113 - 125
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (17563 KB)  

    After surveying the current state of the literature in the history of computing, this article discusses some of the major issues addressed by recent work in the history of technology. It suggests aspects of the development of computing which are pertinent to those issues and hence for which that recent work could provide models of historical analysis. As a new scientific technology with unique features, computing can provide new perspectives on the history of technology. View full abstract»

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  • 38. Perspectives on a Quarter-Century: AFIPS Presidents

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 275 - 302
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    On July 14, 1985 all but two former/current presidents of AFIPS gathered in Chicago for a discussion about the organization. The transcript that follows was reviewed and edited twice by the participants, as well as by the editors. View full abstract»

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  • 39. SAGE-A Data Processing System for Air Defense

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 330 - 339
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (15437 KB)  

    The paper is adapted from a presentation at the 1957 Eastern Joint Computer Conference. The authors give details of the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system and how it developed. View full abstract»

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  • 40. A New Approach to the Functional Design of a Digital Computer

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 11 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5775 KB)  

    The present methods of determining the functional design of computers are critically reviewed and a new approach proposed. This is illustrated by explaining, in abstracted form, part of the control organization of a new and different machine based, in part, on the ALGOL 60 language. The concepts of expression and procedure lead directly to use of a Polish string program. A new arrangement of control registers results, which provides for automatic allocation of temporary storage within expressions and procedures, and a generalized subroutine linkage. The simplicity and power of these notions suggests that there is much room for improvement in present machines and that more attention should be given to control functions in new designs.(1961). View full abstract»

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  • 41. The Influence of the Los Alamos and Livermore National Laboratories on the Development of Supercomputing

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 179 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (28186 KB)  

    The Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories have been important sponsors of, and customers for, supercomputers-high-performance scientific computers. The laboratories played an important part in establishing speed of floating-point arithmetic (rather than, say, at logical operations) as the performance criterion defining supercomputing. But their more specific influence on the evolution of computer architecture has been limited by the diversity and classified nature of their central computational tasks, together with the expansion of supercomputer use elsewhere. View full abstract»

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  • 42. Marketing the Monster: Advertising Computer Technology

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 127 - 143
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (28284 KB)  

    Interpreting the rich and striking blend of technical, intellectual, economic, social, and cultural information in advertisements of computer technology reveals how popular understanding and perceptions of the meaning of computers changed between 1950 and 1980. The study's findings contribute to the historical understanding of the social diffusion of the technology in society; its methodology illustrates the historiographic strengths and weaknesses of using advertisements as historical documents. View full abstract»

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  • 43. System/360: A Retrospective View

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 155 - 179
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    In the current article, adapted from a lecture he gave at the Computer Museum on November 10, 1983, Evans summarizes the events, organizations, product lines, and motivations that led to the System/360, IBM's major shift to compatible processors, peripherals, and software for both business and scientific applications. A version of this article was published in the Computer Museum Report (Number 9, Summer 1984). Some of this IBM history has been detailed in the Annals previously; see special issues on the 701 (Vol. 5, No. 2) and 650 (Vol. 8, No. 1) and articles by Bashe, Hurd, McPherson et al., Phelps, etc.; also see the recent volume by Bashe et al., IBM's Early ' Computers (MIT Press, 1985). We are pleased to have the author's personal view of the principles involved in the System/360, the environment during its development, some of the problems encountered, and the consequences of the 360, both for IBM and for the information processing industry. View full abstract»

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  • 44. The IBM 650: An Appreciation from the Field

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 50 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    First Page of the Article
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  • 45. Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine, 1838

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 196 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Charles Babbage commenced work on the design of the Analytical Engine in 1834 following the collapse of the project to build the Difference Engine. His ideas evolved rapidly, and by 1838 most of the important concepts used in his later designs were established. This paper introduces the design of the Analytical Engine as it stood in early 1838, concentrating on the overall functional organization of the mill (or central processing portion) and the methods generally used for the basic arithmetic operations of multiplication, division, and signed addition. The paper describes the working of the mechanisms that Babbage devised for storing, transferring, and adding numbers and how they were organized together by the "microprogrammed" control system; the paper also introduces the facilities provided for user- level programming. The intention of the paper is to show that an automatic computing machine could be built using mechanical devices, and that Babbage's designs provide both an effective set of basic mechanisms and a workable organization of a complete machine. View full abstract»

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  • 46. Reflections on a Quarter-Century: AFIPS Founders

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 225 - 256
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    On July 18, 1984, several persons assembled at the IBM Los Gatos facility to discuss the founding of AFIPS (the American Federation of Information Processing Societies). We could not gather together everyone involved in the formation of AFIPS, of course, but the group that was convened was a representative subset. View full abstract»

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  • 47. Early Computing and Numerical Analysis at the National Bureau of Standards

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 3 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    By the mid-1950s, computing became a radically new, highly complex, capital-intensive technology - one which required resources that universities were unable and the companies were unwilling to provide. This article tells the story of one government agency, the National Bureau of Standards, whose efforts in those early years helped to bridge this gap and to initiate modern computing. View full abstract»

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  • 48. NASA's Manned Spacecraft Computers

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 7 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Many people believe that NASA's extensive use of computers has kept the agency at the forefront of computer development. This study evaluates the hypothesis in regard to computers used on board manned spacecraft. The results show that NASA's contributions to computer science were made primarily in the areas of software verification and fault tolerance, and that overall, NASA has adopted proved technology for manned space flight operations. This technology is consistently behind the state of the art in terms of hardware, but the continued use of older technology in manned spacecraft is not necessarily a negative development. The computer power used in the Apollo, Gemini, and shuttle programs has been sufficient for the requirements of the missions. Most important, reliability has been ensured. View full abstract»

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  • 49. An Adventure with a Sad Ending: The SEA

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 263 - 277
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The Société d'Electronique et d'Automatisme (SEA) was created in 1948 by the electronics engineer F. H. Raymond. At first it produced analog computers (OME and NADAC series) and developed process control devices and flight simulators. In 1955, the SEA installed the first stored-program computer in France, CAB 1011, at a military deciphering service. Other computers followed (CUBA, CAB 2000 series) for scientific and business uses. In 1960, the SEA introduced its small CAB 500 computer, based on novel magnetic circuits with a programming language, PAF; a series of transistorized machines was then produced (CAB 3900 and 4000, DOROTHEE). In 1966, the SEA (800 employees) was absorbed in the merger which created the Compagnie Internationale pour l'Informatique (CII) in the context of the Plan Calcul. View full abstract»

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  • 50. Charles Babbage's Table of Logarithms (1827)

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 159 - 169
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (11868 KB)  

    In 1827 Charles Babbage published his Table of Logarithms of the Natural Numbers, from 1 to 108,000. His logarithms were generally considered to be the most accurate in his day and were reprinted on numerous occasions, well into the 20th century. This paper describes Babbage's motivation for producing the tables, and the measures taken to ensure their accuracy. An assessment is given of Babbage's contribution to the art of table making. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

From the analytical engine to the supercomputer, from Pascal to von Neumann, from punched cards to CD-ROMs -- Annals of the History of Computing covers the breadth of computer history.

 

This Periodical ceased publication in 1991. The current retitled publication is IEEE Annals of the History of Computing.

Full Aims & Scope