# IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

## Volume 60 Issue 2  Part 1 • April 2013

This issue contains several parts.Go to:  Part 2

## Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 137
• ### [Front cover]

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s): C1
| PDF (98 KB)
• ### IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science publication information

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s): C2
| PDF (137 KB)

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):473 - 479
| PDF (281 KB)
• ### Editorial Conference Comments by the Editors

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):480 - 481
| PDF (88 KB) | HTML
• ### Performance of a Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis Gamma-Ray Identification Algorithm

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):482 - 489
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (1185 KB) | HTML

The development of a gamma-ray identification algorithm based on a Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA) approach has previously shown high potential in count starved situations. This work uses 48,000 semi-empirical synthetic spectra to evaluate the algorithm performance over a broad range of dose rates and acquisition times. True positive identifications of 100% were typically seen for dose ... View full abstract»

• ### Monte Carlo Simulations for Small Electron Field Size Irradiation

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):490 - 494
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (723 KB) | HTML

Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) is a chemical dosimeter based on swine skin gelatin, Xylenol Orange (XO) and ferrous sulphate. When irradiated with ionizing radiation, absorbed dose distributions and profiles can be inferred through spectrophotometric techniques due to the [Fe+3-XO] complex absorbencies, which are field size and post irradiation time dependent. Although these two dependencies ... View full abstract»

• ### Monte Carlo Simulation of X-Ray Spectra in Mammography and Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography Using the Code PENELOPE

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):495 - 502
Cited by:  Papers (3)
| | PDF (571 KB) | HTML

In this work, the Monte Carlo (MC) code PENELOPE was employed for simulation of x-ray spectra in mammography and contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM). Spectra for Mo, Rh and W anodes were obtained for tube potentials between 24-36 kV, for mammography, and between 45-49 kV, for CEDM. The spectra obtained from the simulations were analytically filtered to correspond to the anode/filter combi... View full abstract»

• ### Parameterized Radiation Transport Model for Neutron Detection in Complex Scenes

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):503 - 509
| | PDF (1080 KB) | HTML

There is interest in developing the ability to rapidly compute the energy dependent neutron flux within a complex geometry for a variety of applications. Coupled with sensor response function information, this capability would allow direct estimation of sensor behavior in multitude of operational scenarios. In situations where detailed simulation is not warranted or affordable, it is desirable to ... View full abstract»

• ### Alternatives for Helium-3 in Multiplicity Counters

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):510 - 514
Cited by:  Patents (1)
| | PDF (1199 KB) | HTML

Alternatives to helium-3 are being actively pursued due to the shortage and rising costs of helium-3. For safeguards applications, there are a number of ongoing investigations to find alternatives that provide the same capability in a cost-effective manner. One of the greatest challenges is to find a comparable alternative for multiplicity counters, since they require high efficiency and short col... View full abstract»

• ### Analysis of Photon Scattering Trends for Material Classification Using Artificial Neural Network Models

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):515 - 519
| | PDF (845 KB) | HTML

In this project, we concentrate on using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to analyze the photon scattering trend given by specific materials. The aim of this project is to fully utilize the scatter components of an interrogating gamma-ray radiation beam in order to determine the types of material embedded in sand and later to determine the depth of the material. This is useful in a sit... View full abstract»

• ### MCNP Simulation Benchmarks for a Portable Inspection System for Narcotics, Explosives, and Nuclear Material Detection

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):520 - 527
Cited by:  Papers (3)
| | PDF (949 KB) | HTML

MCNPX simulations have been used to guide the development of a portable inspection system for narcotics, explosives, and special nuclear material (SNM) detection. The system seeks to address these threats to national security by utilizing a high-yield, compact neutron source to actively interrogate the threats and produce characteristic signatures that can then be detected by radiation detectors. ... View full abstract»

• ### The Gamma-Ray Imaging Framework

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):528 - 532
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (731 KB) | HTML

The Gamma-Ray Imaging Framework (GRIF) is an open source (LGPL) software framework for creating real-time gamma-ray imaging applications. GRIF is written in C++ using Qt, and uses ROOT and the Boost Graph Library. GRIF provides automatic multi-threading and data management to make it easy to quickly develop power gamma-ray imagining applications. The model for application developers is built aroun... View full abstract»

• ### Simulations of Multi-Gamma Coincidences From Neutron-Induced Fission in Special Nuclear Materials

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):533 - 538
| | PDF (1578 KB) | HTML

A study is presented on the detection of illicit special nuclear materials (SNM) in cargo containers using a conceptual neutron-based inspection system with xenon-doped liquefied argon (LAr(Xe)) scintillation detectors for coincidence gamma-ray detection. For robustness, the system is envisioned to exploit all fission signatures, namely both prompt and delayed neutron and gamma emissions from fiss... View full abstract»

• ### Assaying Used Nuclear Fuel Assemblies Using Lead Slowing-Down Spectroscopy and Singular Value Decomposition

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):539 - 544
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (1096 KB) | HTML

This study investigates the use of a Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer (LSDS) for the direct and independent measurement of fissile isotopes in light-water nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. The current study applies MCNPX, a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, to simulate the measurement of the assay of the used nuclear fuel assemblies in the LSDS. An empirical model has been developed based on the ... View full abstract»

• ### FREYA—A New Monte Carlo Code for Improved Modeling of Fission Chains

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):545 - 549
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (784 KB) | HTML

A new simulation capability for modeling individual fission events and chains and the transport of fission products in materials is presented. The fission yield event yield algorithm (FREYA) is a Monte Carlo code for generating fission events providing correlated kinematic information for prompt neutrons, gammas, and fragments. For each fission event, FREYA generates multiplicity, energy, and the ... View full abstract»

• ### Study on Background Gamma-Ray Reduction Using a Compton Backscattering Coincidence Technique

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):550 - 554
| | PDF (545 KB) | HTML

We proposed a Compton Backscattering Coincidence (CBC) Technique to reduce background gamma-rays. Properties of the CBC technique were investigated with the EGS5 Monte Carlo simulation code and basic experiments. In this method, a sensitive area can be confined between two detectors while in a conventional method a sensitive area can't be confined because the sensitivity decreases as the solid ang... View full abstract»

• ### Effective Atomic Number of Ge-Doped and Al-Doped Optical Fibers for Radiation Dosimetry Purposes

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):555 - 559
Cited by:  Papers (6)
| | PDF (505 KB) | HTML

Optical fibers have been demonstrated by this group to show promising thermoluminescence (TL) properties with respect to ionizing radiation. Present research has focused on commercially produced single-mode telecommunication optical fibers manufactured by CorActive (Canada) either in the form of SiO2 optical fibers doped with either Ge or Al. Control of radiation dose is essential in pe... View full abstract»

• ### Verification on the Dose Profile Variation of a 3-D—NIPAM Polymer Gel Dosimeter

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):560 - 565
Cited by:  Papers (7)
| | PDF (877 KB) | HTML

A gel dosimeter is a three-dimensional (3-D) device that is used in radiotherapy. It is more efficient than traditional one-dimensional and two-dimensional dosimeters because it can be used in complicated radiation therapy applications. However, the achievement of temporal and spatial stabilities for gel dosimeters remains challenging in clinical applications because the fabrication process affect... View full abstract»

• ### Characterization of Tissue-Equivalent Materials Through Measurements of the Linear Attenuation Coefficient and Scattering Profiles Obtained With Polyenergetic Beams

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):566 - 571
Cited by:  Papers (5)
| | PDF (846 KB) | HTML

In this work seven tissue-equivalent materials (Nylon, Polyacetate, Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), water, muscle-equivalent, bone-equivalent and adipose-equivalent) were characterized, through their attenuation (linear attenuation coefficient) and scattering (scattering profile) properties. An energy dispersive X-ray system (EDXS) was used to analyze these properties simultaneously. The EDXS consi... View full abstract»

• ### 8 and 10 MeV Electron Beams Small Field-Size Dosimetric Parameters Through the Fricke Xylenol Gel Dosimeter

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):572 - 577
Cited by:  Papers (7)
| | PDF (904 KB) | HTML

When small field sizes are recommended in radiotherapy, the dosimeter must have an adequate spatial resolution in order to determine the absorbed dose at the region of interest. The study of electron small field size is important since its dosimetry is not commonly performed in the clinical routine. It was verified that the Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) chemical dosimeter, with an effective atomic numb... View full abstract»

• ### High Resolution Photon Counting With MCP-Timepix Quad Parallel Readout Operating at $> 1~{rm KHz}$ Frame Rates

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):578 - 585
Cited by:  Papers (26)
| | PDF (2964 KB) | HTML

The unique capability of microchannel plates (MCPs) to convert a single photon/ electron/ ion/ neutron into a charge of 104 -107 electrons localized within 4-12 μm from the event position is widely used in event counting imaging detectors. The high spatial and timing resolution of MCP detectors have been demonstrated with different readout techniques. A compromise betw... View full abstract»

• ### Design and Evaluation of an SOI Pixel Sensor for Trigger-Driven X-Ray Readout

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):586 - 591
Cited by:  Papers (9)
| | PDF (1369 KB) | HTML

We have been developing a monolithic active pixel sensor with the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS technology for use in future X-ray astronomical satellite missions. This sensor is called XRPIX. Our objective is to replace the X-ray CCD, which is currently the standard detector in the field, with the developed XRPIX, which offers high coincidence time resolution (~ 50 ns), superior hit-position re... View full abstract»

• ### Simulation Study of Resistor Networks Applied to an Array of 256 SiPMs

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):592 - 598
Cited by:  Papers (5)
| | PDF (917 KB) | HTML

In this work we describe a procedure to reduce the number of signals detected by an array of 256 Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) using a resistor network to divide the signal charge into few readout channels. Several configurations were modeled, and the pulsed signal at the readout contacts were simulated. These simulation results were experimentally tested on a specifically designed and manufact... View full abstract»

• ### Evaluation of Multi-Channel ADCs for Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):599 - 605
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (1747 KB) | HTML

As nuclear physicists increasingly design large scale experiments with hundreds or thousands of detector channels, there are growing needs for high density readout electronics with good timing and energy resolution that at the same time offer lower cost per channel compared to existing commercial solutions. Recent improvements in the design of commercial analog to digital converters (ADCs) have re... View full abstract»

• ### A Novel Technique for the Stabilization of SiPM Gain Against Temperature Variations

Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):606 - 611
Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (2)
| | PDF (657 KB) | HTML

In several applications of Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM), drifts of the detector gain with the temperature represent a severe drawback which prevents from achieving optimal performance. We propose an original technique to address this issue, based upon the use of a SiPM not exposed to the light as a temperature sensor. The average amplitude of the dark pulses produced by this detector is measur... View full abstract»

## Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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## Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Paul Dressendorfer
11509 Paseo del Oso NE
Albuquerque, NM  87111  USA