Transactions of the IRE Professional Group on Antennas and Propagation

Volume PGAP-3 • August 1952

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 47
  • Transmission loss of space waves propagated over irregular terrain

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):152 - 166
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB)

    It is explained why two particular equations be used for a study of space-wave propagation over irregular terrain. It is believed that these two equations provide a method of separating the systematic from the random effects of terrain irregularities. Our development of a transmission loss formula is based upon the determination of a smooth curved surface (either concave or convex) which approxima... View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of the effect of irregular terrain on VHF and UHF directive antenna patterns

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):167 - 178
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1185 KB)

    Measurements of antenna patterns of directive antennas were made while driving around transmitters at relatively constant distances of 0.4, 10, and 30 miles. The transmitting antennas for pattern measurement were located at Fort Dix, N.J., and operated at frequencies of 49, 141.75, 239, and 460 mc. The receiving antennas used for recording were ground-plane antennas mounted on a retractable mast i... View full abstract»

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  • The constants of the equation for the refractive index of air

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s): 179
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (51 KB)

    Recent measurements at the National Bureau of Standards, the University of Texas, the National Physical Laboratory, and elsewhere have indicated that the conventional constants (A = 79\degK/mb,B = 4,800\degK) in the expression for the refractive index of moist air(n-1)10^{6}=\frac{A}{T}(p+\frac{B}{T})should be revised. Various laboratories appear to have arrived at... View full abstract»

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  • The effect of particle shape and composition on microwave attenuation and scattering by precipitation

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):180 - 185
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (359 KB)

    Shape factors for scattering and attenuation in precipitation are normally less than 2, because raindrops are not normally distorted much, and because snow or ice crystals, though distorted, have a relatively small dielectric constant. Very distorted water drops would have large shape factors because of the great dielectric constant of water. A thin water coating, however, raises the attenuation b... View full abstract»

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  • A sweep frequency ionosphere recorder for the low frequencies

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s): 185
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (45 KB)

    Application of the techniques heretofore used in high frequency ionosphere recorders is described. The beat frequency method of generating wide frequency sweeps is used, covering frequencies from 50 kc to 1,000 kc in a short time without band switching. Advantage is gained by the use of transformers containing ferromagnetic cores in the wide band transmitter amplifiers, but the antenna system, for... View full abstract»

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  • Scatter-sounding: A technique for study of the ionosphere at a distance

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):186 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1532 KB)

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  • Instantaneous prediction of ionospheric transmission circuits by the communication Zone Indicator ("COZI")

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):202 - 209
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB)

    Detection of long-distance echoes by an oblique-incidence hf sounder with directive antenna provides a novel technique for predicting ionospheric transmission conditions to remote points. Measurements on oscilloscopic echo patterns can be correlated with (a) field strength of remote cw stations, (b) response of remote beacons synchronously triggered by the sounder, or (c) predictions based upon CR... View full abstract»

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  • F-region effects of solar eclipse at sunrise, September 1 , 1951

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s): 210
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (62 KB)

    The annular eclipse of September 1, 1951 started before ground surmise along the east coast of the United States but did not reach maximum phase until later. Three high-speed ionospheric stations were operated by the D.T.M., C.I.W. for the eclipse observations. Locations at Charlottesville, Virginia, Derwood, Maryland, and Chincoteague, Virginia established a west-to-east chain with local time dif... View full abstract»

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  • Ionosphere reflection coefficients by variational technique

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s): 211
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (51 KB)

    One of the important problems of ionosphere work is to predict the nature of the electromagnetic wave reflected by the ionosphere when a wave of known form is incident upon it. In the present paper, this problem is treated by considering a plane ionosphere model for which the electron density and earth's magnetic field are continuous but otherwise arbitrary functions of the height. It is shown tha... View full abstract»

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  • Distant radio communication theory

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s): 212
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (84 KB)

    Distant radio communication at high frequencies is difficult because the transmission medium, the earth ionosphere duct, is time variable, noisy, and shows dispersive or multipath transmission with consequent fading of the received signal. Because most of these factors are random and not under design control, one can treat the ionospheric communication problem only on a statistical basis in terms,... View full abstract»

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  • Relationships between auroras and sporadic-E echoes

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s): 213
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (80 KB)

    During March, 1951, a series of visual auroral observations were made simultaneously with ionospheric soundings at Point Barrow, Alaska. Observations were made every 15 minutes during the dark hours of ten successive clear nights. Some 400 simultaneous observations were made. Auroras were present during about 90 per cent of these observations. Analysis indicates that quiet auroras45\deg... View full abstract»

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  • The differences in the relationship between ionospheric critical frequencies and sunspot number for different sunspot cycles

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s): 213
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (80 KB)

    The approximately linear relationship between ionospheric critical frequencies and sunspot numbers is well known. Examination of ionospheric data from the few locations at which ionosphere observations have been made for substantial parts of two sunspot cycles shows appreciable differences in the slope of the line of correlation between critical frequencies and sunspot numbers for different cycles... View full abstract»

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  • Continental maps of four ionosphere disturbances

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):214 - 216
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB)

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  • Theory of radio scattering from the aurora

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):217 - 230
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (820 KB)

    A theory is presented here that explains certain phenomena observed in studies of radio scattering from the aurora. It is postulated that the signals which have been observed are scattered from the leading edges of rapidly advancing columns of ionization created by bundles of incoming auroral protons. Observed fading · spectra and the minimum range effect may be explained in this manner. The ... View full abstract»

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  • The length of ionized meteor trails

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s): 230
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (67 KB)

    By studying the rate of coincident detection of meteors at two widely separated locations, as a function of the differential time of first detection, it is possible to deduce the distribution in length of the meteoric ionization columns. A precise determination would require, in addition, that the velocity of the individual meteors used in the test be known. However, in the absence of such data, a... View full abstract»

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  • Guided wave concept in electromagnetic theory

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):231 - 239
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (441 KB)

    This paper discusses a few engineering applications of the guided wave concept to the solution of electromagnetic problem in waveguide regions. Such problems must be reformulated rigorously as network problems that are generalizations o£ the conventional network problems of lumped circuit theory. The network point of view is particularly apropos for the calculation of the electromagnetic fiel... View full abstract»

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  • A further study of the patterns of single slots on circular conducting cylinders

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):240 - 250
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (579 KB)

    The azimuthal patterns of both axial and circumferential slots on circular conducting cylinders have been carefully calculated in both magnitude and phase and some experimental checks have been obtained. The calculated patterns show that in the semicircle over which the slot is optically visible, the magnitude, and particularly the phase, of the patterns, are very similar to those, of a similarly ... View full abstract»

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  • A synthesis method for circular and cylindrical antennas composed of discrete elements

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):251 - 261
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (617 KB)

    Antennas composed of discrete elements equally spaced in angle around a circle or circular cylinder are studied with the objective of designing such antennas to produce required azimuthal radiation patterns. Much has already been written upon this subject under the assumption that a continuous distribution of elementary sources will be an acceptable solution to the design problem or at least will ... View full abstract»

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  • The geometrical optics field at a caustic

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s): 262
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (63 KB)

    The asymptotic expansion of a wave field in powers of1/k, wherekis the wave number, for large k has as its lowest order term what is commonly known as the geometrical optics field. The caustics of geometrical optics are those point sets on which the zero order teen becomes infinite. It is well known that caustics may exist even where the exact wave field is perfectly regular.... View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of a surface-wave line for long distance transmission

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):263 - 267
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB)

    The surface-wave line discussed in this paper is a single conductor with a dielectric coat. The energy is propagated along the surface of the line in a wave mode similar to that in a coaxial line. The phase velocity of this wave is reduced by 1 to 5% from the velocity of light, depending on the thickness of' the dielectric layer. Because of this reduction in phase velocity, no outer conductor is n... View full abstract»

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  • Theory of waveguide-fed slots radiating into parallel-plate regions

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):63 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)

    Slotted waveguide arrays feeding into parallel-plate regions have been used in some high speed scanners. Parallel-plate regions also have been used for the suppression of second-order beams of high-gain arrays. A theoretical expression is derived for the conductance of a longitudinal shunt-slot in a rectangular guide when the slot is radiating into a parallel-plate region of arbitrary plate spacin... View full abstract»

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  • Directly recorded tropospheric refractive index fluctuations and profiles

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):79 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)

    Index of refraction fluctuation and profile data obtained with a direct-reading, airborne, microwave refractometer are presented. Included are the following: (a) measurements uP to 5,000 feet off the New Jersey coast, (b) measurements up to ll,000 feet over the vicinity of Dayton, Ohio; (c) measurements up to 5,000 feet off the coast of South-Central California. View full abstract»

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  • Normal tropospheric propagation deep into the earth's shadow: The present status of suggested explanations

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):6 - 11
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB)

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  • Turbulence in the lower ionosphere as deduced from increments in absorption and phase path at 150 KC

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s): 139
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (74 KB)

    It is important in the study of ionospheric winds to determine the height of the "diffraction screen" which produces the variations in radio wave field strength, or other characteristics, measured at ground level. A method which may be used to determine this height is developed. It is shown that, under proper conditions, the mean electronic collisional frequency associated with the electron clouds... View full abstract»

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  • The microwave measurement of variations in atmospheric refractive index

    Publication Year: 1952, Page(s):74 - 78
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB)

    A microwave refractometer for measuring variations in atmospheric refractive index is described, and certain errors associated with the cavities are discussed. A preliminary account is given of observations obtained with two refractometers and other meteorological equipment installed on a 420-foot tower. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased publication in 1955. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation.

Full Aims & Scope