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Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2  Part 1 • Date June 1995

 This issue contains several parts.Go to:  Part 2  | Part 3 

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 240
  • 1994 Applied Superconductivity Conference

    Publication Year: 1995
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  • ITER-a world class challenge and opportunity

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 61 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is an activity by the US, Japan, the Russian Federation and the European Atomic Energy, to design a fusion engineering test reactor based on the tokamak concept. The main objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. A six year engineering design activity began is 1992. The paper provides a design overview and describes key components including the superconducting magnets and in-vessel. The ITER International Organization and the US Home Team Organization is described.<> View full abstract»

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  • Space applications and implications of high temperature superconductivity

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 69 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    The High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment (HTSSE) opened new opportunities and applications for high temperature superconductivity. Space missions inherently benefit from reduced weight, size and power and HTS offers an order of magnitude improvement in these as well as simultaneously improving performance. The paper provides a short history of HTSSE and the current status of the next phase. The author outlines lessons learned from building the first space experiment and some challenges still remaining. He addresses the unique problems faced when HTS is "qualified" for use in the space environment and concludes with projections and predictions of what is next. The paper is intended to be of general interest and addresses material and electronics aspects of space applications. Summary results of tests conducted at the Naval Research Lab and elsewhere are presented as they relate to space qualification of HTS.<> View full abstract»

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  • SQUID magnetometers for biomagnetism and nondestructive testing: important questions and initial answers

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 74 - 120
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
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    For two decades, academic and industrial researchers worldwide have used SQUID magnetometers to measure magnetic signals from the heart, brain, lungs, liver, nerves, skeletal muscle, stomach, intestines, eyes, and other organs, and have invested heavily in developing and promoting this technology. While there are as yet few accepted clinical applications of SQUIDs, various trends are encouraging. The introduction of SQUIDs to the nondestructive testing (NDT) of aircraft and other structural systems and materials is following a similar course: most of the effort is directed towards instrumentation development and demonstrations in simple systems, and instruments suitable for specific commercial applications are just now being prototyped. To assess the potential of either technology, it is useful to ask critical questions: why are we doing this, what have we learned so far, how easy is it, what does it cost, how might we best utilize advances in digital SQUIDs and high-temperature superconductivity, and what can competing technologies provide? Answers to such questions can help identify those specific technological niches for which SQUIDs are uniquely suited, and guide the optimization of SQUID systems that are targeted for particular NDT or biomagnetic measurements.<> View full abstract»

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  • High-field magnets and high-field superconductors

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 121 - 140
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    This paper gives a brief historical review of the development of high magnetic fields and high field superconductors including brief summaries of the early developments of high magnetic fields and the Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory (FBNML). The start of the first revolution (when large critical currents in Nb/sub 3/Sn were observed in high magnetic fields) and the development of practical superconductors are outlined in parallel with selected applications developed at Lincoln Laboratory, FBNML, and other departments at MIT. Many large scale superconductor applications, supported by governments, are reviewed briefly; although many models and preliminary designs were completed, a number of US initiatives for large superconducting systems were discontinued. This summary of high-field superconducting applications is followed by an outline of the development of the highest field superconducting materials, comments on the false reports of high T/sub c/ superconductors which appeared throughout the 1970s, and the start of the second revolution (when the high T/sub c/ oxides were reported).<> View full abstract»

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  • Recent progress in high-T/sub c/ superconductivity: what would make a difference?

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 141 - 151
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Recent progress in the fundamental understanding of the high-temperature superconductors is reviewed with an eye toward its practical implications. An attempt is also made to identify a research agenda for the future, needed in support of the applications of these new materials.<> View full abstract»

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  • Trials and triumphs of superconductivity: the making of Oxford Instruments

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 152 - 162
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In 1959 the author and his wife founded The Oxford Instrument Company to design, manufacture and supply equipment for generating high magnetic fields to a small scientific research community. Fundamental discoveries in the field of superconductivity soon introduced radical changes to the technological base and put the company on the road to rapid expansion in a number of different markets. Growth from a small private company into a diversified, science-based, international operation employing nearly 1500 people and with sales of over $170 million, has presented them with many interesting technical, business and human challenges. The author describes some of the landmarks along the way, and highlights elements from his experience which may be of interest to others embarking down the same track.<> View full abstract»

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  • A cryogen-free open superconducting magnet for interventional MRI applications

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 163 - 168
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (483 KB)  

    A 0.5 T cryogen-free superconducting magnet with an open geometry has been designed for use in MRI-guided minimally invasive surgery and other interventional procedures. The magnet consists of a split pair of coils to allow surgeons direct access to the patient within the field-of-view of the imaging system. The magnet is wound using Nb/sub 3/Sn tape conductor and is maintained at approximately 10 K using a pair of Gifford-McMahon refrigerators. High-Tc superconducting current leads have been used in order to minimize the heat leak to the magnet. A passive quench protection system was developed for this unique magnet geometry. High quality MR images have been produced and used for interventional procedures. Descriptions of the design, fabrication, and test results of the magnet are presented.<> View full abstract»

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  • A 6 T refrigerator-cooled NbTi superconducting magnet with 180 mm room temperature bore

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 169 - 172
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A 6 T NbTi superconducting magnet, cooled by a 4 K GM (Gifford-McMahon) refrigerator has been developed. Magnetic material, Er/sub 3/Ni, is used as the regenerator to cool the coil to liquid helium temperature. The central field strength in the 180 mm room temperature bore is designed to be 6 T. NbTi coil dimensions are, 215 mm in inner diameter, 279 mm in outer diameter, and 240 mm in axial length. The coil winding is an epoxy-impregnated structure without a bore tube, thereby reducing mechanical disturbances. The coil heat is removed through the outer metal cylinder. A pair of Bi(2212) current leads has been developed to reduce heat leakage into the 4 K level. A cold diode is used to protect the coil even if the oxide lead is burned out. The magnet attained 6.45 T central field at 3.61 K coil-winding temperature.<> View full abstract»

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  • Structural design and analysis of a cryogen-free open superconducting magnet for interventional MRI applications

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 173 - 176
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (377 KB)  

    The structural design and analysis of a cryogen-free open superconducting magnet for interventional MRI applications is presented. The magnet assembly consisted of two identical halves connected together by four posts. The magnet separation allows a surgeon access to the patient within the field-of-view of the imaging system. Each half of the assembly consisted of three superconducting coils, a stainless steel bobbin, a copper thermal ring, and three overwrap rings. The suspension components of the magnet consisted of eight radial straps and eight axial rods. A structural analysis was carried out that considered the differential thermal contraction caused by the cooldown to the magnet cryogenic operating temperature, and the electromagnetic forces on the coils when the magnet is energized at the design current value. The results are compared to the equivalent stresses caused by a simulation of a quench that was initiated at the inner diameter of one of the superconducting coils. The post-quench thermal transient analysis predicted a nonuniform 3-D temperature field in the range of 10 to 178 K and asymmetric electromagnetic forces on the superconducting coils. The three dimensional structural model of the assembly was developed in ANSYS.<> View full abstract»

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  • Persistent superconducting switch for cryogen-free MR magnets

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 177 - 180
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    A persistent superconducting switch which allows a cryogen-free MR magnet to be ramped up to its designed magnetic field and parked in a persistent state has been designed, built, and installed in a magnet. The switch uses niobium-tin tape superconductor which is laminated with stainless steel foil for structural rigidity. Due to its high electrical resistance, the switch is well suited for high inductance magnets. Moreover, the switch is designed such that its ramping heat load into the magnet is minimal and within the capability of the refrigerating cryocoolers which are used to cool the magnet. The compact design of this switch permits a quick conversion between the normal and the superconducting states. In this paper, the design criteria for such a switch and its relationship to the cryogen-free superconducting magnet is discussed. Furthermore, the stability tests performed on a sample switch is presented. Finally, detail design of a switch which has been used in a high inductance, cryogen-free, open MR magnet is discussed along with its electrical and thermal performances.<> View full abstract»

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  • Large current and low voltage switching devices using HTS thin film

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 246 - 249
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A high temperature superconducting (HTS) thin film has a potential to control large currents using its transition between a superconducting state and a normal conducting state. In this paper an equivalent circuit model of a HTS thin film is presented to design a power conditioning circuit as an inverter which can handle large currents at voltages less than 1 V. Device model parameters of a HTS thin film were determined by comparing quenching characteristics calculated by a circuit simulation program (PSpice) with those measured experimentally. A temporal behavior of resistance of the HTS thin film quenched by a self-current which was simulated using the model were compared with experimental results. An inverter circuit using the HTS thin film switched thermally is designed and the characteristic of a switching operation with a photovoltaic cell is also shown.<> View full abstract»

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  • Cooling structure for 6 T NbTi superconducting magnet directly cooled by cryocooler

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 181 - 184
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    This paper describes the cooling structure for a 6 T NbTi superconducting coil directly cooled by a cryocooler. The cooling structure was designed to remove AC loss of the coil lest the coil temperature should exceed the current sharing temperature during coil charging. A copper cylinder surrounding the outer surface of the coil was adopted as the cooling structure. Indium sheet was inserted between the copper cylinder and the coil to improve thermal conductance. Stainless steel wire was wound on the copper cylinder so that the radial stress at the boundary between the copper cylinder and the coil was kept compressive. Temperature difference between the coil inner surface and the copper cylinder was lower than 0.1 K while charging the coil.<> View full abstract»

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  • A dual refrigerator assembly for cryogen-free superconducting magnet applications

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 185 - 188
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Reliable refrigeration is critical to the viability of cryogen-free superconducting magnets. The servicing of a refrigerator coldhead must not interrupt the magnet operation. A dual refrigerator coldhead assembly is described in this paper which enables the disconnection of a coldhead for servicing while a second coldhead provides continuous cooling. The two-stage Balzers UCH-130 coldheads are thermally connected to the cryostat thermal shield at the first stage and to the superconducting magnet at the second stage. The assembly includes high-T/sub c/ superconducting current leads heat stationed between the first and second stages of the coldheads in order to minimize the heat leak to the magnet. Vibration isolation components minimize the transmission of the coldhead vibration to the magnet and the thermal shield. This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of the dual refrigerator assembly.<> View full abstract»

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  • Status of LHC programme and magnet development

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 189 - 195
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
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    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a superconducting accelerator/collider for protons, heavy ions and electron-proton collisions in the multi-TeV energy range, which will be installed at CERN in the 27 km tunnel of LEP. This new facility will mainly consist of a double ring of high field superconducting magnets operating in superfluid helium at a temperature of 1.9 K. To reach the wanted beam energy (7 TeV for protons) the main dipole magnets will operate at about 8.4 T and the quadrupoles at 220 T/m field gradient. These main magnets have a two-in-one configuration with the magnetic channels for the two beams placed in a common yoke and cryostat. The LHC will have more than 10000 superconducting magnetic units. The arcs of the machine will require about 1250, 14 m long dipoles and 400, 3 m long quadrupoles. After a general outline of the project with more detailed information on the design of the magnets, the paper describes the state of magnet R&D and presents results of short models, among which one reached the record dipole field of 10.5 T, as well as of industry made full scale prototypes which have been successfully tested and measured.<> View full abstract»

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  • The SSC full cell prototype string test

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 196 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    At the conclusion of the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) half cell magnet string testing program in February, 1993, the preliminary data analysis revealed that several substantive technical questions remained unresolved. These questions were: (1) could the high voltages to ground (>2 kV) measured during fault (quench) conditions be substantially reduced, (2) could the number of magnetic elements that became resistive (quenched) be controlled, and (3) did the cryostats of the magnetic elements provide adequate insulation and isolation to meet designed refrigeration loads. To address these and other existing questions, a prototypical full cell of collider magnets (ten dipoles and two quadrupoles) was assembled and tested. At the conclusion of this testing there were definitive answers to most of the questions with numerical substantiation, the notable exception being the heat leak question. These answers and other results and issues are presented in this paper.<> View full abstract»

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  • Cryogenic tests of the first two LHC quadrupole prototypes

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 202 - 205
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Two LHC (Large Hadron Collider) twin aperture quadrupole superconducting magnet prototypes were constructed at CEA Saclay, in the framework of a collaboration agreement between CERN and CEA in Saclay. Their main characteristics are: 3.05 m length, 56 mm coil aperture, 180 mm between the two apertures, 252 T/m nominal gradient at 15060 A. They have been tested and measured in the 1.8 K Saclay test facility in a horizontal cryostat. The magnets are instrumented in order to investigate their behaviour during cool-down, stand-by, powering and current ramping, quenching and warming-up. The paper presents a summary of the cryogenic, mechanical, pressure and electrical measurements. The 15060 A nominal current was reached with little training. The quench protection heaters are efficient down to 3000 A. Losses during ramping up and down are reported.<> View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic measurement test results of B&W 1 m quadrupole magnets

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 206 - 209
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    This report summarizes the magnetic measurement test results on the QSH series of collider quadrupole superconducting magnets. There were four quadrupole magnets built in the QSH series. These magnets had a 40 mm aperture and were approximately 1.2 m in length. Test results showed that the measured transfer function was within 0.3% of the design value at operating current and temperature and remained linear to within 0.3% from 656 A to 6714 A. In addition, all multipoles were well within the CQM system specification with the exception of b5. The origin of the large b5 term and the anomalous current dependence of the transfer function are briefly discussed.<> View full abstract»

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  • Ramp-rate limitation test of cable-in-conduit conductors with supercritical helium

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 210 - 213
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    It has been found on the United States Demonstration Poloidal Coil (US-DPC) and in 27 strand subsized cables of pool boiling cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC), that there is critical current degradation due to fast ramping of the magnetic field. The characteristics of this ramp-rate limitation phenomenon are investigated by using a 27 strand Nb/sub 3/Sn cable in supercritical helium at 6 atm. A 3 m long cable-in-conduit conductor is prepared noninductively and tested in a background field up to 9.5 tesla with maximum ramp rate of 1.6 tesla/second. The ramp-rate limitation results are compared with results of the ramp rate test of the US-DPC and previous experiments. The experimental data are analyzed to identify and understand possible sources of ramp-rate limitation.<> View full abstract»

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  • The effect on stability and thermal hydraulic quenchback of perforating the jacket of a cable-in-conduit conductor

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 214 - 217
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    This paper continues earlier work on the reduction of the quench pressure in a double-jacketed cable-in-conduit conductor achieved by perforating the inner jacket. The present study examines the effect of the perforations on the stability margin and on the onset of thermal hydraulic quenchback.<> View full abstract»

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  • Stability analysis of multi-strand superconducting cables

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 218 - 221
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    When a normal zone is produced in one or a few strands in a multi-strand superconducting cable by a localized disturbance, the current in the normal-transited strand transfers to the others via contact resistance between strands. Heat generated in the normal zone also diffuses to the other strands. The stability of the multi-strand superconducting cable against local disturbances is much influenced by these current transfer and thermal diffusion. The influence of the copper resistivity on current transfer and stability is studied. When we plot the MQE on "contact resistivity"-"contact thermal conductivity"-plane, there are a stable region with large MQE and an unstable region with small MQE. The small contact resistance and small contact thermal conductivity between strands are preferable from the view point of stability. If the contact thermal conductivity is small, the transition from the stable region to the unstable region is drastic.<> View full abstract»

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  • Quench energy and fatigue degradation properties of Cu- and Al/Cu-stabilized Nb-Ti epoxy-impregnated superconductor coils

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 222 - 225
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    In comparative measurements of small-scale epoxy-impregnated Cu-stabilized and Al/Cu-stabilized Nb-Ti test coils at 4 K and 5 T, the heat energy required to quench the Al/Cu-stabilized coil was 4 to 12 times greater than for the Cu-stabilized coil, depending on the relative operating current. Also, the coils' stabilizer resistivity (/spl rho/) was measured as a function of mechanical fatigue to test for strain-induced degradation. The /spl rho/ of the Cu-stabilized coil is relatively unaffected by fatigue, while that of the Al/Cu-stabilized coil increases with fatigue. However, in these coils, having a typical stabilizer:superconductor ratio of 4:1, the degradation of the Al/Cu-stabilized coil begins to saturate after several hundred fatigue cycles; after 2000 fatigue cycles to 0.2% strain, the /spl rho/ of the Al/Cu-stabilized coil is still 2.6 times lower than the /spl rho/ of the Cu-stabilized coil. Furthermore, after annealing the Al/Cu-stabilized coil at room temperature for 48 hours, the /spl rho/ degradation was reduced by 76%. Thus, the use of Al/Cu stabilizer may offer substantial improvements in magnet stability, even where the magnet is subjected to fatigue degradation from repeatedly energizing the magnet.<> View full abstract»

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  • Quench protection of very large superconducting magnets

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 226 - 229
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The feasibility of utilization of cold switches for quench protection of very large superconducting magnets (e.g., for SMES) is considered. The scheme of quench protection of large SMES is suggested. The necessary number of sections can be easily evaluated. Destructive superconducting switches seem to be the best solution. The switch has to be properly designed to avoid arcing and to offer a possibility to change the destructive elements in a reasonable time without warming up large portions of the winding. A suggestion is also made to make use of the temperature dependence of the electrical resistance of the dump resistor. A proper choice of its mass can result in 25 percent decrease of a quench load.<> View full abstract»

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  • Stability measurements on a 1-T high temperature superconducting magnet

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 230 - 233
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (367 KB)  

    A high temperature superconducting magnet based on Bi-2223 conductor was built at the American Superconductor Corporation. The magnet was constructed by a react and wind technique using conductors made from a metallic precursor process. It has a winding ID of 25.4 mm, OD of 87.6 mm, and height of 107.3 mm. A heater, two thermometers, and several voltage taps were built into the high field region of the magnet for stability measurements. The magnet generates 1.1 T central field at 4.2 K when operating at 1 /spl mu/V/cm over the entire conductor length, including all the joints. Stability measurements were performed in background fields up to 2.5 T from 4.2 K to 77 K. Stability margins more than 2 orders of magnitude higher than a low temperature superconductor were observed.<> View full abstract»

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  • Development and test of a BSCCO-2223 HTS high field insert magnet for NMR

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 234 - 237
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    In this paper we describe the successful design, fabrication and test of a model high field insert magnet utilizing BSCCO-2223 tape conductors. This insert magnet is the first phase of a program to demonstrate the use of HTS conductors for the generation of the high magnetic fields required for NMR. The magnet, designed and fabricated at Intermagnetics, consists of five double pancake coil modules stacked in series to give overall dimensions of 48 mm outer diameter, 72 mm length and a 19 mm clear bore. The double pancake coil modules were prepared using a wind and react technique followed by encapsulation with low temperature resistant epoxy. The assembled magnet was then tested at both 77 K and 4.2 K in fields of up to 17 Tesla. The high field tests were conducted at the NHMFL. At 4.2 K, with a 17 Tesla applied field, an additional central field of 0.24 Tesla was developed before transition to the normal state. These results indicate the ability of these materials to be used in high field insert coils.<> View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity contains articles on the applications of superconductivity and other relevant technology.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Britton L. T. Plourde
Syracuse University
bplourde@syr.edu
http://www.phy.syr.edu/~bplourde