Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium

18-22 Sept. 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 73
  • A direct 3-D shape modeling system

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):519 - 524
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (476 KB)

    A newly developed 3-D shape modeling system based on constructive solid geometry (CSG) is described, in which a direct and interactive shape modeling process is supported. This feature is realized by a voxel model for real-time set operations, and a volume scanning display for the direct visualization of the voxel model, besides the CSG model for data structure management. The set operations on th... View full abstract»

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  • Virtual Aristotelean physics

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):512 - 518
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (411 KB)

    Aristotle's physics provides a coherent set of physical laws which predict physical events less well than Newton's, but fit human expectations better. Embedded in a virtual reality, they thus provide a system which the user can more quickly learn to control, being more intuitive than Newton's laws and more consistent than ad hoc movement rules. Being simpler and cheaper to implement, they also giv... View full abstract»

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  • A development of dynamic deforming algorithms for 3D shape modeling with generation of interactive force sensation

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):505 - 511
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (497 KB)

    The algorithms which enable the dynamic deformation of a virtual object are investigated. To realize natural deformation observed in the real world, it is necessary to incorporate various physical constraints into the algorithms. But it is difficult to realize such deformation in real-time. Thus virtual objects are deformed by not moving points but generating and/or vanishing points in an object, ... View full abstract»

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  • A direct deformation method

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):499 - 504
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (397 KB)

    A new free form deforming interface named direct deformation method (DDM) is presented. DDM allows designers to touch and deform free formed surfaces directly, at any point of the surfaces, even if they are represented only by control points and knot vectors. Users do not need to know such parameters that represent surfaces. The deforming actions of a user are used to calculate new parameters that... View full abstract»

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  • A study of an operator assistant for virtual space

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):492 - 498
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (382 KB)

    A method to assist an operator to place an object on a surface in a virtual environment without any force feed-back tool is described and evaluated. The method used is to apply an attractive power to two faces that are likely to be attached. The system checks the distance of these faces and assists the operator by attaching two faces whose distance is less than a certain threshold. The real time c... View full abstract»

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  • Facial expression synthesis based on natural voice for virtual face-to-face communication with machine

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):486 - 491
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (515 KB)

    Basic research to a virtual face-to-face communication environment between an operator and a machine is presented. In this system, a human natural face appears on the display of machine and can talk to a operator with natural voice and natural face expressions. A face expression synthesis scheme driven by natural voice is presented. Voice includes not only linguistic information but also emotional... View full abstract»

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  • Neural modeling of face animation for telecommuting in virtual reality

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):478 - 485
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (635 KB)

    Neural networks are used to generate facial animation models for use in virtual reality telecommuting systems. 2-D face silhouettes are used to train and test multilayer perceptrons with backpropagation learning. This approach overcomes the problems encountered with the integration of face sensing devices and visual displays.<<ETX>> View full abstract»

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  • Virtual worlds as fuzzy cognitive maps

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):471 - 477
    Cited by:  Papers (74)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB)

    Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) can structure virtual worlds. FCMs link causal events, values, goals, and trends in a fuzzy feedback dynamical system. They direct actors in virtual worlds as the actors react to events and to one another. In nested FCMs each causal concept can control its own FCM. This combines levels of fuzzy systems that can choose goals or move objects. Adaptive FCMs change as causa... View full abstract»

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  • The MR Toolkit Peers Package and experiment

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):463 - 469
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (668 KB)

    The MR Toolkit Peer Package is an extension to the MR Toolkit that allows multiple independent MR Toolkit applications to communicate with one another across the Internet. The master process of an MR Toolkit application can transmit device data to other remote applications, and receive device data from remote applications. Application-specific data can also be shared between independent applicatio... View full abstract»

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  • Real time simulation of stiff dynamic systems via distributed memory parallel processors

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):456 - 462
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB)

    A class of dynamic systems consisting of constrained planar rigid bodies is considered. This class of environments poses two significant challenges to the development of advanced kinesthetic interfaces. First, the environment structure changes dynamically due to collisions between bodies. Thus, the equations of motion must be formulated and solved in real-time. Second, the equations are necessaril... View full abstract»

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  • The SIMNET virtual world architecture

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):450 - 455
    Cited by:  Papers (65)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (489 KB)

    Many tools and techniques have been developed to address specific aspects of interacting in a virtual world. Few have been designed with an architecture that allows large numbers of entities from disparate organizations to interact in such a world, in real time, and over large geographic distances. A system architecture that does this is described. The key technologies that have made these virtual... View full abstract»

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  • Making WAVES: On the design of architectures for low-end distributed virtual environments

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):443 - 449
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (478 KB)

    Different hardware platforms are best suited for different tasks in simulating a virtual world. Any distributed virtual world must be prepared to support communication among a large and heterogeneous set of software and hardware devices. By developing a scalable environment for virtual worlds based on heterogeneous platforms, researchers can utilize existing hardware, and so can begin to do resear... View full abstract»

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  • A method for training feed forward neural network to be fault tolerant

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):436 - 441
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (309 KB)

    A method for training a feedforward neural network to be fault tolerant against weight perturbations is described. The measure for fault tolerance is the deviation of the network's output after training, when each interconnection weight is perturbed, from that output without perturbation. In this method, an attempt is made to keep that deviation as low as possible. This measure is used because it ... View full abstract»

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  • The virtual sailor: An implementation of interactive human body modeling

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):429 - 435
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (500 KB)

    The primary focus of the Virtual Sailor project is the creation of virtual actors, for training and other applications where human figures must be coordinated. By the term virtual actor is meant computer animated figures that can mimic human beings in physical form, function and behavior. The underlying techniques and software systems for creating the skin, bone, and muscles of aspects of interact... View full abstract»

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  • Generating autonomous dynamic behavior for computer animation: A constrained optimal control approach

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):422 - 428
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (435 KB)

    An extensive simulator has been developed to simulate the dynamics of an intelligent system. The simulation program is written in C and it runs on IBM RISC/6000 workstations in a UNIX environment. A graphical user interface using NGI (Northstar Graphics Interface) has been built and all the results are displayed graphically. The authors show the result obtained in trying to avoid several planes, t... View full abstract»

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  • Realtime collision detection for virtual reality applications

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):415 - 421
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (453 KB)

    Virtual reality technology aims at the expansion of the communication bandwidth by providing users with 3D immersive environments. For the true direct manipulation of the environments, fast collision detection must be provided to increase the sense of reality. A collision detection scheme for virtual reality applications is proposed. The method exploits a hierarchical object representation to faci... View full abstract»

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  • Real-time reproduction of 3D human images in virtual space teleconferencing

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):408 - 414
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (489 KB)

    Real-time reproduction of a 3D human image is realized by an experimental system built for the realization of virtual space teleconferencing, in which participants at different sites can feel as if they are at one site and can work cooperatively. In the teleconferencing system, a 3D model of a participant is constructed by a wire-frame model mapped by color texture and is displayed on 3D screen at... View full abstract»

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  • A toolkit for developing multi-user, distributed virtual environments

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):401 - 407
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (541 KB)

    The design and operation of the Virtual Reality Distributed Environment and Construction Kit (VR-DECK) toolkit developed at IBM Research is reviewed. It provides a designer with a development environment while supporting distributed computing, multi-user capability, and a variety of I/O devices. Virtual worlds are built as collections of modules which communicate via events. Extensive run-time sup... View full abstract»

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  • DIVE A multi-user virtual reality system

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):394 - 400
    Cited by:  Papers (100)  |  Patents (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (454 KB)

    The Distributed Interactive Virtual Environment (DIVE) is a heterogeneous distributed virtual reality system based on UNIX and Internet networking protocols. Each participating process has a copy of a replicated database and changes are propagated to the other processes with reliable multicast protocols. DIVE provides a dynamic virtual environment where applications and users can enter and leave t... View full abstract»

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  • The virtual panel architecture: A 3D gesture framework

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):387 - 393
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (70)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (518 KB)

    The Virtual Panel Architecture (VPA) has been designed to help implement an intermediate abstraction with elements of both a physical control panel and a computer-based control panel. This abstraction, handling 3D point-based gesticulative interaction with modeled object hierarchies, is suitable for both virtual reality environments and traditional environments. Based on the VPA, an environment of... View full abstract»

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  • A note on averaging rotations

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):377 - 385
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)

    Computing average rotations is a fundamental sensor fusion problem. In virtual reality, the problem naturally arises in connection with position sensing. Two methods are derived for additive averaging of rotations. One of these methods, based on quarternions, is limited to averages of three-dimensional rotations, but the other method, based on singular value decomposition, works in any Euclidean s... View full abstract»

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  • Performance limits of stereoscopic viewing systems using active and passive glasses

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):371 - 376
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (362 KB)

    In time sequential stereoscopic displays a major contributor to ghost image intensity, as quantified by the system leakage ratio, is due to the persistence of the CRT's phosphor. Two approaches to solving this problem are presented. One is to use a system that has a sectioned electrooptical device mounted directly in front of the CRT. The second is to use phosphors that have less persistence.<&... View full abstract»

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  • A 1" high resolution field sequential display for head mounted applications

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):364 - 370
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (414 KB)

    Color displays used in binocular virtual reality are generally LCD arrays, with the maximum resolution determined by how small the individual color pixel elements can be made and driven electronically. A high resolution color display using a monochrome CRT and a liquid crystal shutter operated in a field-sequential color mode is described. The Tektronix 1-in frame sequential color monitor system s... View full abstract»

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  • Data complexity for virtual reality: where do all the triangles go?

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):357 - 363
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (606 KB)

    Screen space rendering statistics are gathered from 150 3D objects, each modeled by between 2-K and 40-K triangles. While there is wide variance by individual object, the overall trend is that the distribution of triangles by screen size is roughly exponential in the direction of small triangles. From a subjective esthetics point of view, tessellations require 10-K visible triangles per quarter mi... View full abstract»

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  • A heterogeneous architecture for stereoscopic visualisation

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):349 - 355
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (573 KB)

    A reconfigurable heterogeneous multiprocessor architecture, called Shiva is introduced, and a configuration of it for generating stereoscopic images in parallel is described. The main feature of Shiva is its ability to incorporate different types of processors. This allows a computational task to be distributed over the various processors in a way that best users their combined capabilities. Some ... View full abstract»

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