# IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

## Volume 63 Issue 5  Part 1 • Oct. 2016

This issue contains several parts.Go to:  Part 2

## Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
• ### [Front cover]

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s): C1
| PDF (203 KB)
• ### IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science publication information

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s): C2
| PDF (87 KB)

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2417 - 2418
| PDF (334 KB)
• ### MR Performance Comparison of a PET/MR System Before and After SiPM-Based Time-of-Flight PET Detector Insertion

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2419 - 2423
Cited by:  Papers (1)
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A silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based time-of-flight capable PET detector has been integrated with a 70 cm wide-bore 3T MR scanner for simultaneous whole-body imaging (MR750w, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). After insertion of the PET detector, the final PET/MR bore is 60 cm wide (SIGNA PET/MR, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). The MR performance was compared before and after the PET ring insertion. B<... View full abstract»

• ### First Results From a High-Resolution Small Animal SiPM PET Insert for PET/MR Imaging at 7T

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2424 - 2433
Cited by:  Papers (3)
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We present the initial results from a small animal PET insert designed to be operated inside a 7T MRI. The insert fits within the 114 mm inner diameter of the Bruker BGA-12S gradient coil while accommodating the Bruker 35 mm volume RF coil (outer diameter 60 mm), both used in the Bruker 70/20 MRI systems. The PET insert is a ring comprising 16 detectors. Each detector has a dual-layer offset (DLO)... View full abstract»

• ### Iterative Structural and Functional Synergistic Resolution Recovery (iSFS-RR) Applied to PET-MR Images in Epilepsy

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2434 - 2442
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Structural Functional Synergistic Resolution Recovery (SFS-RR) is a technique that uses supplementary structural information from MR or CT to improve the spatial resolution of PET or SPECT images. This wavelet-based method may have a potential impact on the clinical decision-making of brain focal disorders such as refractory epilepsy, since it can produce images with better quantitative accuracy a... View full abstract»

• ### MR–Consistent Simultaneous Reconstruction of Attenuation and Activity for Non–TOF PET/MR

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2443 - 2451
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (1716 KB) | HTML

Attenuation correction (AC) is required for accurate quantification of the reconstructed activity distribution in positron emission tomography (PET). For simultaneous PET/magnetic resonance (MR), however, AC is challenging, since the MR images do not provide direct information on the attenuating properties of the underlying tissue. Standard MR-based AC does not account for the presence of bone and... View full abstract»

• ### Tissue Probability-Based Attenuation Correction for Brain PET/MR by Using SPM8

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2452 - 2463
Cited by:  Papers (2)
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Bone attenuation remains a methodological challenge in hybrid PET/MR, as bone is hard to visualize via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore, novel methods for taking into account bone attenuation in MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC) are needed. In this study, we propose a tissue-probability based attenuation correction (TPB-AC), which employs the commonly available neurological toolbox... View full abstract»

• ### Improved Parameter-Estimation With MRI-Constrained PET Kinetic Modeling: A Simulation Study

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2464 - 2470
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Kinetic analysis can be applied both to dynamic PET and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI data. We have investigated the potential of MRI-constrained PET kinetic modeling using simulated [ 18F]2-FDG data for skeletal muscle. The volume of distribution, Ve, for the extra-vascular extra-cellular space (EES) is the link between the two models: It can be estimated by DCE-MRI, and then use... View full abstract»

• ### A PET Design Based on SiPM and Monolithic LYSO Crystals: Performance Evaluation

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2471 - 2477
Cited by:  Papers (7)
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A new small animal PET based on SiPM and monolithic LYSO crystals has been developed. Eight detector modules form the PET ring, each mounting an array of 12 × 12 SiPMs coupled to a readout providing the summed signals of the pixels on each of the 12 rows and 12 columns of the SiPM array. This design makes it possible to accurately determine the centroid of the scintillation light distributi... View full abstract»

• ### The Performance of Silicon Photomultipliers in Cherenkov TOF PET

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2478 - 2481
Cited by:  Papers (2)
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Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were considered as photodetectors in Cherenkov time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) due to their relatively high photon detection efficiency (PDE) which resulted in a higher gamma detection efficiency of the Cherenkov PET detector. SiPMs produced by KETEK, AdvanSiD, SensL and Hamamatsu were tested in this application. The coincidence time resolutio... View full abstract»

• ### Pilot Studies With BGO Scintillators Coupled to Low-Noise, Large-Area, SiPM Arrays

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2482 - 2486
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Despite the fact that timing capabilities for devices based on BGO are limited when compared with LYSO or LSO based systems, the cost of BGO is considerably lower and could thus, be an option for devices with high scintillator volumes (as in the case of nuclear medicine scanners), but also in smaller dedicated imagers. Recently, many studies have been carried out in order to determine the potentia... View full abstract»

• ### A Novel Method for $gamma - text{photons}$ Depth-of-Interaction Detection in Monolithic Scintillation Crystals

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2487 - 2495
Cited by:  Papers (8)
| | PDF (2649 KB) | HTML

Achieved spatial resolution of the PET systems is often limited by the parallax error due to the lack of information about the Depth of Interaction (DoI) inside the crystal of the incoming 511 keV annihilation photons. The smaller the diameter of the PET ring and the thicker the scintillator are, the more this error affects imaging performance. In this work, a DoI calculator suitable for monolithi... View full abstract»

• ### Energy Resolution of Ce:GAGG and Pr:LuAG Scintillators Coupled to $3 ~\rm {mm} \times 3 ~\rm {mm}$ Silicon Photomultipliers

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2496 - 2501
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Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) have shown great promise as a suitable replacement for conventional vacuum based Photomultiplier Tubes (PMT). Progress in recent years has been vast with SiPM sensors pushing the boundaries in energy and timing resolution as well as photon detection efficiency and active surface area. In this study we report the energy resolution and linearity of two novel scintilla... View full abstract»

• ### Crystal Identification in Dual-Layer-Offset DOI-PET Detectors Using Stratified Peak Tracking Based on SVD and Mean-Shift Algorithm

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2502 - 2508
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (2187 KB) | HTML

An Anger-logic based pixelated PET detector block requires a crystal position map (CPM) to assign the position of each detected event to a most probable crystal index. Accurate assignments are crucial to PET imaging performance. In this paper, we present a novel automatic approach to generate the CPMs for dual-layer offset (DLO) PET detectors using a stratified peak tracking method. In which, the ... View full abstract»

• ### Development of a DOI PET Detector Having the Structure of the X’tal Cube Extended in One Direction

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2509 - 2516
| | PDF (1824 KB) | HTML

X'tal cube is the cubic depth of interaction (DOI) PET detector which our research group developed. In this work, aiming to get higher sensitivity, we developed the long rectangular shape X'tal cube (long-XC) by extending the cubic X'tal cube structure in one direction. We verified performance of this long-XC and also studied detector parameters for optimization. The same as the X'tal cube, the cr... View full abstract»

• ### Parameter Extraction Method for the Electrical Model of a Silicon Photomultiplier

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2517 - 2526
| | PDF (2943 KB) | HTML

The availability of an effective electrical model, able to accurately reproduce the signals generated by a Silicon Photo-Multiplier coupled to the front-end electronics, is mandatory when the performance of a detection system based on this kind of detector has to be evaluated by means of reliable simulations. We propose a complete extraction procedure able to provide the whole set of the parameter... View full abstract»

• ### Optimization of Parallel-Hole Collimators for Intraoperative Localization of Iodine-125 Seeds

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2527 - 2532
| | PDF (1143 KB) | HTML

In the treatment of breast cancer, breast-conserving surgery (BCS) may result in incomplete excision of the tumor. In order to improve the outcome of this surgery, iodine-125 seeds may be inserted in the tumor under mammographic or ultrasonic guidance prior to surgery. These seeds provide intraoperative information about the location of the tumor. A system of two gamma camera heads and two paralle... View full abstract»

• ### An Intraoperative $beta ^{-}$ Detecting Probe for Radio-Guided Surgery in Tumour Resection

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2533 - 2539
| | PDF (1256 KB) | HTML

The development of the β- based radio-guided surgery aims to extend the technique to those tumours where surgery is the only possible treatment and the assessment of the resection would most profit from the low background around the lesion, as for brain tumours. To validate the technique, prototypes of the intraoperative β- probe have been developed. This paper ... View full abstract»

• ### Moving Beam-Blocker-Based Low-Dose Cone-Beam CT

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2540 - 2549
Cited by:  Papers (1)
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This paper experimentally demonstrates a feasibility of moving beam-blocker-based low-dose cone-beam CT (CBCT) and exploits the beam-blocking configurations to reach an optimal one that leads to the highest contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Sparse-view CT takes projections at sparse view angles and provides a viable option to reducing dose. We have earlier proposed a many-view under-sampling (MVUS) t... View full abstract»

• ### Impacts of Intelligent Automated Quality Control on a Small Animal APD-Based Digital PET Scanner

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2550 - 2557
| | PDF (1663 KB) | HTML

Stable system performance is mandatory to warrant the accuracy and reliability of biological results relying on small animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies. This simple requirement sets the ground for imposing routine quality control (QC) procedures to keep PET scanners at a reliable optimal performance level. However, such procedures can become burdensome to implement for scan... View full abstract»

• ### Measuring the Mutual Effects of a CZT Detector and a 3T MRI for the Development of a Simultaneous MBI/MRI Insert

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2558 - 2566
| | PDF (1939 KB) | HTML

A cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) based detector system has been developed with the goal of combining molecular breast imaging (MBI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to address shortcomings of each modality. The CZT detector system is comprised of four CZT modules tiled in a 2×2 array. Each module consists of 256 pixels (16×16, 2.4 mm pixels) and features a built-in ASIC and FPGA. A... View full abstract»

• ### Computed Tomography Sinogram Inpainting With Compound Prior Modelling Both Sinogram and Image Sparsity

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2567 - 2576
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (2707 KB) | HTML

The presence of metal objects remains a challenge in x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. Sinograms passing through metals, called metal trace, usually provide uncorrected information and are considered missing in CT image reconstruction. The sparse prior of an image in some appropriate transform domains, defined implicit sparsity, is often used in sinogram inpainting methods for metal trace re... View full abstract»

• ### Noise Reduction in Small Animal PET Images Using a Variational Non-Convex Functional

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2577 - 2585
| | PDF (1581 KB) | HTML

Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is widely used in nuclear medicine. However, data acquired by a PET system are generally contaminated with heavy noise, which often persists after image reconstruction. In this paper, a novel non-convex functional is introduced to suitably attenuate noise in PET images. The proposed functional contains a new regularization term defined as a convex combina... View full abstract»

• ### Transmission-Like Calibration-Free Tomographic Reconstruction With Compton-Scattered Photons

Publication Year: 2016, Page(s):2586 - 2598
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (1297 KB) | HTML

Image-reconstruction with Compton-scattered photons is a nonlinear problem, because it involves both the linear process of scattering and the exponential pre- and post-scatter attenuation. For thin and light objects and with high-energy photons, the exponential terms can be ignored, rendering the problem linear. We show that when attenuation is significant, linearity can also be accomplished by co... View full abstract»

## Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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## Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Paul Dressendorfer
11509 Paseo del Oso NE
Albuquerque, NM  87111  USA