IEEE Spectrum

Volume 31 Issue 5 • May 1994

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Displaying Results 1 - 5 of 5
  • Micromachines on the march

    Publication Year: 1994, Page(s):20 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (136)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2092 KB)

    Miniature electromechanical sensors and actuators can be mass produced on silicon wafers much like ICs. They combine readily with signal-processing circuitry into powerful tools that measure, analyze, and control their environments. The authors describe the fabrication techniques, surface activity, atomic bonds, LIGA and SLIGA, and bury and destroy. The following applications are discussed: pressu... View full abstract»

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  • Secrets of the Soviet nuclear complex

    Publication Year: 1994, Page(s):32 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1542 KB)

    Hundreds of thousands of engineers, scientists, and workers found employment in the nuclear complexes of the former Soviet Union. Now, in the aftermath of the USSR's demise, details of its nuclear-industrial complex are coming to light. The huge industry which descended from the notorious gulags must now dispose of myriad warheads, fissile materials by the tonne, plus reactors. The author describe... View full abstract»

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  • The FCC on personal wireless

    Publication Year: 1994, Page(s):39 - 46
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1228 KB)

    In a landmark decision announced in September 1993, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) outlined the rules to be followed in the United States by the up-and-coming personal communications services (PCS) industry. This industry is structuring itself to offer new mobile and portable wireless services in direct competition to those that already exist, such as paging, cellular, and private rad... View full abstract»

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  • The all-metal spin transistor

    Publication Year: 1994, Page(s):47 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (53)
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB)

    An entirely new kind of switching device is fabricated entirely from metals. The three-layer, three-terminal spin transistor behaves somewhat like a semiconductor bipolar transistor; though the physical operating principles differ. The emitter and collector layers of the spin transistor are ferromagnetic films. The base layer is a nonmagnetic metal, such as gold, copper, or silver. Being all-metal... View full abstract»

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  • Layoffs should come last

    Publication Year: 1994, Page(s):52 - 55
    Request permission for reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (587 KB)

    In keeping a company afloat, it is usually best to consider shorter work weeks and retraining before letting people go. The authors discuss the alternatives to laying off staff.<<ETX>> View full abstract»

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