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Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date June 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Editor's Note

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 897
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editors' Introduction: Special Section on the IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium 2012

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 898 - 899
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Visual Analysis of Cardiac 4D MRI Blood Flow Using Line Predicates

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 900 - 912
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Four-dimensional MRI is an in vivo flow imaging modality that is expected to significantly enhance the understanding of cardiovascular diseases. Among other fields, 4D MRI provides valuable data for the research of cardiac blood flow and with that the development, diagnosis, and treatment of various cardiac pathologies. However, to gain insights from larger research studies or to apply 4D MRI in the clinical routine later on, analysis techniques become necessary that allow to robustly identify important flow characteristics without demanding too much time and expert knowledge. Heart muscle contractions and the particular complexity of the flow in the heart imply further challenges when analyzing cardiac blood flow. Working toward the goal of simplifying the analysis of 4D MRI heart data, we present a visual analysis method using line predicates. With line predicates precalculated integral lines are sorted into bundles with similar flow properties, such as velocity, vorticity, or flow paths. The user can combine the line predicates flexibly and by that carve out interesting flow features helping to gain overview. We applied our analysis technique to 4D MRI data of healthy and pathological hearts and present several flow aspects that could not be shown with current methods. Three 4D MRI experts gave feedback and confirmed the additional benefit of our method for their understanding of cardiac blood flow. View full abstract»

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  • Ambient Occlusion Effects for Combined Volumes and Tubular Geometry

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 913 - 926
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    This paper details a method for interactive direct volume rendering that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube-shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The algorithm extends the recently presented the directional occlusion shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. Stream tube geometries are computed using an effective spline-based interpolation and approximation scheme that avoids self-intersection and maintains coherent orientation of the stream tube segments to avoid surface deforming twists. Furthermore, strategies to reduce the geometric and specular aliasing of the stream tubes are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Maxent-Stress Model for Graph Layout

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 927 - 940
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    In some applications of graph visualization, input edges have associated target lengths. Dealing with these lengths is a challenge, especially for large graphs. Stress models are often employed in this situation. However, the traditional full stress model is not scalable due to its reliance on an initial all-pairs shortest path calculation. A number of fast approximation algorithms have been proposed. While they work well for some graphs, the results are less satisfactory on graphs of intrinsically high dimension, because some nodes may be placed too close together, or even share the same position. We propose a solution, called the maxent-stress model, which applies the principle of maximum entropy to cope with the extra degrees of freedom. We describe a force-augmented stress majorization algorithm that solves the maxent-stress model. Numerical results show that the algorithm scales well, and provides acceptable layouts for large, nonrigid graphs. This also has potential applications to scalable algorithms for statistical multidimensional scaling (MDS) with variable distances. View full abstract»

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  • A Divide-and-Conquer Approach to Quad Remeshing

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 941 - 952
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    Many natural and man-made objects consist of simple primitives, similar components, and various symmetry structures. This paper presents a divide-and-conquer quadrangulation approach that exploits such global structural information. Given a model represented in triangular mesh, we first segment it into a set of submeshes, and compare them with some predefined quad mesh templates. For the submeshes that are similar to a predefined template, we remesh them as the template up to a number of subdivisions. For the others, we adopt the wave-based quadrangulation technique to remesh them with extensions to preserve symmetric structure and generate compatible quad mesh boundary. To ensure that the individually remeshed submeshes can be seamlessly stitched together, we formulate a mixed-integer optimization problem and design a heuristic solver to optimize the subdivision numbers and the size fields on the submesh boundaries. With this divider-and-conquer quadrangulation framework, we are able to process very large models that are very difficult for the previous techniques. Since the submeshes can be remeshed individually in any order, the remeshing procedure can run in parallel. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can preserve the high-level structures, and process large complex surfaces robustly and efficiently. View full abstract»

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  • CiSE: A Circular Spring Embedder Layout Algorithm

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 953 - 966
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    We present a new algorithm for automatic layout of clustered graphs using a circular style. The algorithm tries to determine optimal location and orientation of individual clusters intrinsically within a modified spring embedder. Heuristics such as reversal of the order of nodes in a cluster and swap of neighboring node pairs in the same cluster are employed intermittently to further relax the spring embedder system, resulting in reduced inter-cluster edge crossings. Unlike other algorithms generating circular drawings, our algorithm does not require the quotient graph to be acyclic, nor does it sacrifice the edge crossing number of individual clusters to improve respective positioning of the clusters. Moreover, it reduces the total area required by a cluster by using the space inside the associated circle. Experimental results show that the execution time and quality of the produced drawings with respect to commonly accepted layout criteria are quite satisfactory, surpassing previous algorithms. The algorithm has also been successfully implemented and made publicly available as part of a compound and clustered graph editing and layout tool named Chisio. View full abstract»

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  • Depth-Fighting Aware Methods for Multifragment Rendering

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 967 - 977
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    Many applications require operations on multiple fragments that result from ray casting at the same pixel location. To this end, several approaches have been introduced that process for each pixel one or more fragments per rendering pass, so as to produce a multifragment effect. However, multifragment rasterization is susceptible to flickering artifacts when two or more visible fragments of the scene have identical depth values. This phenomenon is called coplanarity or Z-fighting and incurs various unpleasant and unintuitive results when rendering complex multilayer scenes. In this work, we develop depth-fighting aware algorithms for reducing, eliminating and/or detecting related flaws in scenes suffering from duplicate geometry. We adapt previously presented single and multipass rendering methods, providing alternatives for both commodity and modern graphics hardware. We report on the efficiency and robustness of all these alternatives and provide comprehensive comparison results. Finally, visual results are offered illustrating the effectiveness of our variants for a number of applications where depth accuracy and order are of critical importance. View full abstract»

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  • Interactive Visualizations of Blowups of the Plane

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 978 - 990
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    Blowups are an important technique in algebraic geometry that permit the smoothing of singular algebraic varieties. It is a challenge to visualize this process even in the case of blowups of points X in the affine plane AA2IR. First results were obtained by Brodmann with the aid of the so-called toroidal blowup, a compact embedding of the blowup into affine 3-space. In fact, Brodmann provides a rational parametrization of the toroidal blowup, but its visualization fails in the neighborhood of X because the parametrization tends to indefinite terms of the form 0/0. Our approach is based on implicitization of the parametric form. By methods from commutative algebra we are able to reduce the implicitization to the computation of a single, fairly simple resultant. This provides an algebraic equation of the implicit surface of the toroidal blowup including the so-called exceptional fiber associated with X. Surprisingly, the degree of the equation grows only linearly with the degree of the parametrization. By applying additional clipping techniques to the implicit surface we are able to visualize the toroidal blowup as well as its deformations by several parameters interactively in real time using GPU-based ray casting techniques. The methods of the paper provide insights in the structure of blowups of points, even if the points are interactively moved or tend to degenerations. View full abstract»

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  • Interpenetration Free Simulation of Thin Shell Rigid Bodies

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 991 - 1004
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    We propose a new algorithm for rigid body simulation that guarantees each body is in an interpenetration free state, both increasing the accuracy and robustness of the simulation as well as alleviating the need for ad hoc methods to separate bodies for subsequent simulation and rendering. We cleanly separate collision and contact resolution such that objects move and collide in the first step, with resting contact handled in the second step. The first step of our algorithm guarantees that each time step produces geometry that does not intersect or overlap by using an approximation to the continuous collision detection (and response) problem and, thus, is amenable to thin shells and degenerately flat objects moving at high speeds. In addition, we introduce a novel fail-safe that allows us to resolve all interpenetration without iterating to convergence. Since the first step guarantees a noninterfering state for the geometry, in the second step we propose a contact model for handling thin shells in proximity considering only the instantaneous locations at the ends of the time step. View full abstract»

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  • Multiverse Data-Flow Control

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1005 - 1019
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    In this paper, we present a data-flow system which supports comparative analysis of time-dependent data and interactive simulation steering. The system creates data on-the-fly to allow for the exploration of different parameters and the investigation of multiple scenarios. Existing data-flow architectures provide no generic approach to handle modules that perform complex temporal processing such as particle tracing or statistical analysis over time. Moreover, there is no solution to create and manage module data, which is associated with alternative scenarios. Our solution is based on generic data-flow algorithms to automate this process, enabling elaborate data-flow procedures, such as simulation, temporal integration or data aggregation over many time steps in many worlds. To hide the complexity from the user, we extend the World Lines interaction techniques to control the novel data-flow architecture. The concept of multiple, special-purpose cursors is introduced to let users intuitively navigate through time and alternative scenarios. Users specify only what they want to see, the decision which data are required is handled automatically. The concepts are explained by taking the example of the simulation and analysis of material transport in levee-breach scenarios. To strengthen the general applicability, we demonstrate the investigation of vortices in an offline-simulated dam-break data set. View full abstract»

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  • Physically-Based Feature Tracking for CFD Data

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1020 - 1033
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    Numerical simulations of turbulent fluid flow in areas ranging from solar physics to aircraft design are dominated by the presence of repeating patterns known as coherent structures. These persistent features are not yet well understood, but are believed to play an important role in the dynamics of turbulent fluid motion, and are the subject of study across numerous scientific and engineering disciplines. To facilitate their investigation a variety of techniques have been devised to track the paths of these structures as they evolve through time. Heretofore, all such feature tracking methods have largely ignored the physics governing the motion of these objects at the expense of error prone and often computationally expensive solutions. In this paper, we present a feature path prediction method that is based on the physics of the underlying solutions to the equations of fluid motion. To the knowledge of the authors the accuracy of these predictions is superior to methods reported elsewhere. Moreover, the precision of these forecasts for many applications is sufficiently high to enable the use of only the most rudimentary and inexpensive forms of correspondence matching. We also provide insight on the relationship between the internal time stepping used in a CFD simulation, and the evolution of coherent structures, that we believe is of benefit to any feature tracking method applicable to CFD. Finally, our method is easy to implement, and computationally inexpensive to execute, making it well suited for very high-resolution simulations. View full abstract»

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  • PIWI: Visually Exploring Graphs Based on Their Community Structure

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1034 - 1047
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Multimedia
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    Community structure is an important characteristic of many real networks, which shows high concentrations of edges within special groups of vertices and low concentrations between these groups. Community related graph analysis, such as discovering relationships among communities, identifying attribute-structure relationships, and selecting a large number of vertices with desired structural features and attributes, are common tasks in knowledge discovery in such networks. The clutter and the lack of interactivity often hinder efforts to apply traditional graph visualization techniques in these tasks. In this paper, we propose PIWI, a novel graph visual analytics approach to these tasks. Instead of using Node-Link Diagrams (NLDs), PIWI provides coordinated, uncluttered visualizations, and novel interactions based on graph community structure. The novel features, applicability, and limitations of this new technique have been discussed in detail. A set of case studies and preliminary user studies have been conducted with real graphs containing thousands of vertices, which provide supportive evidence about the usefulness of PIWI in community related tasks. View full abstract»

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  • Understanding Visualization: A Formal Approach Using Category Theory and Semiotics

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1048 - 1061
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    This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not. View full abstract»

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  • Visual Analysis and Steering of Flooding Simulations

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1062 - 1075
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Multimedia
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    We present a visualization tool for the real-time analysis of interactively steered ensemble-simulation runs, and apply it to flooding simulations. Simulations are performed on-the-fly, generating large quantities of data. The user wants to make sense of the data as it is created. The tool facilitates understanding of what happens in all scenarios, where important events occur, and how simulation runs are related. We combine different approaches to achieve this goal. To maintain an overview, data are aggregated and embedded into the simulation rendering, showing trends, outliers, and robustness. For a detailed view, we use information-visualization views and interactive visual analysis techniques. A selection mechanism connects the two approaches. Points of interest are selected by clicking on aggregates, supplying data for visual analysis. This allows the user to maintain an overview of the ensemble and perform analysis even as new data are supplied through simulation steering. Unexpected or unwanted developments are detected easily, and the user can focus the exploration on them. The solution was evaluated with two case studies focusing on placing and testing flood defense measures. Both were evaluated by a consortium of flood simulation and defense experts, who found the system to be both intuitive and relevant. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Visualization techniques and methodologies; visualization systems and software; volume visualization; flow visualization; multivariate visualization; modeling and surfaces; rendering; animation; user interfaces; visual progranuning; applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Leila De Floriani
Department of Computer Science, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering
University of Genova
16146 Genova (Italy)
ldf4tvcg@umiacs.umd.edu