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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date March 2013

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  • Table of Contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1 - 413
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
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  • Electrode-Gap Effects on the Electron Density and Electron Temperature in Atmospheric Radio-Frequency Discharges

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 414 - 420
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (629 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electrode-gap effects on discharge characteristics have attracted increasing attention in the design of atmospheric discharge devices. In this paper, a 1-D fluid model is used to explore the influences of electrode gap on the electron density and temperature of atmospheric radio-frequency discharges under a constant power density condition. As the electrode gap is increased, both the applied voltage and current density increase and the computational data and analytical equations show a monotonic increase in the electron density; the peak electron temperature in the sheath increases but decreases in the bulk plasma region. At a constant power density, altering the electrode gap can be used to tailor the spatial distribution of the electron density and electrode temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Large-Area Cold Atmospheric Pressure Discharges Realized by Mesh Covered Tube-Plate Electrodes in Open Air

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 421 - 424
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    A large-area atmospheric pressure plasma with low temperature and high electron density was realized using mesh covered tube-plate electrodes at an RF power as low as 4 W. The gas temperature is less than 351 K, while the electron temperature is about 5000 K. The estimated electron density is on the order of 1012 cm-3. Electrical measurements indicate that the discharges are capacitive and operated in an abnormal glow discharge mode. In addition, a self-bias observed at the powered tube electrode increases with increasing power and is positive at high powers. View full abstract»

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  • Exactly Solved Models of Ionization Equilibrium of Thermal Plasmas With Multicharged Ions

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 425 - 436
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    This paper considers ionization equilibrium of thermal multicharged plasmas of simple gases and describes calculations of charges of the mean ion (MI) and the most represented ion (RI). A consideration is carried out by means of the Saha-Raizer method. The obtained results are compared with a solution of the Saha equation system. Model gases with a given sequence of ionization levels, namely, linear, logarithmic, and quadratic, were considered. Exact solutions for the sequences of the ion distribution on the ionization degree and exact formulas for the MI and RI values were obtained. It is shown that the problem of ionization equilibrium could be solved exactly at any physically reasonable sequence of the ionization levels. The method is generalized for the case of electronegative gas and for the case of a mixture of chemically noninteracting gases. View full abstract»

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  • Manifestation of Constrained Dynamics in a Low-Pressure Spark

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 437 - 446
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    Some features of neutron emission from dense plasma focus suggest that the participating deuterons have energy in the range of 105 eV and have a directionality of toroidal motion. Theoretical models of these devices assume that the plasma evolves through a purely irrotational flow and thus fail to predict such solenoidal flow on the scale of the plasma dimensions. Predictions of a relaxation theory are consistent with experimental data [S K H Auluck, Physics of Plasmas, 18, 032508 (2011)], but the assumptions upon which it is based are not compatible with known features of these devices. There is thus no satisfactory theoretical construct which provides the necessity for solenoidal flow in these devices. This paper proposes such theoretical construct, namely, the principle of constrained dynamics, and describes an experiment which provides support for this idea. The experiment consisted of low-inductance self-breaking spark discharge in helium at a pressure ~ 100 hPa between two pointed electrodes separated by 30-50-mm distance kept inside a vacuum chamber mounted on a low-inductance high-voltage capacitor. The current derivative signal showed reproducible sharp dips at all of the extrema of the damped sinusoidal discharge. A planar diamagnetic loop centered with and perpendicular to the discharge axis consistently showed a signal representing rate of change of axial magnetic flux. The discharge plasma was very weakly ionized. Its acceleration was constrained by viscous drag of the neutrals, pressure gradient was constrained by heat conduction by neutrals, and at the same time, the axial current density and azimuthal magnetic field were constrained to follow an oscillatory temporal profile. Under these conditions, radial momentum balance equation cannot be satisfied unless the plasma possesses a degree of freedom, which supplies the shortfall in momentum balance. Azimuthal symmetry of the plasma allows azimuthal current density to provide such degree of - reedom. A qualitative explanation of observed phenomena is obtained using a simple model. View full abstract»

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  • Observation of Ionization Wave Refraction at a Plane-Parallel Interface

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 447 - 449
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    Photo images of ionization waves in a disk chamber are presented in this paper. The disk chamber has a narrowing in the form of a ledge. Igniting a dc glow discharge, we observed for the first time refraction of ionization wave beams at their passage of the ledge. The refraction is similar to one of light at a plane-parallel plate. Analysis of the images confirmed the fulfillment of Snell's law for ionization waves. View full abstract»

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  • High-Frequency Transmission Characteristics of Inert Coolant Liquids for High-Power Gyrotron Windows

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 450 - 455
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    The frequency response of dielectric properties of coolant liquids used in the gyrotron RF window is measured. FC-40, FC-75, and CCl4 are considered for the measurements due to their reported application in gyrotron and excellent dielectric properties required for high-power RF transmission. A performance probe kit based on the reflection method is used for measurements in wide frequency range from 200 MHz to 50 GHz. Vector network analyzer (VNA) is used as the RF source as well as receiver. The dielectric constant and loss tangent are calculated directly by using the scattering matrix data obtained from the VNA. Further, ac conductivity and relaxation time are also computed by using measured data of loss tangent and dielectric constant. View full abstract»

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  • Interwoven-Disk-Loaded Circular Waveguide for a Wideband Gyro-Traveling-Wave Tube

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 456 - 460
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    An additional disk was introduced in the unit cell of a periodic disk-loaded interaction structure for a gyro-traveling-wave tube, and the small-signal gain-frequency response of the device was studied. The dispersion data of interwoven-disk-loaded structure were fed into the small-signal gain equation for the calculation of the small-signal device gain. The effects of the gyrating electron beam, magnetic field, and dimensional parameters were discussed in order to achieve a wideband device performance. The gain-frequency response of an interwoven-disk-loaded device was compared with that of a conventional disk-loaded device to show the widening of the device bandwidth. For typically chosen structure parameters, the 3-dB device bandwidth was found to be improved from 4.7 to 6.4 GHz ( ~ 36%) in a Ka-band device. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Sheet Electron Beam Transport Under Uniform Magnetic Field

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 461 - 469
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1759 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The transport of sheet electron beam through the drift tube tunnel under uniform magnetic field has been analyzed. The edge curling due to the sharp increase of horizontal component of the space charge field has been explained by a windlike shear model, and an expression for vertical displacement of the beam edge from the top or bottom surface of the beam is derived on the basis of the aforementioned model. The effect of the height fill factor of the beam on the vertical displacement of the beam edge is analyzed analytically and then validated with numerical results by CST Particle Studio and OPERA 3-D software tools by considering some useful beam parameters. The vertical displacement of the beam edge enhances, and the higher portion of the beam is affected when it transports through short periodic vane-loaded interaction structures. For the sheet beam transport through planar vane-loaded structures suitable for subterahertz traveling-wave tube, the sum of the drift tube tunnel height and twice of the vane height should be considered as the effective tunnel height to calculate the required magnetic field in order to keep the vertical displacement maximum up to some desired value so that the beam edges must not strike on the vanes. View full abstract»

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  • Ion–Neutral Collision Modeling Using Classical Scattering With Spin-Orbit Free Interaction Potential

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 470 - 480
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    A particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision model is developed to explore dominant collisional effects on high-velocity xenon ions incident to a quiescent xenon gas at low neutral pressures. The range of neutral pressure and collisionality examined are applicable for electric propulsion as well as plasma processing devices; therefore, the computational technique described herein can be applied to more complex simulations of those devices. Momentum and resonant charge-exchange collisions between ions and background neutrals are implemented using two different models, classical scattering with spin-orbit free potential and variable-hard-sphere model, depending on the incident particle energy. The primary and charge-exchange ions are tracked separately, and their trajectories within a well-defined “Test Cell” domain are determined. Predicted electrode currents as a function of the Test Cell pressure are compared with electrode currents measured in an ion gun experiment. The simulation results agree well with the experiment up to a Test Cell pressure corresponding to a mean free path of the Test Cell length and then start to deviate with increasing collisionality at higher pressures. This discrepancy at higher pressures is likely due to the increasing influence of secondary electrons emitted from electrodes due to the high-velocity impacts of heavy species (i.e., beam ions and fast neutrals created by charge-exchange interaction) at the electrode surfaces. View full abstract»

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  • AC Pulse Dielectric Barrier Corona Discharge Over Oil Surfaces: Effect of Oil Temperature

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 481 - 484
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    The oil temperature effect on the interaction between plasma caused by high ac pulse barrier corona discharge and dielectric oil film is investigated. The results showed that funnels due to the impact of electric wind or the shock wave generated by streamer discharge occurred more easily under asymmetric negative ac pulse voltages at low oil temperatures but more difficult at high oil temperatures compared with those under asymmetric positive ac pulse voltages. The variation of the funnel diameter with voltage was more obvious under asymmetric positive ac pulse voltages. Oil boiling appeared in the funnel induced by discharge under asymmetric negative ac pulse voltages with high temperatures; thermal flow manifested by localized material transfer existed, and finally, a viscous layer formed in the funnel for oils with elevated temperatures under asymmetric positive ac pulse voltages. View full abstract»

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  • Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostics for Spatiotemporal OH Evolution in Pulsed Corona Discharge

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 485 - 493
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    OH radicals play an important role in pollutant removal in nonthermal plasmas. It is crucial to clarify the behavior of OH radicals in this process. A time-resolved 2-D OH radial distribution was investigated in a pulsed corona discharge by planar laser-induced fluorescence at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The OH evolutions under different gas components were studied, and the evolution process was simulated. The OH decay processes were found to be divided into two periods: a fast decay period and a slow decay period. The O, N, and HO2 are dominant radicals for OH generation and decay. The OH radicals are mainly generated near a nozzle electrode. The concentration variations of O2, NO, and H2O in the background gas led to different OH density evolutions. The OH distribution zones were different as gas components varied. The maximum area of OH radical distribution after discharge decreased by 20% as O2 increased from 5% to 8 %, and it decreased by 69% as NO (150 ppm) was added into the background gas. View full abstract»

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  • Large-Volume \hbox {N}_{2} Plasma Induced by Electron Beam at High Pressure

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 494 - 497
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    It is still a challenge to generate large-volume nonequilibrium plasma at high pressure. In this paper, a large-volume nonequilibrium plasma which has a diameter of 50 cm and a length of 35 cm at 20-kPa N2 induced by electron beam (EB) is reported. The experimental results are consistent with the results simulated by software EGSnrc. The emission spectra reveal that the plasma contains abundant excited N2* and N2+ *. It is similar to the traditional plasma generation techniques such as pulse discharge. The rotational and vibrational temperatures of the plasma next to the EB entrance are about 550 K and 1700 K, respectively. The results of the time evolution experiment show that there are no obvious influences of space charge on the plasma. View full abstract»

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  • Electric-Shock-Free Coupling of Double Atmospheric-Plasma Jets

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 498 - 502
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The electrical potential of a plasma column is investigated, and the potential of a plasma plume exiting through the open end of the glass tube is measured for a pair of two plasma jets coupled by the operation voltage polarity. When the double plasma jet devices are operated by high voltages in the opposite polarities of ac voltage with a few kilovolts at both ends of a glass tube, the ejected plasma jets are attractive to each other at the intersection, merging and having the plasma potential of a several tens of volts. Therefore, electric shock would not be any problem when the merged plumes are exposed to biosubstrates. In contrast to the attractive coupling of different voltage polarities, if the two plasma jets are operated by the same voltage polarity of repulsive coupling, the ejected plasma jets are repulsive to each other at the intersection, having the plasma potential of a several hundreds of volts and causing an electrical shock. View full abstract»

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  • A Comparative Study of the Time-Resolved Decomposition of Methylene Blue Dye Under the Action of a Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed DBD Plasma Jet Using Liquid Chromatography and Spectrophotometry

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 503 - 512
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (942 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An underwater dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet excited by a repetitively pulsed nanosecond pulsed power modulator was used to study plasma-induced decolorization of a 1.4 × 10-4 M solution of methylene blue (MB). Past plasma decolorization studies have focused on spectrophotometry as the main diagnostic to assess decomposition. Because spectrophotometry is a measure of changes in the structure of molecular color, it is not an absolute measure of decomposition. In this paper, high-pressure liquid chromatography is used in parallel with spectrophotometry for comparison purposes and to assess the degree of true decomposition. Spectrophotometry results were found to be in agreement with chromatography measurements, suggesting that, at least in the case of MB, spectrophotometry is an adequate measure of decomposition. Additionally, the utility of a dual plasma jet applicator for rapid contaminant decomposition was explored. View full abstract»

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  • Study on DC-Driven Air Cold Plasma Brushes Generated Without Airflow Supplement

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 513 - 517
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In this paper, 30-mm-wide cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma brushes are reported. The brushes driven by a direct current power supply are capable of generating air plasma glows with no noble gas addition and no airflow supplement. There is no risk of glow-to-arc transitions, and the plasma glow appears uniform no matter what kinds of material are being processed. The air plasma glow can be scaled up by using the plasma brush arrays. About 30mm × 30mm × 5mm (W, H, and L) homogeneous air plasma glow is generated by merging seven-brush arrays. Current measurements show that the single-brush discharge appears periodically pulsed, while the brush array discharge actually presents either pulsed with about array-number-times frequency of the single one. A further analysis indicates that the charge particles trapped along the dielectric surface may be responsible for the discharges. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of Copolymer Films by RF Plasma: Correlation Between Plasma Chemistry and Film Characteristics

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 518 - 527
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    Plasma copolymerization has the ability to design new functional thin films. Combinations of the different monomers were used to deposit copolymer thin films on a silicon substrate by radio-frequency pulsed inductively coupled plasma. In order to gain an insight into the plasma copolymerization process, the plasma was investigated by means of the optical emission spectroscopy for different reactive compositions. The physical chemistry of the deposited copolymer films was analyzed by several surface analytical techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Information from the plasma and the deposited films was correlated and provides some possible steps for organic plasma-chemical conversion into a stable polymer. In our paper, optical emission spectra of the plasma and XPS spectra of the films are predictive; plasma emitting a higher relative benzyl radical signal results in the deposition of a more aromatic plasma-deposited polymer films, and thin polymeric films with desired functionalities can be therefore deposited by an appropriate selection of the comonomers. View full abstract»

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  • Coaxial Termination Load for High-Voltage Fast Transient Pulse Measurement

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 528 - 539
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A high-voltage fast transient pulse termination load using a 10-mm distributed ceramic-carbon-rod resistor has been developed. It is capable of measuring a pulse's voltage amplitudes up to 100 kV and a rise time less than 300 ps. A difficulty for the development of the high-voltage ultrawideband (UWB) termination device is the compromise of the resistive element size considering opposite characteristics of the high voltage and the wideband frequency. A smaller resistor shows the better high-frequency performance but the worse high-voltage insulation characteristic. Many previous studies in the area of pulsed-power development have used a nonscaled load device for the pulse termination; nevertheless, a mismatch between a source and a load impedance results in significant misunderstanding of the output voltage in a high-voltage fast transient pulse measurement. In this paper, we propose a newly developed high-voltage UWB coaxial load improving impedance characteristics of a nonscaled load device. Physical length of a rod resistor is far longer than a wavelength of an input pulse so that the impedance linearly increases in the moving direction of the incoming pulse. The proposed log-scaled coaxial load device with a distributed ceramic-carbon-rod resistor has a property of compensating impedance variations, which is caused by the usage of an electrically long rod resistor, by means of diminishing coaxial characteristic impedance exponentially along the resistor. This diminishing coaxial structure makes it possible to maintain consistent impedance through the entire load device. Experimental results show good agreement with expectations in aspects of the voltage standing-wave ratio under 1.25 : 1 from dc to 10 GHz; peak impedance variations under 10% with the final converged impedance of 54.86 Ω; and negligible reflections when injecting the repetitive pulsed input with amplitudes from 15 to 100 kV, a rise time below 300 ps, and repetition rates under 10 kHz. View full abstract»

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  • Application of the Gray-Level Standard Deviation in the Analysis of the Uniformity of DBD Caused by the Rotary Electrode

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 540 - 544
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    As the uniform dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) consisted by a large number of microdischarges in a long timescale may meet the needs of industrial application, the evaluation of the uniformity of DBDs used in the industry is different from that in the laboratory. In this paper, a digital image processing method presented in our previous paper is used to describe the uniformity of DBDs caused by the rotary plate electrode in a long timescale. Whether or not the electrode is rotated, with an increase in time, the gray-level standard deviation Std of the discharge image gradually decreases and reaches its stable value at last. The electrode rotation results in reducing the time constant required to reach a steady state for the gray-level distribution. With an increase in rotary speed, Std gradually decreases and reaches its stable values at last. This means that the electrode rotation improves the uniformity of the discharge. The reason produced the aforementioned phenomena should come from the relative motion of the accumulated charge on the dielectric surface and microdischarge remnants in the volume. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical and Spectral Characteristics of a Low-Temperature Argon–Oxygen Plasma Jet With Syringe Needle-Ring Electrodes

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 545 - 552
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1219 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Low-temperature atmospheric-pressure argon-oxygen plasma jet is generated with syringe needle-ring electrodes, which is powered by a sinusoidal excitation voltage at 8 kHz. The volume percentage of the oxygen content in the argon gas is as high as 12.5%. It is found that the rotational temperature of nitrogen is in the range of 297-320 K, and the vibrational temperature is almost unchanged to be about 2475 K, which is obtained by comparing the simulated spectrum with the measured spectrum at the C3 ΠuB3Πgv = -2) band transition. The electronic excitation temperature is in the range of 8587-8994 K as obtained by the Boltzmann's plot method, the electron temperature at the tip of syringe needle is about 7.3 eV as estimated by the Einstein's equation, and the densities of atomic oxygen and molecular nitrogen are, respectively, on the order of magnitude of 1016cm-3 as determined by actinometry method, respectively. Moreover, the 2-D and 1-D distributions of the electric field magnitude are estimated by the 2-D finite-element software. At a time of 45.7 μs and an instantaneous applied voltage of 8 kV, the electric field magnitude at the edge of the ring ground electrode is the largest, and it is 15.9 kV/cm at the tip of the syringe needle. View full abstract»

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  • Transformation of Enhanced Glow Discharge Dynamics in Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 553 - 558
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    In nitrogen enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation, the implantation current increases sharply with the gas pressure when a threshold pressure is exceeded, indicating that the glow discharge dynamics changes with increasing diatomic gas flow rate. The voltage drop rendered by the anode glow produces noticeable N2+ dissociation and electron-atom ionization in the positive column which expands to the cathode. As a result, charged particles reach the cathode more easily, and the larger plasma density and N+/N2+ ratio in the positive column lead to the higher current. Our results clarify the implantation current characteristics and expedite adoption of this alternative plasma immersion technology. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of a Plasma Sheath in a Weakly Magnetized ICP Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Technique

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 559 - 563
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    The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique is used to measure the electric field in the sheath region of weakly magnetized inductively coupled plasma. First, the LIF spectra are simulated for the dc and RF helium plasma, considering both the Stark energy splits and their transition probabilities. It is observed that the sheath thickness oscillates in time in the RF plasma and is reduced when the plasma is magnetized. The plasma density distribution and the electron temperature were measured to explain the reduction in the sheath thickness. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel All Solid-State Sub-Microsecond Pulse Generator for Dielectric Barrier Discharges

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 564 - 569
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (927 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design for a novel all solid-state sub-microsecond pulse generator for dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs). This generator consists of a MARX generator, Blumlein transmission lines (BTLs) and one magnetic switch (MS). As a power supply, the all solid-state MARX generator is capable of outputting nanosecond-pulses with a voltage peak of up to 20 KV. The key elements are BTLs which are charged by the MARX generator. Due to the unmatched impedance of DBD load, energy stored in BTLs begins to oscillate through DBD load after the MS turns on. The violent oscillation lasts until all the energy is consumed. During the violent oscillation, over ten discharges are excited in 5 μs under a single-shot condition. Thus, extremely intense plasma can be produced due to the accumulation effect. The alternating-current decaying voltage over the MS has a demagnetization effect, and DC reset circuit can therefore be spared. Experiments with matched resistor load were also carried out, and rectangular pulses with voltage up to 20 kV and duration of 220 ns were obtained. The ratio of the energy consumed by the resistor from the energy stored in the BTLs is 84.9%. The DBD images under a single shot and 100 Hz are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Comparative Analysis of Charging Modes of Series-Resonant Converter for an Energy Storage Capacitor

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 570 - 577
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1228 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses charging modes of series-resonant converter (SRC) for an energy storage capacitor in terms of charging time, losses of switch, normalized peak resonant current, normalized peak resonant voltage, and switch utilization in three operational modes. Principles of operation on the full-bridge SRC with capacitor load are explained, and charging characteristics in discontinuous and continuous operational modes are analyzed. Based on the analysis and the simulation focused on the aforementioned five performance indexes, ms = 0.5 is evaluated to be the optimized operating frequency ratio for charging an energy storage capacitor. A 1.8-kJ/s SRC prototype is assembled with the TI 28335 DSP controller and a 40-kJ 7-kV capacitor. Design rules based on the comparative analysis are verified by experiment. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
1428 Miracerros Loop South
Santa Fe, NM  87505  87505  USA
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