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Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Dec. 2012

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  • Table of Contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting publication information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C2
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  • 2012 Scott Helt Memorial Award for the Best Paper Published in the IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 521 - 522
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  • A Depth-Aware Character Generator for 3DTV

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 523 - 532
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2253 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In 3DTV, it is known that video captions and graphics should be inserted at proper scene depth positions, to prevent possible viewing discomfort. We propose a character generator that automatically analyzes the scene disparities and determines the proper depth of the graphic object to be inserted. The challenge is that the disparity range estimation from feature correspondences is severely affected even by a few outliers, whereas naıuml;ve SURF or BRIEF matching produces a considerable amount of outliers. We propose a multiple-hypothesis feature matching algorithm that considers the disparity coherence between adjacent features, with which most mismatches can be removed according to the reliability aggregated from the neighboring features. To estimate the accurate disparity range from the feature correspondences, a disparity histogram is computed and filtered by a space-time kernel to suppress the effect of incorrect disparities. We also propose the disparity-depth conversion in the asymmetric view frustum which is used for the stereoscopic rendering of graphics. Experimental results show that a 3D graphic object is successfully inserted at the desired depth which is obtained from the proposed disparity range estimation and disparity-depth conversion. View full abstract»

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  • Robust DT-CWT Watermarking for DIBR 3D Images

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 533 - 543
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2436 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The popularity of 3D content is on the rise since it provides an immersive experience to viewers. In this situation, depth-image-based rendering (DIBR) has taken on an important role in 3D technology due to its low bandwidth cost and ease of depth configuration. Noting that the viewer could record provided center view or synthesized views for illegal distribution, it is clear that copyright protection must be taken into account for the DIBR 3D content, including the possibility that one single view could be illegally distributed as 2D content. In this paper, we propose a robust watermarking scheme for DIBR 3D images by quantization on dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) coefficients with consideration of imperceptibility. To make the proposed scheme robust to DIBR process, two characteristics of DT-CWT are employed: approximate shift invariance and directional selectivity. We select certain coefficient sub-blocks and group the coefficient rows based on the properties of DIBR. On the extraction side, the threshold is carefully chosen with a low false positive rate. The simulation results show that the embedded watermark is stably extracted from the center view and the synthesized left and right views. In addition, even if the synthesized left and right views are distorted by general attacks, the watermark is successfully extracted. Furthermore, the proposed scheme is robust to pre-processing of the depth image and baseline adjusting, which are common processing on the DIBR system for better quality of 3D views. View full abstract»

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  • Perceived 3D TV Transmission Quality Assessment: Multi-Laboratory Results Using Absolute Category Rating on Quality of Experience Scale

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 544 - 557
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2366 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Inspired by the rapidly increasing popularity of 3D movies, there is an industrial push for 3DTV services to the home. One important factor for the success and acceptance by the viewers is a positive quality of experience (QoE) of the new service when delivered. The questions of how to efficiently deliver 3DTV service to the home, and how to evaluate the visual quality perceived by end users are a recent research focus. We have investigated users' experience of stereoscopic 3D video quality by preparing two subjective assessment datasets. The first dataset aimed at the evaluation of efficient transmission in the transmission error free case, while the second focused on error concealment. A total of three subjective assessments, two for first dataset and one for the second, were performed using the Absolute Category Rating with Hidden unimpaired Reference video (ACR-HR) method. The experimental setup allows to show that the ACR-HR subjective method provides repeatable results across labs and across conditions for video quality. It was also verified that MVC is more efficient than H.264 simulcast coding. Furthermore it was discovered that based on the same level of quality of experience spatial down-sampling may lead to better bitrate efficiency while temporal down-sampling is not acceptable. When network impairments occur, traditional error 2D concealment methods need to be reinvestigated as they were outperformed by displaying the same view for both eyes (switching to 2D presentation). View full abstract»

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  • Coding Distortion Elimination of Virtual View Synthesis for 3D Video System: Theoretical Analyses and Implementation

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 558 - 568
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2290 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For a three dimensional video (3DV) system, coding distortion of texture videos and depth maps could be propagated to virtual views during the view synthesis procedure. In this paper, the coding distortion is considered in the virtual view synthesis. In order to reduce the coding distortion as well as improve the qualities of synthesized virtual views, Wiener filter is utilized in 3DV systems. To ensure that Wiener filter could be implemented on virtual views, the principles of virtual view synthesis and Wiener filter are presented and analyzed in detail. Subsequently, the implementation of Wiener filter is designed for 3DV system. In the proposed method, Wiener filter coefficients of each frame are calculated in the 3DV server, and then transmitted to the 3DV terminal. By employing those Wiener filter coefficients, post filtering on the virtual views could be implemented after the virtual view synthesis procedure. Experimental results demonstrate that a maximum 0.742 dB PSNR gain could be achieved when comparing the proposed method (taking the coding bits of depth maps, texture videos, and that of Wiener filter coefficients into consideration) with the virtual view synthesis method without Wiener filter at the same coding bit rate of a 3DV system. View full abstract»

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  • Novel End-to-End Quality of Service Provisioning Algorithms for Multimedia Services in Virtualization-Based Future Internet

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 569 - 579
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Network virtualization has been proposed as a key contribution to the future internetworking paradigm and is expected to play a crucial role in the next generation Internet. Although interesting progress has been made towards network virtualization, end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning for multimedia services in network virtualization environments is still an important open topic. In this paper, we tackle this challenging issue by modeling multimedia service delivery in network virtualization and proposing efficient path selection algorithms for virtual networks. The main contributions of this paper are a model for the end-to-end multimedia service delivery in network virtualization environments, proposal of efficient algorithms for selecting paths traversing the network infrastructure for QoS provisioning in virtual networks, and analysis of the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithms. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the modeling technique and the algorithms proposed in this paper are general and flexible, and therefore applicable to the delivery of multimedia content in various heterogeneous networking systems in the next generation Internet. View full abstract»

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  • Quantifying Subjective Quality Evaluations for Mobile Video Watching in a Semi-Living Lab Context

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 580 - 589
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1421 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses results from an exploratory study in which Quality of Experience aspects related to mobile video watching were investigated in a semi-living lab setting. More specifically, we zoom in on usage patterns in a natural research context and on the subjective evaluation of high and low-resolution movie trailers that are transferred to a mobile device using two transmission protocols for video (i.e., real-time transport protocol and progressive download using HTTP). User feedback was collected by means of short questionnaires on the mobile device, combined with traditional pen and paper diaries. The subjective evaluations regarding the general technical quality, perceived distortion, fluentness of the video, and loading speed are studied and the influence of the transmission protocol and video resolution on these evaluations is analyzed. Multinomial logistic regression results in a model to estimate the subjective evaluations regarding the perceived distortion and loading speed based on objectively-measured parameters of the video session. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation and Co-Simulation of Hybrid Pilot-Aided Channel Estimation With Decision Feedback Equalizer for OFDM Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 590 - 602
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces novel hybrid pilot-aided channel estimation with decision feedback equalizer(DFE) for OFDM systems and its corresponding hardware co-simulation platform. This pilot-aided channel estimation algorithm consists of two parts: coarse estimation and fine estimation. In the coarse estimation, the combined classical channel estimation methods including carrier frequency offset (CFO) and channel impulse response (CIR) estimation are used. Based on the received training sequence and pilot tones in the frequency domain, the major CFO, sampling clock frequency offset (SFO) and CIR effect coefficients are derived. In the fine estimation, the pilot-aided polynomial interpolation estimation combined with a new decision feedback equalizer scheme based on minimum mean squared error (MMSE) criteria is proposed to reduce the residual effect caused by imperfect CIR equalizer, SFO and CFO. At the same time, for the purpose of speeding up the whole development and verification process, a new architecture of co-simulation platform which combines software and hardware is introduced. The simulation results on the co-simulation platform indicate that the proposed hybrid channel estimation scheme can enhance the receiver performance by 6 dB in terms of error vector magnitude (EVM) over large ranges of CFO and SFO and BER performance by 7 dB for SNR range over 15 dB. View full abstract»

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  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio Estimation Algorithm for Advanced DVB-RCS Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 603 - 608
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1012 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimation algorithm for advanced Digital Video Broadcasting-Return Channel via Satellite (DVB-RCS) systems using adaptive coding and modulation (ACM) in the reverse link of broadband satellite systems. Due to the absence of a repetitive pilot symbol structure, SNR estimation has to be performed using the fixed symbol preamble data. Moreover, sporadic nature of data traffic on the return link causes variation in interference level from slot to slot and, therefore, the estimation has to be done within one traffic slot duration. Hence, it becomes necessary to use a combination of data-aided (DA) and decision-directed (DD) algorithms so as to make use of traffic data. A non-data-aided (NDA) estimator that was previously proposed by the authors for binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and QPSK schemes is extended to 8-PSK in a decision directed manner. This estimator shows improved performance over existing estimators. The inherent bias of DD approach at low values of SNR is reduced by using a hybrid approach, i.e., using the proposed estimator at moderate/high values of SNR and the moments-based estimator (M2M4) at low values of SNR. Overall improved performance of the proposed hybrid estimator, in terms of accuracy and complexity, makes it an attractive choice for implementing ACM in advanced DVB-RCS systems. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Digital Predistortion for Wideband High Crest Factor Applications Based on the WACP Optimization Objective: A Conceptual Overview

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 609 - 618
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1198 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a method of digital predistortion suitable for wideband high crest factor applications such as those encountered in DAB, DVB-T and WCDMA transmitters. The proposed method is advantageous for four main reasons. Firstly, it utilizes a reliable frequency domain measure of transmitter output nonlinearity, specifically the Weighted Adjacent Channel Power (WACP), as the objective for predistortion filter parameter estimation. This is in direct contrast to traditional approaches which utilize a time domain measure obtained via a full feedback path and potentially corrupted by gain and phase compensation error as well as ADC distortion. Secondly, the method models predistortion filter parameter estimation as a generic nonlinear mathematical optimization problem. This model assumes a nonconvex objective function and therefore utilizes both global and local optimization algorithms to achieve true global convergence. This is once again in direct contrast to traditional approaches which model predistortion filter parameter estimation as a linear regression problem. Such a model incorrectly assumes a convex error surface and therefore restricts itself to inadequate local optimization algorithms which unfortunately cannot guarantee true global convergence. Thirdly, the method's predistortion filter is a pruned Volterra Series with memory which utilizes a hybrid pruning strategy in order to keep high order kernels to a practically manageable size, suitable for optimization parameter estimation. Predistortion filter memory ultimately makes the method highly suited to wideband applications. Finally, predistortion filter parameter estimation does not require known test signals to be injected into the transmitter and therefore the technique is on-air adaptive. This means any transmitter using this method of digital predistortion will be both on-air and optimally linearized for its entire operational life. Preliminary results obtained from actual hardware are pres- nted. View full abstract»

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  • A New PAPR Reduction Scheme Using Efficient Peak Cancellation for OFDM Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 619 - 628
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1987 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new computationally efficient peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals is proposed, which utilizes the parabolic peak cancellation (PPC) using the truncated kernel signal generated from the inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) of the shaped peak reduction tones (PRTs). The proposed scheme only repeats peak canceling in the time domain without iteratively performing IFFT and FFT. Also, the application of the proposed PPC scheme to active constellation extension (ACE) can reduce the number of iterations of IFFT and FFT. Moreover, a transmit power allocation scheme is also suggested to relieve the degradation of bit error rate (BER) of the proposed PAPR reduction scheme. Numerical analysis shows that if the shaping parameters of PRTs are chosen properly, out-of-band (OOB) radiation and BER can be improved while the PAPR reduction performance is maintained. View full abstract»

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  • Reception Quality Prediction in a Single Frequency Network for the DTMB Standard

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 629 - 636
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1234 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Single frequency network (SFN) is an attractive scheme for the digital television terrestrial broadcasting (DTTB) coverage with efficient utilization of the spectral resources. In this paper, a method featuring low complexity and low workload is proposed to estimate the reception quality under the SFN environment with the maximum delay spread of the artificial multipath no longer than the guard interval. Based on the analysis of error probability and channel capacity, this method supports an unambiguous prediction of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) threshold according to the parameters of received signals, which is thus meaningful for system evaluation. We applied this method to the digital television/terrestrial multimedia broadcasting (DTMB) systems, and carried out the laboratory measurements for performance verification. The predicted results show a satisfactory match with the measured results, validating the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Augmented Data Transmission Based on Low Density Parity Check Code for the ATSC Terrestrial DTV System

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 637 - 641
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (998 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a novel augmented data transmission (ADT) system based on low density parity check (LDPC) code for an additional data stream transmission in the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) terrestrial digital television system. The LDPC code-based ADT system can provide additional data of rate up to 3 megabits per second (Mbps), which is significantly improved over the conventional data transmission schemes used in the transmitter identification system. Based on the laboratory test, we verify that the LDPC code-based ADT system is only about 1.1 dB away from Shannon limit. View full abstract»

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  • On the Provisioning of Mobile Digital Terrestrial TV Services to Vehicles With DVB-T

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 642 - 647
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most of the DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting -Terrestrial) networks deployments worldwide have been designed for fixed rooftop antennas and high transmission capacity, not providing good coverage level for vehicular mobile reception. This letter analyses how to combine different technical solutions, so far studied individually, in order to increase the robustness of the transmission for vehicular reception to provide in-band mobile services. In particular, we consider: receive antenna diversity, hierarchical modulation, and Application Layer-Forward Error Correction (AL-FEC). Performance evaluation results have been obtained by means of simulations, laboratory tests, and field measurements in the commercial DVB-T network of the city of Valencia (Spain). The paper shows that the combined usage of these solutions can compensate the impairments caused by the mobility of the receivers, such as signal fast fading, Doppler shift, the poor coverage at ground level and the utilization of lower gain antennas; being possible to provide mobile DVB-T services to vehicles in networks dimensioned for fixed rooftop reception. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Pilot Patterns and Channel Estimations for MIMO-OFDM Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 648 - 653
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1916 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present the efficient pilot patterns and channel estimations for a high-rate multi-input multi-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system. In particular, we propose the scattered pilot (SP), edge pilot (EP), and continuous pilot (CP) by exploiting a basic orthogonal property of a unitary matrix. From the orthogonal property, we then propose the efficient channel frequency response (CFR) and channel impulse response (CIR) estimations. Finally, we evaluate the efficiency of the proposed schemes by comparing with a multi-input single-output OFDM (MISO-OFDM) system. View full abstract»

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  • Initial-Estimation-Based Adaptive Carrier Recovery Scheme for DVB-S2 System

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 654 - 659
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1473 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A data-aided (DA) carrier recovery (CR) method, which can select different coarse frequency estimation (CFE) paths adaptively according to the initial-estimation of frequency offset, is proposed for the 2nd Generation Digital Video Broadcasting Satellite (DVB-S2) system to accomplish the convergence within at most 400 pilot blocks. The well-known two-step CR scheme is used for the consideration of precision and speed, whereas both the CFE and the fine frequency estimation (FFE) adopt L&R algorithm as their basic frequency estimator so that the same correlation operation can be used by both of them to decrease the realization complexity. Optimum threshold values for different CFE paths are determined by analyzing the ill-selection probability and robust Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) performance has been confirmed by our simulations. View full abstract»

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  • FPGA Design and Performance Evaluation of a Pulse-Based Echo Canceller for DVB-T/H

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 660 - 668
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1900 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The main design issues and performance characterization of an echo canceller for digital on-channel repeaters (OCRs) applicable to multiple standards for communications and broadcasting are addressed. In particular, in this paper we focus on a DVB-T/H scenario. The low-complexity channel cancellation technique here described is based on the introduction of a negative feedback loop capable to counterbalance the coupling effects between the OCR antennas (echoes). In the initial phase, locally generated pulse trains are transmitted to estimate the coupling channel between the transmitting and the receiving antennas. This first echo estimation is used to set-up the canceling unit, whose purpose is to generate a properly filtered replica of the repeated DVB-T/H signal compensating the echoes. After the initial set-up of the system, efficient tracking of the echoes can be performed through conventional least mean square (LMS) techniques. After developing a proper theoretical model, we introduce and discuss some important performance figures such as mean rejection ratio (MRR) and echo suppression at nominal position (ESNP). Then, a detailed description of our implementation of the echo canceller on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) board is reported. Finally, the performance of our prototype is evaluated and the measurement results are compared with those derived by the analytical model. View full abstract»

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  • A New Blind SLM Scheme With Low Decoding Complexity for OFDM Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 669 - 676
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1933 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new blind selected mapping (BSLM) scheme is proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems. The proposed BSLM scheme embeds the side information identifying a phase sequence into itself by giving the optimal phase offset to the elements of each phase sequence, which are determined by the biorthogonal vectors for the partitioned subblocks. When U phase sequences and maximum likelihood decoder are used, the proposed BSLM scheme reduces the decoding complexity by (U-2)/U compared with the conventional BSLM scheme. Also, pairwise error probability (PEP) analysis for the proposed BSLM scheme is performed over the fading channel. Based on the PEP analysis, the bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed BSLM scheme is shown to be determined by the subblock partitioning and phase offset. Finally, it is shown that for QPSK and 16-QAM, the detection failure probability and the BER of the proposed BSLM scheme are almost the same as those of the conventional BSLM scheme through numerical analysis. View full abstract»

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  • An Efficient Nonlinear Companding Transform for Reducing PAPR of OFDM Signals

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 677 - 684
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1388 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an efficient nonlinear companding scheme is proposed to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. By transforming the statistics of original signals into a specified distribution form along with remaining an unchanged average output power level, this scheme can achieve significant reduction in PAPR as well as an improved BER performance simultaneously. Moreover, by properly adjusting the transform parameters, more design flexibility in companding form can also be given by this scheme to satisfy various system requirements. The theoretical analysis results regarding the transform gain, companding distortion and the selection criteria of parameters are derived. It is proved that this scheme may lead to less signal distortion compared to existing companding schemes. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can substantially offer better overall performance of OFDM system in terms of PAPR reduction, BER performance and bandwidth efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on Future of Broadcast Television: Systems, Services and Technologies

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 685
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  • Open Access

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 686
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  • 2012 Index IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting Vol. 58

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 687 - 696
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  • IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting information for authors

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C4 - C3
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting covers the field of broadcast technology, including the production, distribution, transmission, and propagation aspects of broadcasting.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yiyan Wu
Communications Research Ctr Canada