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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 7 • Date August 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • [Staff list]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): c2
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  • Guest Editorial QoE-Aware Wireless Multimedia Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1153 - 1156
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  • A Cross-Layer Design for Perceptual Optimization Of H.264/SVC with Unequal Error Protection

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1157 - 1171
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2052 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Delivering high perceptual quality video over wireless channels is challenging due to the changing channel quality and the variations in the importance of one source packet to the next for the end-user's perceptual experience. Leveraging perceptual metrics in concert with link adaptation to maximize perceptual quality and satisfy real-time delay constraints is largely unexplored. We introduce an APP/MAC/PHY cross-layer architecture that enables optimizing perceptual quality for delay-constrained scalable video transmission. We propose an online QoS-to-QoE mapping technique to quantify the loss visibility of packets from each video layer using the ACK history and perceptual metrics. At the PHY layer, we develop a link adaptation technique that uses the QoS-to-QoE mapping to provide perceptually-optimized unequal error protection per layer according to packet loss visibility. At the APP layer, the source rate is adapted by selecting the set of temporal and quality layers to be transmitted based on the channel statistics, source rates, and playback buffer state. The proposed cross-layer optimization framework allows the channel to adapt at a faster time scale than the video codec. Furthermore, it provides a tradeoff between playback buffer occupancy and perceptual quality. We show that the proposed architecture prevents playback buffer starvation, provides immunity against short-term channel fluctuations, regulates the buffer size, and achieves a 30% increase in video capacity versus throughput-optimal link adaptation. View full abstract»

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  • Channel Coding Optimization Based on Slice Visibility for Transmission of Compressed Video over OFDM Channels

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1172 - 1183
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (470 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optimization of multimedia transmissions over wireless channels should be aimed at maximizing the video quality perceived by the final user. For transmission of video sequences over an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system in a slowly varying Rayleigh faded environment, we develop a cross-layer technique, based on a slice loss visibility (SLV) model used to evaluate the visual importance of each slice. In particular, taking into account the visibility scores available from the bitstream, depending on the scenario, we optimize the mapping of video slices within a 2-D time-frequency resource block and/or the channel code rates, in order to better protect more visually important slices. The proposed algorithm is investigated for several scenarios, with different levels of information about the channel available in the optimization process. Results demonstrate that, for different physical environments and different video sequences, the proposed algorithm outperforms baseline ones which do not take into account either the SLV or the CSI in the video transmission. View full abstract»

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  • Perceptually Coded Transmission of Arbitrary 3D Objects over Burst Packet Loss Channels Enhanced with a Generic JND Formulation

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1184 - 1192
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (823 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work we propose a new approach to account for burst packet loss during transmission of 3D objects represented by texture and mesh over unreliable networks. Our strategy includes applying stripification on the 3D mesh following the valence-driven algorithm and distributing nearby vertices into different packets, combined with an interleaving technique that does not need texture or mesh packets to be re-transmitted. The perceptually-driven technique is able to successfully interpolate lost mesh features even under severe packet loss. The reconstructed mesh is further improved by applying our curvature-driven probabilistic strategy to safeguard visually significant structures on the 3D surface. Experimental results show that smoothness on the object surface is preserved even at 50% packet loss. At 75% packet loss, smoothness on the object surface deteriorates but the overall shape of an object is still preserved. We also define a Quality of Experience (QoE) metric to formulate the Just-Noticeable-Difference (JND) concept, to quantify the qualitative findings obtained from earlier subjective user studies, which provides flexibility to applications for reducing the transmission of visually redundant data. View full abstract»

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  • Managing Quality of Experience for Wireless VOIP Using Noncooperative Games

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1193 - 1204
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (902 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We model the user's quality of experience (QoE) in a wireless voice over IP (VoIP) service as a function of the amount of effort the user has to put to continue her conversation. We assume that users would quit or terminate an ongoing call if they have to put more efforts than they could tolerate. Not knowing the tolerance threshold of each individual user, the service provider faces a decision dilemma of whether to fix the network problem immediately whenever he detects a user effort in the VoIP system, or ignore it with the hope that the user may still continue the call anyway. In this paper, we formulate the provider's dilemma as a non-cooperative game between the provider and the VoIP user experiencing a deteriorating QoE. We demonstrate that providers implementing the equilibrium solutions can expect to not only increase their revenues, but also reduce the number of cases when users quit out of frustration thus minimizing potential churning. We also discuss conditions under which a sophisticated user may or may not benefit from faking unwarranted efforts with a goal of receiving a better service from the provider. Finally, we conduct a subjective experiment of VoIP over WiFi, which verifies the key model assumption that perceptual quality is negatively correlated to the amount of effort the user has to put to continue the call. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel QoE-Aware Multicast Mechanism for Video Communications over IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1205 - 1214
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (668 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    During the past few years, the development of video services over wireless networks has been driven by Quality of Service (QoS) parameters and service level agreements. Even though QoS parameters, such as packet losses, jitter and delays are good indicators of the service provided by the underlying network services to the applications, they fall short on providing a better measure of the Quality of Experience (QoE) to the end-user. In order to gain a better understanding of the benefits in terms of the QoE guarantees, it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of the enabling protocol mechanisms. In this paper, we introduce a novel multicast service for the IEEE 802.11 WLAN standard. The proposed service combines a novel MAC scheme and layered video, guaranteeing a minimum acceptable video quality to all the members of the multicast group through the base layer. To avoid penalizing the users capable of receiving data at higher rates and the performance of an IEEE 802.11 WLAN, the enhancement layers are transmitted using a higher transmission rate. We show that by properly coupling the video and multicast control mechanisms, the QoS as well as the QoE requirements of the end-user can be guaranteed. The performance of the proposed system architecture is extensively investigated by simulations and through numerical evaluation of relevant QoS and QoE metrics. Furthermore, our results show that the real-time video streaming quality of the total system can be greatly improved while keeping downward compatibility with the IEEE 802.11 multicast mechanism. View full abstract»

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  • QoE-Driven Channel Allocation Schemes for Multimedia Transmission of Priority-Based Secondary Users over Cognitive Radio Networks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1215 - 1224
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1015 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the fast growing of multimedia communication applications, cognitive radio networks have gained the popularity as they can provide high wireless bandwidth and support quality-driven wireless multimedia services. In multimedia applications such as video conferences over the cognitive radio, the Quality of Experience (QoE) that directly measures the satisfaction of the end users cannot be easily realized due to the limited spectrum resources. The opportunistic spectrum access cognitive radio (CR) is an efficient technology to address this issue. However, the unstable channels allocated to the multimedia secondary users (SUs) can be re-occupied by the primary users (PUs) at any time, which makes the CR difficult to meet the QoE requirements. Therefore, it is important to study how to allocate frequency or spectrum resources to SUs according to their QoE requirements. This paper proposes a novel QoE-driven channel allocation scheme for SUs and cognitive radio networks (CRN) base station (BS). The historical QoE data under different primary channels (PCs) are collected by the SUs and delivered to a Cognitive Radio Base Station (CRBS). The CRBS will allocate available channel resources to the SUs based on their QoE expectations and maintain a priority service queue. The modified ON/OFF models of PCs and service queue models of SUs are jointly investigated for this channel allocation scheme. The performance of multimedia transmission of images and H.264 videos under our CR channel allocation scheme is studied, the results show that the proposed channel allocation approach can significantly improve the QoE of the priority-based SUs over the cognitive radio networks. View full abstract»

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  • MOS-Based Congestion Control for Conversational Services in Wireless Environments

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1225 - 1236
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (826 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nowadays, multimedia applications and specifically streaming systems over wireless networks use the TCP transport protocol. Indeed, TCP can deal with practical issues such as firewalls and also deploys built-in retransmissions and congestion control mechanisms. We propose in this paper a Quality-centric Mean Opinion Score (MOS) based congestion control that determines an optimal congestion window updating policy for multimedia transmission. Unlike the standard congestion control algorithms, our approach defines a new Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD) algorithm given the multimedia application and the transmission characteristics. In order to get the optimal congestion policy in practice, the sender requires complete statistical knowledge of both multimedia traffic and the network environment, which may not be available in wireless systems. Hence, we propose in this paper, a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) framework in order to determine an optimal congestion control policy which maximizes the long term expected Quality of Experience (QoE) of the receiver. Moreover, the computation of an optimal policy is usually time/process consuming and as wireless devices are capacity-limited, we consider optimal solutions based on temporal difference (TD-λ) online learning algorithms. Finally, we do some practical experiments of our algorithm on a Microsoft Lync testbed with unidirectional and bidirectional communications over a wireless network. We observe that for both scenarios, our algorithm improves significantly the QoE compared to standard AIMD congestion control mechanism. View full abstract»

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  • Revenue Maximization in Time-Varying Multi-Hop Wireless Networks: A Dynamic Pricing Approach

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1237 - 1245
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (419 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we study a wireless multi-hop network where multiple flows co-exist and share the network resource collectively. Each flow is associated with a user which has specific requirements on its tradeoff between cost and quality of service. To support heterogeneous transmissions efficiently, we propose a quality-aware dynamic pricing algorithm, namely, QADP, which provably maximizes the overall network revenue while maintaining the stability of the network. Our proposed scheme enjoys the merit of self-adaptability due to its online nature. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Resource Utilization for Multi-Flow Wireless Multicasting Transmissions

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1246 - 1258
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless multimedia services are major applications of next generation wireless networks. This paper is one of the first to study the efficient utilization of network resources for increasing the number of concurrent multimedia flows when a channel becomes saturated. We theoretically study the flow scheduling policy and the channel aggregation policy in both single-hop and multi-hop wireless networks with the motivation of ameliorating the trade-off between limited channel resources and multiple flow transmission. To increase the number of performance guaranteed multimedia flows, based on the dynamic states of wireless channels and the profiles of multimedia flows, the two policies fully utilize the performance gap to schedule concurrent flows for transmission in turn and aggregate multiple channels' residual capacities for useful flow transmissions. We then design a novel algorithm - efficient multi-flow multicast transmission (EMMT) - to apply the proposed policies to practical wireless multimedia multicast applications. At last, we use ns2 simulations to evaluate the studied policies and the EMMT algorithm. Our simulation results prove the effectiveness of our schemes in improving network ability to admit more multimedia flows. View full abstract»

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  • Interference Shaping for Improved Quality of Experience for Real-Time Video Streaming

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1259 - 1269
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1364 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The unpredictability of the wireless medium poses a major challenge to delivering a high quality of experience (QoE) for real-time video services. Bursty co-channel interference is a prominent cause of wireless throughput variability, which leads to video QoE degradation, even for a fixed average channel quality. In this paper, we propose and analyze a network-level resource management algorithm termed interference shaping to smooth out the throughput variations (and hence improve the QoE) of video users by decreasing the peak rate of co-channel best effort users. Wireless link capacity variations are mapped to the real-time video packet loss rate, and the interference shaping QoE gain for video users is quantified by benchmarking against a modified multi-scale structural similarity (H-MS-SSIM) index. H-MS-SSIM is an accurate perceptual video quality metric that incorporates the important hysteresis effect whereby the current QoE (which is subjective) may strongly depend on the recent past. The proposed technique increases mean QoE and reduces the QoE variability over time, with a net perceptual increase of about 2-3x in illustrative settings while incurring insignificant decrease in the QoE for co-channel best effort users. Interference shaping can be implemented in both unicast and multicast real-time video streaming with much higher potential gains for multicast. View full abstract»

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  • Speeding Multicast by Acknowledgment Reduction Technique (SMART) Enabling Robustness of QoE to the Number of Users

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1270 - 1280
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (549 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We introduce a novel feedback protocol, called SMART, for wireless broadcast networks that use linear network coding. We consider transmission of packets from a single source to many receivers over a single-hop broadcast erasure channel with heterogeneous links. We propose a predictive model to minimize feedback as well as extraneous data transmissions by the source. In addition, we use the method of types to provide a lower bound for the expected total transmission time, and use simulations to show that our protocol operates close to this lower bound. We show that with SMART, counter to conventional wisdom, the average user's QoE improves slightly as the number of users increases. We demonstrate that SMART's algorithmic simplicity enables multicast transmissions that on average take fewer than 2 feedback rounds to complete. We show the favorable scalability of our technique with the number of users, which enables reliable quality of experience. We also show the robustness of this scheme to uncertainty in the number of receiving nodes, and packet erasure probability, as well as to partial loss of the feedback. Furthermore, we show that SMART performs nearly as well as an omniscient transmitter that requires no feedback. View full abstract»

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  • GestureFlow: QoE-Aware Streaming of Multi-TouchGestures in Interactive Multimedia Applications

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1281 - 1294
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    With the proliferation of multi-touch mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, users interact with devices in non-conventional gesture-intensive ways. As a new way to interact with mobile devices, gestures have been proven to be intuitive and natural with a minimal learning curve, and can be used in interactive multimedia applications. In order for multiple users to collaborate in an interactive manner, we propose that gestures can be streamed in multiple broadcast sessions, with each session corresponding to one of the users as the source of a gesture stream. During the interactive session, the Quality of Experience (QoE) of mobile users hinges upon delays from when gestures are entered by the source to when they are recognized by each of the receivers, which we refer to as gesture recognizing delays. In this paper, we present the design of GestureFlow, a gesture broadcast protocol designed specifically for concurrent gesture streams in multiple broadcast sessions, such that the gesture recognizing delay in each session is minimized. We motivate the effectiveness and practicality of using inter-session network coding, and address challenges introduced by the linear dependence of coded packets. We evaluate our protocol design using an extensive array of real-world experiments on mobile devices, involving a new gesture-intensive interactive multimedia application, called MusicScore, that we developed from scratch. View full abstract»

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  • A note on the length of submitted manuscripts

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1295
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  • Call for papers

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1296
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  • Staff list

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): c3
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT