By Topic

Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date JULY 2012

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 70
  • Contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): c1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (157 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Inside front cover]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): c2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • From the Editor

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1857
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (163 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • CGLRT plus TDL Beamforming for Ultrawideband MIMO Noise Radar

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1858 - 1869
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3019 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider the estimation of target directions in ultrawideband (UWB) multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) noise radar. We apply the tapped-delay-line (TDL) based beamforming technique to concentrate on receiving signals from a certain direction and to suppress interference from others. The conditional generalized likelihood ratio test (CGLRT) is applied for detecting target given the target impulse responses estimated by the CLEAN algorithm. Then, we propose the iterative CGLRT (ICGLRT) to determine their directions by implementing these two techniques iteratively. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Track-to-Track Assignment Probabilities

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1870 - 1888
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3230 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We use the two-dimensional track-to-track assignment problem to analyze the trade-off between accuracy and runtime performance for three methods of estimating track-to-track assignment probabilities: enumeration of the k-best data association hypotheses, importance sampling (IS), and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation. We also characterize the appropriate operating regime for each method. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Assessment of the GPS L2C Code Structure for Efficient Signal Acquisition

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1889 - 1902
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2965 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    L2C is the second Global Positioning System (GPS) civilian signal to become available over the full constellation. Because of the unusually-long ranging codes used in L2C signal, the search space and the computational complexity for signal acquisition become huge. The time-multiplexed nature of L2C code can, however, be exploited to design smarter replica codes that expedite the signal search and reduce the computational complexity. In this paper, various designs of L2C replica code are assessed for efficient signal acquisition, and the search capabilities and potential application scenarios for each of the assessed designs are identified. The nonreturn-to-zero civil moderate (NRZ CM) replica code design is exploited to develop a chipwise (CW) correlation strategy. In this strategy, the received L2C code samples are accumulated across each chip period, and the correlation is then performed at the L2C code chipping rate, reducing both the code search space and the computational complexity significantly. The detection performance of CW strategy is assessed as equivalent to that of the full-rate correlation, irrespective of the phase of the received L2C code. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analytical Evaluation of Uncertainty on Active Antenna Arrays

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1903 - 1913
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2114 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An analytical method for evaluating the uncertainty of the performance of active antenna arrays in the whole spatial spectrum is presented. Since array processing algorithms based on spatial reference are widely used to track moving targets, it is essential to be aware of the impact of the uncertainty sources on the antenna response. Furthermore, the estimation of the direction of arrival (DOA) depends on the array uncertainty. The aim of the uncertainties analysis is to provide an exhaustive characterization of the behavior of the active antenna array associated with its main uncertainty sources. The result of this analysis helps to select the proper calibration technique to be implemented. An illustrative example for a triangular antenna array used for satellite tracking is presented showing the suitability of the proposed method to carry out an efficient characterization of an active antenna array. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Aircraft Engine's Lock-On Envelope due to Internal and External Sources of Infrared Signature

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1914 - 1923
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2414 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The lock-on envelope of target aircraft is important in determining its susceptibility against a heat-seeking missile and depends on the aircraft's infrared (IR) signature level (IRSL). In this investigation, the lock-on envelope is estimated in 3-5 μm and 8-12 μm bands, considering internal and external sources of IR signature from surfaces of aircraft engine layout. This is achieved by a synthesis of the following four major tasks: 1) analytical estimation of solid angles subtended by aircraft surfaces, 2) prediction of aircraft surface temperatures from convective and radiative heat transfer model, 3) computation of atmospheric transmission and background radiance, and 4) estimation of earthshine, skyshine, and sunshine irradiances. Polar plots in 2-D for lock-on range, for vertical and horizontal planes are analyzed, to study the role of internal and external sources for different aspects. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Direction-of-Arrival Estimation using a Low-Complexity Covariance-Based Approach

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1924 - 1934
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1092 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article presents a new algorithm for performing direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation using manipulations on covariance matrices. The proposed algorithm combines a new formulation for data projection on real subspaces, together with beamspace decompositions, reducing the sizes of all data structures and computational complexity of the resulting estimation process. Theoretical analyses as well as computer simulations indicate that the proposed algorithm reduces its ESPRIT equivalent computational complexity by a minimum of 20%, while presenting similar mean-square error (MSE) performance. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Universal Nonlinear Filtering using Feynman Path Integrals I: The Continuous-Discrete Model with Additive Noise

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1935 - 1960
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1855 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The continuous-discrete filtering problem requires the solution of a partial differential equation known as the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov forward equation (FPKfe). The path integral formula for the fundamental solution of the FPKfe is derived and verified for the general additive noise case (i.e., explicitly time-dependent state model and with state-independent rectangular diffusion vielbein). The solution is universal in the sense that the initial distribution may be arbitrary. The practical utility is demonstrated via some examples. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Noncoherent BOC Signal Tracking Based on a Five-Correlator Architecture

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1961 - 1974
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1651 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The work presented here addresses the design and analysis of a noncoherent five-correlator code tracking scheme, which is considered minimal in BOC (binary offset carrier) signal tracking. The design flexibilities associated with a general noncoherent tracking loop including correlator spacing and weighting coefficients are identified and determined through an optimization process to meet design requirements including ambiguity-free, multipath mitigation, and tracking error minimization. The discriminator design is assessed through design examples. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Adaptive Radar Sensor Model for Tracking Structured Extended Objects

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1975 - 1995
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1936 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a tracking framework jointly estimating the position of a single extended object and the set of radar reflectors that it contains. The reflectors are assumed to lie on a line structure, but the number of reflectors and their positions on the line are unknown. Additionally, we incorporate an accurate radar sensor model considering the resolution capabilities of the sensor. The evaluation of the framework on radar measurements shows promising results. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Target Localization with a Single Sensor via Multipath Exploitation

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1996 - 2014
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4083 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In urban sensing and through-the-wall (TTW) radar, the existence of targets inside buildings results in multipath returns. These multipath returns are exploited to achieve target localization with a single sensor. A time-of-arrival (TOA) wall association algorithm is derived to relate multipath returns to their respective walls and targets, followed by a nonlinear least squares (NLS) optimization to localize the targets. Simulations and experimental data are used to validate the proposed algorithms. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Fault Detection and Isolation in Multiple MEMS-IMUs Configurations

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2015 - 2031
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This research presents methods for detecting and isolating faults in multiple micro-electro-mechanical system inertial measurement unit (MEMS-IMU) configurations. First, geometric configurations with n sensor triads are investigated. It is proved that the relative orientation between sensor triads is irrelevant to system optimality in the absence of failures. Then, the impact of sensor failure or decreased performance is investigated. Three fault detection and isolation (FDI) approaches (i.e., the parity space method, Mahalanobis distance method and its direct robustification) are reviewed theoretically and in the context of experiments using reference signals. It is shown that in the presence of multiple outliers the best performing detection algorithm is the robust version of the Mahalanobis distance. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • On the GDOP and Accuracy for Indoor Positioning

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2032 - 2051
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2786 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Position accuracy and geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) analysis are presented for indoor mesh positioning systems in multipath and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation environments. Concise analytical formulas are derived for the position error statistics in the presence of biased ranging errors and uniform random spatial anchor node deployment. Simulation and experimental verification are conducted and the results demonstrate that the analytical formulas match the simulated and experimental results well. It is shown that the system can achieve accuracy of around half a meter. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Adaptive Detection of Wideband Radar Range Spread Targets with Range Walking in Clutter

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2052 - 2064
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1846 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we address detection of range spread targets with range walking in partially homogeneous clutter, which is often encountered in wideband radar. By considering the target range walking effect, a target returns model is proposed that represents the relationship between Doppler frequency and range frequency. Based on this, a generalized matched subspace detector (GMSD) and a general adaptive subspace detector (GASD) are proposed in the frequency domain. Moreover, to eliminate excess integration loss introduced by the mismatched detection window size, two improved detectors are proposed in range domain. The theoretical analysis shows that the GMSDs are of a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) with respect to both the power and the covariance matrix of the clutter but that the GASDs are of a CFAR with respect to the clutter power and an approximate CFAR with respect to the clutter covariance matrix. Simulated experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed detectors. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Synthetic Aperture Radar 3D Feature Extraction for Arbitrary Flight Paths

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2065 - 2084
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose an algorithm for extracting multiple geometric scattering features from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) phase history collected over arbitrary, 3D monostatic or bistatic apertures. The algorithm input is complex-valued phase history; the output is a list of features and corresponding parameter estimates. We fit to the data parametric models for six canonical features. The feature extraction problem includes model order selection, shape classification, and parameter estimation. Examples include densely-sampled and sparse apertures for monostatic and bistatic scenarios. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Interleaved OFDM Radar Signals for Simultaneous Polarimetric Measurements

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2085 - 2099
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3401 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel pair of mutually-orthogonal radar waveforms is proposed for simultaneous polarimetric measurements (SPM). The proposed waveform pair exploits the orthogonality features between different subcarriers within a single orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) chip, and is called interleaved OFDM (I-OFDM). With I-OFDM signals the isolation limitation defined by the bandwidth time (BT) product for frequently used waveform pairs like linear frequency modulated (LFM) and phase-code modulated (PCM) signals, can be overcome. The performance features of I-OFDM signals are theoretically analyzed; the application of I-OFDM signals and the corresponding signal processing scheme in SPM are presented. A significant increase of the polarimetric measurements efficiency by utilization of the proposed I-OFDM signals has been verified by experiments using an operational radar system. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Zero Correlation Zone Sequence Pair Sets for MIMO Radar

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2100 - 2113
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2010 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Inspired by recent advances in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, we apply orthogonal phase coded waveforms to MIMO radar system in order to gain better range resolution and target direction finding performance. We provide and investigate a generalized MIMO radar system model using orthogonal phase coded waveforms. In addition, we slightly modify the system model to improve the system performance. Accordingly, we propose the concept and the design methodology for a set of ternary phase coded waveforms that is the optimized punctured zero correlation zone (ZCZ) sequence-pair set (ZCZPS). We also study the MIMO radar ambiguity function of the system using phase coded waveforms, based on which we analyze the properties of our proposed phase coded waveforms which show that better range resolution could be achieved. In the end, we apply our proposed codes to the two MIMO radar system models and simulate their target direction finding performances. The simulation results show that the first MIMO radar system model could obtain ideal target direction finding performance when the number of transmit antennas is equal to the number of receive antennas. The second MIMO radar system model is more complicated but could improve the direction finding performance of the system. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Dynamic RCS Estimation of Chaff Clouds

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2114 - 2127
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4000 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We analytically investigated electromagnetic wave propagation through chaff clouds. The chaff fibers are assumed to be long and thin cylinders. The trajectory tracking algorithm was developed based on a combination of the six degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) equations of motion and the aerodynamic forces and moment acting on the chaff fibers. For the low Reynolds number flows around the chaff fibers, the normal force was obtained from a curve-fit formula offered by Sucker and Brauer, while an analytic solution offered by Curle is used to obtain the tangential force. The position and orientation of the chaff fibers as a function of time are thereupon obtained. As inputs of a generalized equivalent conductivity (GEC) method, this information is used to calculate the radar cross section (RCS) of the chaff cloud. The GEC method can estimate the RCS of a chaff cloud with an arbitrary orientation distribution for reducing computation time. The proposed chaff cloud model (CCM) can be applied to predict accurately the steady state response as well as the transient response before the RCS of the chaff cloud reaches the steady state. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Flight-Test Evaluation of Sensor Fusion Algorithms for Attitude Estimation

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2128 - 2139
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1283 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, several Global Positioning System/inertial navigation system (GPS/INS) algorithms are presented using both extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF), and evaluated with respect to performance and complexity. The contributions of this study are that attitude estimates are compared with independent measurements provided by a mechanical vertical gyroscope using 23 diverse sets of flight data, and that a fundamental difference between EKF and UKF with respect to linearization is evaluated. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Target Motion and High Range Resolution Profile Generation

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2140 - 2153
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3356 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of forming high range resolution (HRR) profiles from radar data of moving targetsis considered. HRR profiles can result from processing range-Doppler images of targets, whereby the 2-D range-Doppler image is collapsed into a 1-D range profile. The interest in HRR profiles can partly be explained by the hypothesis that they can be used to characterize and discriminate targets. HRR profiles are also of interest because of their potential to be less sensitive than range-Doppler images to target motion. Two different approaches to forming an HRR profile from a range-Doppler image of a moving target are examined. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed. Results are obtained through analysis, simulation, and an example with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Performance of Target Acquisition Systems with Ordered Commitment

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2154 - 2166
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3313 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The work presented here provides methods for computing the probability that a cued acquisition system will commit to the correct target based on the performance of its constituent subsystems. A general expression for probability of acquisition (the probability that the target is among the K ≥ 1 best ranking candidates) is derived. Various decision rules for fusion of kinematic- and signature-features are compared. To aid in designing complex systems, approximations using logistic regression are demonstrated. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Main-Lobe Jamming Suppression Method of using Spatial Polarization Characteristics of Antennas

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2167 - 2179
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3116 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As interferences are introduced from a main-lobe direction, which results in target signals being masked by interference, traditional adaptive beamforming and eigen-subspace projection methods cannot suppress main-lobe interferences effectively. A novel interference suppression method is proposed that processes the sample data by using the scanning property of a single polarized antenna. The orthogonal polarization decomposition and polarization estimation of the receiving signal based on the spatial polarization characteristics of the antenna are realized so that the interference is diminished. The effect of an elevation measurement error on interference suppression performance is eliminated by design spatial multinotch virtual polarization filtering. Theoretical and simulation results show that it made single polarized radar own a polarization information processing ability that improved radar working performance. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analytic Solution to Optimal Reconfigurations of Satellite Formation Flying in Circular Orbit under J_2 Perturbation

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2180 - 2197
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1578 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an analytic solution to the optimal reconfiguration problem of satellite formation flying in J2 orbital perturbation. Continuous and variable low-thrust accelerations are represented by the Fourier series, and initial and final boundary conditions are used to establish the constraints on the thrust functions. The thrust functions are implemented by optimal Fourier coefficients that minimize the cost during the maneuver. The analytic solution composed of these Fourier coefficients are simply represented in a closed form, and no approximation is needed. Numerical simulations are conducted to visualize and compare the results obtained in this paper with those of previous papers with no perturbations. The analytic solution developed in this paper is more accurate in that the general behavior of the optimal control history and reconfiguration trajectories are easily calculated even in the presence of the J2 potential disturbance. The analytic solution is useful for designing a reconfiguration controller for satellite formation flying under J2 orbital perturbation. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems focuses on the equipment, procedures, and techniques applicable to the organization, installation, and operation of functional systems designed to meet the high performance requirements of earth and space systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Lance Kaplan
Army Research Laboratory