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Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): c1
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  • [Inside front cover]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): c2
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  • Guest Editors' Introduction: Special Section on the IEEE Virtual Reality Conference (VR)

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1013 - 1016
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  • Modeling Object Pursuit for Desktop Virtual Reality

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1017 - 1026
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    Models of interaction tasks are quantitative descriptions of relationships between human temporal performance and the spatial characteristics of the interactive tasks. Examples include Fitts' law for modeling the pointing task and Accot and Zhai's steering law for the path steering task. Interaction models can be used as guidelines to design efficient user interfaces and quantitatively evaluate interaction techniques and input devices. In this paper, we introduce and experimentally verify an interaction model for a 3D object-pursuit interaction task. Object pursuit requires that a user continuously tracks an object that moves with constant velocities in a desktop virtual environment. For modeling purposes, we divide the total object-pursuit movement into a tracking phase and a correction phase. Following a two-step modeling methodology that is originally proposed in this paper, the time for the correction phase is modeled as a function of path length, path curvature, target width, and target velocity. The object-pursuit model can be used to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of user interfaces that involve 3D interaction with moving objects. View full abstract»

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  • Interactive Visibility Retargeting in VR Using Conformal Visualization

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1027 - 1040
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Multimedia
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    In Virtual Reality, immersive systems such as the CAVE provide an important tool for the collaborative exploration of large 3D data. Unlike head-mounted displays, these systems are often only partially immersive due to space, access, or cost constraints. The resulting loss of visual information becomes a major obstacle for critical tasks that need to utilize the users' entire field of vision. We have developed a conformal visualization technique that establishes a conformal mapping between the full 360^circ field of view and the display geometry of a given visualization system. The mapping is provably angle-preserving and has the desirable property of preserving shapes locally, which is important for identifying shape-based features in the visual data. We apply the conformal visualization to both forward and backward rendering pipelines in a variety of retargeting scenarios, including CAVEs and angled arrangements of flat panel displays. In contrast to image-based retargeting approaches, our technique constructs accurate stereoscopic images that are free of resampling artifacts. Our user study shows that on the visual polyp detection task in Immersive Virtual Colonoscopy, conformal visualization leads to imprrenderingoved sensitivity at comparable examination times against the traditional rendering approach. We also develop a novel user interface based on the interactive recreation of the conformal mapping and the real-time regeneration of the view direction correspondence. View full abstract»

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  • Velocity-Dependent Dynamic Curvature Gain for Redirected Walking

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1041 - 1052
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Redirected walking techniques allow people to walk in a larger virtual space than the physical extents of the laboratory. We describe two experiments conducted to investigate human sensitivity to walking on a curved path and to validate a new redirected walking technique. In a psychophysical experiment, we found that sensitivity to walking on a curved path was significantly lower for slower walking speeds (radius of 10 m versus 22 m). In an applied study, we investigated the influence of a velocity-dependent dynamic gain controller and an avatar controller on the average distance that participants were able to freely walk before needing to be reoriented. The mean walked distance was significantly greater in the dynamic gain controller condition, as compared to the static controller (22 m versus 15 m). Our results demonstrate that perceptually motivated dynamic redirected walking techniques, in combination with reorientation techniques, allow for unaided exploration of a large virtual city model. View full abstract»

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  • The Design and Evaluation of a Large-Scale Real-Walking Locomotion Interface

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1053 - 1067
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Multimedia
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    Redirected Free Exploration with Distractors (RFEDs) is a large-scale real-walking locomotion interface developed to enable people to walk freely in Virtual Environments (VEs) that are larger than the tracked space in their facility. This paper describes the RFED system in detail and reports on a user study that evaluated RFED by comparing it to Walking-in-Place (WIP) and Joystick (JS) interfaces. The RFED system is composed of two major components, redirection and distractors. This paper discusses design challenges, implementation details, and lessons learned during the development of two working RFED systems. The evaluation study examined the effect of the locomotion interface on users' cognitive performance on navigation and wayfinding measures. The results suggest that participants using RFED were significantly better at navigating and wayfinding through virtual mazes than participants using walking-in-place and joystick interfaces. Participants traveled shorter distances, made fewer wrong turns, pointed to hidden targets more accurately and more quickly, and were able to place and label targets on maps more accurately, and more accurately estimate the virtual environment size. View full abstract»

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  • Tuning Self-Motion Perception in Virtual Reality with Visual Illusions

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1068 - 1078
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Multimedia
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    Motion perception in immersive virtual environments significantly differs from the real world. For example, previous work has shown that users tend to underestimate travel distances in virtual environments (VEs). As a solution to this problem, researchers proposed to scale the mapped virtual camera motion relative to the tracked real-world movement of a user until real and virtual motion are perceived as equal, i.e., real-world movements could be mapped with a larger gain to the VE in order to compensate for the underestimation. However, introducing discrepancies between real and virtual motion can become a problem, in particular, due to misalignments of both worlds and distorted space cognition. In this paper, we describe a different approach that introduces apparent self-motion illusions by manipulating optic flow fields during movements in VEs. These manipulations can affect self-motion perception in VEs, but omit a quantitative discrepancy between real and virtual motions. In particular, we consider to which regions of the virtual view these apparent self-motion illusions can be applied, i.e., the ground plane or peripheral vision. Therefore, we introduce four illusions and show in experiments that optic flow manipulation can significantly affect users' self-motion judgments. Furthermore, we show that with such manipulations of optic flow fields the underestimation of travel distances can be compensated. View full abstract»

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  • Video Stereolization: Combining Motion Analysis with User Interaction

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1079 - 1088
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Multimedia
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    We present a semiautomatic system that converts conventional videos into stereoscopic videos by combining motion analysis with user interaction, aiming to transfer as much as possible labeling work from the user to the computer. In addition to the widely used structure from motion (SFM) techniques, we develop two new methods that analyze the optical flow to provide additional qualitative depth constraints. They remove the camera movement restriction imposed by SFM so that general motions can be used in scene depth estimation-the central problem in mono-to-stereo conversion. With these algorithms, the user's labeling task is significantly simplified. We further developed a quadratic programming approach to incorporate both quantitative depth and qualitative depth (such as these from user scribbling) to recover dense depth maps for all frames, from which stereoscopic view can be synthesized. In addition to visual results, we present user study results showing that our approach is more intuitive and less labor intensive, while producing 3D effect comparable to that from current state-of-the-art interactive algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Wellformedness Properties in Euler Diagrams: Which Should Be Used?

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1089 - 1100
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Euler diagrams are often used to visualize intersecting data sets in applications such as criminology; genetics, medicine, and computer file systems. One interesting aspect of these diagrams is that some data sets cannot be drawn without breaking one or more "wellformedness properties,” which are considered to reduce the user comprehension of the diagrams. However, it is possible to draw the same data with different diagrams, each of which breaks different wellformedness properties. Hence, some properties are "swappable,” so motivating the study of which of the alternatives would be best to use. This paper reports on the two empirical studies to determine how wellformedness properties affect comprehension. One study was with abstract data, the other was with concrete data that visualized students' enrollment on university modules. We have results from both studies that imply that diagrams with concurrency or disconnected zones perform less well than other some other properties. Further, we have no results that imply that diagrams with brushing points adversely affect performance. Our data also indicate that nonsimple curves are preferred less than diagrams with other properties. These results will inform both human diagram designers and the developers of automated drawing systems on the best way to visualize data using Euler diagrams. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Evaluation and Visualization of Learner Performance in a Mixed-Reality Environment for Clinical Breast Examination

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1101 - 1114
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    We investigate the efficacy of incorporating real-time feedback of user performance within mixed-reality environments (MREs) for training real-world tasks with tightly coupled cognitive and psychomotor components. This paper presents an approach to providing real-time evaluation and visual feedback of learner performance in an MRE for training clinical breast examination (CBE). In a user study of experienced and novice CBE practitioners (n = 69), novices receiving real-time feedback performed equivalently or better than more experienced practitioners in the completeness and correctness of the exam. A second user study (n = 8) followed novices through repeated practice of CBE in the MRE. Results indicate that skills improvement in the MRE transfers to the real-world task of CBE of human patients. This initial case study demonstrates the efficacy of MREs incorporating real-time feedback for training real-world cognitive-psychomotor tasks. View full abstract»

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  • An RBF-Based Reparameterization Method for Constrained Texture Mapping

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1115 - 1124
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Multimedia
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    Texture mapping has long been used in computer graphics to enhance the realism of virtual scenes. However, to match the 3D model feature points with the corresponding pixels in a texture image, surface parameterization must satisfy specific positional constraints. However, despite numerous research efforts, the construction of a mathematically robust, foldover-free parameterization that is subject to positional constraints continues to be a challenge. In the present paper, this foldover problem is addressed by developing radial basis function (RBF)-based reparameterization. Given initial 2D embedding of a 3D surface, the proposed method can reparameterize 2D embedding into a foldover-free 2D mesh, satisfying a set of user-specified constraint points. In addition, this approach is mesh free. Therefore, generating smooth texture mapping results is possible without extra smoothing optimization. View full abstract»

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  • Mesh Segmentation with Concavity-Aware Fields

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1125 - 1134
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    This paper presents a simple and efficient automatic mesh segmentation algorithm that solely exploits the shape concavity information. The method locates concave creases and seams using a set of concavity-sensitive scalar fields. These fields are computed by solving a Laplacian system with a novel concavity-sensitive weighting scheme. Isolines sampled from the concavity-aware fields naturally gather at concave seams, serving as good cutting boundary candidates. In addition, the fields provide sufficient information allowing efficient evaluation of the candidate cuts. We perform a summarization of all field gradient magnitudes to define a score for each isoline and employ a score-based greedy algorithm to select the best cuts. Extensive experiments and quantitative analysis have shown that the quality of our segmentations are better than or comparable with existing state-of-the-art more complex approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Synthesis of Distance Fields

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1135 - 1145
    Multimedia
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    We address the computational resource requirements of 3D example-based synthesis with an adaptive synthesis technique that uses a tree-based synthesis map. A signed-distance field (SDF) is determined for the 3D exemplars, and then new models can be synthesized as SDFs by neighborhood matching. Unlike voxel synthesis approach, our input is posed in the real domain to preserve maximum detail. In comparison to straightforward extensions to the existing volume texture synthesis approach, we made several improvements in terms of memory requirements, computation times, and synthesis quality. The inherent parallelism in this method makes it suitable for a multicore CPU. Results show that computation times and memory requirements are very much reduced, and large synthesized scenes exhibit fine details which mimic the exemplars. View full abstract»

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  • Simple Culling Methods for Continuous Collision Detection of Deforming Triangles

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1146 - 1155
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    We present a simple and efficient approach for continuous collision detection of deforming triangles based on conservative advancement. The efficiency of our approach is due to a sequence of simple collision-free conditions for deforming triangles. In our experiment, we show that our CCD algorithm achieves 2-30 times performance improvement over existing algorithms for triangle primitives. View full abstract»

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  • EXCOL: An EXtract-and-COmplete Layering Approach to Cartoon Animation Reusing

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1156 - 1169
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    We introduce the EXtract-and-COmplete Layering method (EXCOL)-a novel cartoon animation processing technique to convert a traditional animated cartoon video into multiple semantically meaningful layers. Our technique is inspired by vision-based layering techniques but focuses on shape cues in both the extraction and completion steps to reflect the unique characteristics of cartoon animation. For layer extraction, we define a novel similarity measure incorporating both shape and color of automatically segmented regions within individual frames and propagate a small set of user-specified layer labels among similar regions across frames. By clustering regions with the same labels, each frame is appropriately partitioned into different layers, with each layer containing semantically meaningful content. Then, a warping-based approach is used to fill missing parts caused by occlusion within the extracted layers to achieve a complete representation. EXCOL provides a flexible way to effectively reuse traditional cartoon animations with only a small amount of user interaction. It is demonstrated that our EXCOL method is effective and robust, and the layered representation benefits a variety of applications in cartoon animation processing. View full abstract»

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  • Attention and Visual Memory in Visualization and Computer Graphics

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1170 - 1188
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    A fundamental goal of visualization is to produce images of data that support visual analysis, exploration, and discovery of novel insights. An important consideration during visualization design is the role of human visual perception. How we "see” details in an image can directly impact a viewer's efficiency and effectiveness. This paper surveys research on attention and visual perception, with a specific focus on results that have direct relevance to visualization and visual analytics. We discuss theories of low-level visual perception, then show how these findings form a foundation for more recent work on visual memory and visual attention. We conclude with a brief overview of how knowledge of visual attention and visual memory is being applied in visualization and graphics. We also discuss how challenges in visualization are motivating research in psychophysics. View full abstract»

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  • [Inside back cover]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): c3
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

Visualization techniques and methodologies; visualization systems and software; volume visualization; flow visualization; multivariate visualization; modeling and surfaces; rendering; animation; user interfaces; visual progranuning; applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Leila De Floriani
Department of Computer Science, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering
University of Genova
16146 Genova (Italy)
ldf4tvcg@umiacs.umd.edu