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Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Sept. 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 47
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 921 - 922
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  • A Picowatt Powered Carbon-Nanotube-Based Thermal Convective Motion Sensor

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 923 - 925
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (415 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report a thermal convective motion sensor with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as sensing elements. This sensor uses CNT bundles manipulated by dielectrophresis as both, a heater and thermal detector. This sensor can respond to sinusoidal vibrations, and requires only several picowatts to operate. We have thus far demonstrated that this CNT-based motion sensor can detect linear acceleration as low as 0.02 m/s, and respond to at least 10Hz vibrations. View full abstract»

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  • Physical Insight Into Substitutional N-Doped Graphene Nanoribbons With Armchair Edges

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 926 - 930
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    Electronic structures of graphene nanoribbons with armchair edges (AGNRs) containing N-substitutional impurity have been investigated, using ab initio density functional theory. It is shown that the electronic structures of the doped AGNRs are different from those of doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs). N introduces an impurity level above the conduction band minimum (CBM) in the AGNRs while an impurity level introduced by N is below the CBM in the CNTs. This character can be explained as a consequence of the edge polarization effects, which ionize the impurity level so that the relevant charge carriers occupy the conduction bands, which is independent of curvature and doping site. Although the N-doped AGNR and CNT are all n-type semiconductors, an implication of the result is that edge polarization effects could make some properties of the N-doped AGNRs different from those of N-doped CNTs. It suggests the possibility to make 1-D doped structures with novel physical and device characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Monolithically Patterned Wide–Narrow–Wide All-Graphene Devices

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 931 - 939
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1227 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate theoretically the performance advantages of all-graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors (GNRFETs) whose channel and source/drain (contact) regions are patterned monolithically from a 2-D single sheet of graphene. In our simulated devices, the source/drain and interconnect regions are composed of wide GNR sections that are semimetallic, while the channel regions consist of narrow GNR sections that open semiconducting bandgaps. Our simulation employs a fully atomistic model of the device, contact, and interfacial regions using tight-binding theory. The electronic structures are coupled with a self-consistent 3-D Poisson's equation to capture the nontrivial contact electrostatics, along with a quantum kinetic formulation of transport based on nonequilibrium Green's functions. Although we only consider a specific device geometry, our results establish several general performance advantages of such monolithic devices (besides those related to fabrication and patterning), namely, the improved electrostatics, suppressed short-channel effects, and Ohmic contacts at the narrow-to-wide interfaces. View full abstract»

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  • Localized Ion Implantation Through Micro/Nanostencil Masks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 940 - 946
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (734 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method is presented that allows the definition of micrometer- and submicrometer-sized implanted structures in silicon without using photoresist patterning. The process is based on the use of stencils as masks in a conventional ion implanter, and is tested for both phosphorus and arsenic ions. Electrical characterization confirms the activation of the impurities in the implanted zones whereas topological characterization shows minimum dimensions of 110 nm with an increase in dimensions compared to stencil apertures that is dominated by backscattering of the ions during implantation. View full abstract»

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  • Metallofullerenes in Composite Carbon Nanotubes as a Nanocomputing Memory Device

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 947 - 952
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Here, we investigate a hybrid carbon nanostructure, which comprises two single-open host nanotubes of the same radius and joined by another single-open nanotube, which is centrally located between the host nanotubes but has a smaller radius. A metallofullerene is then enclosed inside the structure to represent a bit information and is originally located inside one of the host nanotubes. The geometric parameters, such as the radii of nanotubes and fullerene radius are purposely chosen so that the metallofullerene cannot enter the central nanotube without additional energy. By applying an external electrical field, the metallofullerene can overcome the energy barrier and pass from one end to the other end to form a two-state fullerene shuttle memory device. The key geometric parameters are provided for a range of fullerenes, including C60, C 80, and C100, noting that we assume most metallofullerenes take the form M@C60, M@C80, and M@C100, where M denotes a metal atom or ion located noncovalently inside the fullerene Cn. View full abstract»

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  • Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of a Magnetic Nanoparticle-Enhanced Mixing in a Microfluidic System Using Time-Dependent Magnetic Field

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 953 - 961
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (758 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An innovative time-dependent magnetically actuated mixing process based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for enhancing the mixing performance of a microfluidic system is presented in this paper. Finite-element technique that combines time-dependent magnetic field with mass transfer of species is employed for quantifying the effect of convection, diffusion, and magnetic field on the mixing performance. It is shown that it is possible to generate periodic magnetic forces that can make the MNPs oscillate in different directions. This oscillation of MNPs causes agitation in the surrounding fluid thus improving the mixing in the microfluidic system. Effects of MNP size, inlet velocity of the fluid entering the system, and switching frequency of magnetic field are investigated. Mixing efficiency analysis result shows that in order to have an effective MNP-based mixing, an optimum switching frequency is required that not only depends on applied magnetic field but also on convective flow velocity, channel's dimension, and nanoparticle size. It is also observed that if the switching frequency is much higher or lower than the optimum switching frequency, then MNPs add limited disturbance to the fluid flow and do not significantly enhances the mixing. Moreover, the optimum switching frequency and the inlet flow velocity is also scalable. Furthermore, when MNP actuated mixing is compared with passive mixing strategies, it is found to be more efficient. The simulation performed in this paper using the multiphysics model provides an excellent estimate of the potential to use time-dependent magnetic actuation technique for efficiently mixing or tagging MNPs with target biomolecules on-chip for further analysis. The model will also be very useful in investigating a wide range of design parameters for designing and fabricating efficient integrated lab-on-a-chip devices for point-of-care applications. View full abstract»

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  • Surface Effects on the Jump-in Instability of Nanomechanical Structures

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 962 - 967
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (517 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Surface effects are indispensable for crystalline materials when the characteristic size falls into nanoscale. In this paper, the size-dependent jump-in instability of an ultrathin film, omnipresent in nanoelectromechanical systems, is analyzed by incorporating the effects of surface energies. Based on a nonclassical thin plate theory including surface effects and the thermodynamic energy balance theorem, the jump-in instability mechanism of the film is established to determine the critical separation gap and contact length between the film and the substrate. We found that the dimensionless forms of these two mechanical properties depend on the thickness of the film. When the residual surface stress is ignored, the critical separation gap is affected by the surface elasticity, but the contact length is not. An aluminum film is considered as an illustrative example, for which the effect of residual surface stress is superior to that of surface elasticity. View full abstract»

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  • Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays Coated with \hbox {SnO}_{\bf 2} /Noble Metal Nanoparticles for Highly Sensitive and Selective Gas Detection

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 968 - 974
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1100 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mimicking the biological olfactory receptor array that possesses large surface area for molecule capture, vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays, used as structural templates, were coated with SnO2/noble metal nanoparticles as active materials for fabrication of 3-D gas sensors. The gas sensors showed room-temperature responses to environmental toxic gases, such as NO2 and H2S, down to ppb level, which can be attributed to the large surface area of their 3D structure and catalytic behaviors of noble metals. A sensor array composed of three sensors with the different noble metals decoration (Pd, Pt, and Au) has shown capability to discriminate five different gases (H2S, NO2, NH3, H2, and CO) when using principal component analysis (PCA) incorporated the response speed as a discrimination factor. This study demonstrates a rational strategy to prepare sensing devices with 3-D structures for selective detection, which can be readily extended to other sensing materials that can be hardly grown as 3-D nanowire arrays. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Investigation of Quasi-Ballistic Carrier Transport Characteristics in 10-nm Scale MOSFETs

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 975 - 979
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, experimental investigation on quasi-ballistic carrier transportation is carried out in 10-nm scale MOSFETs. In order to extract some ballistic parameters, the channel inversion charge by the RF C-V technique is quantitatively calculated. Also, the effective channel length and the carrier mobility are carefully analyzed to calculate the mean free path in the channel region. It is found that in case of ultrashort-channel devices, carriers in the channel region are scattered few times. Especially, the shortest device has 11 nm effective channel length, and it showed almost 50% of ballistic efficiency. From this result, it is confirmed that planar MOSFETs are also operated in the quasi-ballistic region as its effective channel length approaches near 10 nm. View full abstract»

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  • Rectifying Source and Drain Contacts for Effective Carrier Transport Modulation of Extremely Doped SiC Nanowire FETs

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 980 - 984
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    Back-gated field effect transistors (FETs) based on catalyst-free grown 3C-SiC nanowires (NWs) were fabricated and the electrical characterization revealed electron conduction through the NWs. Devices with either ohmic or rectifying contacts have been observed leading to two different operation modes. The transistors with ohmic-like contacts manifest a very weak gating effect and the device switching OFF is not achievable even for high negative gate voltages due to the high electron concentration along the NWs. In contrast, the Schottky contact barrier (SB) at source (S)/ drain (D) regions acts beneficially for the FET performance by suppressing the off current. At high positive gate voltages (>;20 V), the SBs tend to be more transparent leading to ION/ IOFF ratio equal to ~103 in contrast to the weak gating effect of the ohmic contact 3C-SiC NWFETs. Therefore, in the case of highly doped NWs, where the direct effect of the gate voltage on the accumulated carriers is negligible, SB-NWFET presents improved performance by suppressing the off current and indirectly modulating the drain current through the control of SBs transparency at source and drain regions. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of Mechanical Properties and Actuation Behaviors of Polypyrrole–Copper Bimorph Nanoactuators

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 985 - 990
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    This paper reports on a polypyrrole (ppy) based bimorph nanoactuator. The nanoactuator consists of ppy nanowire and Cu thin film. To create a nanoactuator, a (10 ± 5)-nm-thick Cu film was precisely deposited on one side of a (13.7 ± 1.0)-μm-long and 270 ± 20 nm diameter ppy nanowire. The bimorph was thermally actuated using the mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) between Cu and ppy. The CTE of ppy nanowire was obtained by measuring the deflection of the bimorph. The measured CTE of ppy was (12 ± 1 × 10-6)/K, which was found to be much less than CTE of a typical polymer. Further, the amount of the force generated by the ppy/Cu bimorph was measured by lateral force microscopy (LFM). The measured force from the nanoactuator was approximately 1 nN at ΔT = 100 K. View full abstract»

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  • Quantum-Dot-Based Aptamer Beacon for the Detection of Potassium Ions

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 991 - 995
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (457 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Monitoring serum potassium ion levels is very common in blood tests, for abnormal potassium ion levels are usually signs of many disease such as hyper blood pressure. This study reports the first use of quantum dot (QD)-based-aptamer beacons for the detection of potassium ion concentrations. In this paper, the detection of changes in potassium versus the fluorescence intensity of the beacon is obtained. In addition, for the same aptamer sequence, one with a six-base spacer and one without the spacer are also compared. The photoluminescence measurements indicate that beacons with six-base spacers exhibit a better on-off contrast due to a longer separation between QDs and the quenchers. Dissociation constants of the aptamer probes against potassium ions are also obtained. The large on-off contrast, which can be seen by the naked eye, points to the potential of the development for take-home potassium ion level sensor devices. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Simulation of 2-D 2-Dot Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Logic

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 996 - 1003
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (813 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) computing architecture has been proposed to not only offer scalability to the molecular level, extremely low power requirements, and THz switching, but also the promise to advance the forefront of computation beyond the conceptual limitations of current technologies. The conventional QCA architecture uses cells consisting of two electrons and four logically interacting quantum dots in constructing circuitry. While this approach has been well studied, certain details with the cell structure suggest that it may not be the most efficient and optimal QCA design. Therefore, this paper presents a new “2-D” QCA architecture which is lattice structured and uses clocked cells consisting of only two logically interacting quantum dots. Compared to the conventional QCA architecture, this new approach to QCA circuit design improves the design and simulation reliability by reducing the total number of electrons and quantum dots in circuitry. In addition, the new architecture exhibits periodicity and symmetry characteristics that are widely found in naturally occurring and self-assembled materials, offering hopes for researching such nanoscale materials for fabrication. Along with this new architecture, simple and complex logical constructs are presented that were verified with new simulation tools specifically developed for this purpose. View full abstract»

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  • Extraction of Doping Concentration and Interface State Density in Silicon Nanowires

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1004 - 1009
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (854 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The disproportionate increase of the resistance of silicon nanowires with reduced diameter is theoretically analyzed, taking into account both the effective conducting cross section and the hole concentration. Previously reported decrease in the conducting cross section and reduction of effective hole concentration that are observed when the nanowire radius is decreased were correlated with an increased influence of the interface state density on the wire's electrical characteristics. By measuring the resistances of doped Si nanowires as a function of nanowire radii and comparing those to an analytical model developed in this study, we extracted both the doping concentration and the interface state density. The measured doping concentration of Si nanowires epitaxially bridged between a pair of doped Si electrodes was found to be 2 × 1018 cm-3 and the corresponding interface trap density is ~ 2 × 1012 cm-2 ·eV-1, which contributes to a reduced ionization of impurities resulting in a lower effective charge hole density than the doping concentration. By measuring the nanowire radius, length, and resistance, this analytic model can be used to estimate, control, and optimize the doping concentration and surface treatment method for Si nanowires for the fabrication of nanowire based devices such as field-effect transistors. View full abstract»

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  • High Operating Temperature Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector Using Advanced Capping Techniques

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1010 - 1014
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (636 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate an improvement in the operating temperature of a quantum dot-in-a-well (DWELL)-based infrared photodetector with spectral response observable till 250 K. This improvement was achieved through engineering the dot geometry and the quantum confinement via postgrowth capping of the quantum dots (QDs) by selecting overlying materials under various growth conditions. The effect of the capping procedures was determined by examining the optical properties of the QDs. These were then introduced into the active region of a DWELL IR photodetector. Using this approach, the dark current density is as low as 6.3 × 10-7 A/cm2 (Vb = 7 V) at 77 K; the highest operating temperature is increased to 250 K with the λp = 3.2 μm. The peak detectivity is found to be 1 × 109 cm·Hz1/2 /W at 77 K and 7.2 × 107 cm·Hz1/2/W at 250 K. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability Impact of N-Modular Redundancy in QCA

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1015 - 1022
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (630 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nanoelectronic systems are extremely likely to demonstrate high defect and fault rates. As a result, defect and/or fault tolerance may be necessary at several levels throughout the system. Methods for improving defect tolerance, in order to prevent faults, at the component level for quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA)1 have been studied. However, methods and results considering fault tolerance in QCA have received less attention. In this paper, we present an analysis of how QCA system reliability may be impacted by using various N-modular redundancy (NMR) schemes. Our results demonstrate that using NMR in QCA can improve reliability in some cases, but can harm reliability in others. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Capacitorless DRAM Cell Using Superlattice Bandgap-Engineered (SBE) Structure With 30-nm Channel Length

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1023 - 1030
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1276 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a novel SiGe superlattice bandgap-engineered (SBE) capacitorless dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell with 30-nm channel length as a next-generation DRAM cell with high storage density and long retention time for practical implementation by 2-D technology computer-aided design simulation. The SBE capacitorless DRAM cell uses a common source structure and different metal layers for the top gate word line (WL) from the bottom gate WL to realize a 6F2 feature size. Thanks to the Si0.8Ge0.2 superlattice quantum well and silicon dioxide (SiO2) physical barrier, we obtained 213 μA/μm for the sensing margin and about 10 ms for the retention time. View full abstract»

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  • Nitric Acid Oxidized ZrO _2 as the Tunneling Oxide of Cobalt Silicide Nanocrystal Memory Devices

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1031 - 1035
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (601 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, ZrO2 formed by the nitric acid oxidation method is proposed to be the tunneling oxide for nonvolatile memory device applications. The sputtered Zr thin film was oxidized by immersing in the nitric acid solution (HNO3:H2O = 1:10) for 60 s at room temperature. The quality of the formed ZrO2 was also extracted by the capacitance-voltage and current density-voltage measurements. Then, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to confirm that the deposited Zr can be oxidized completely after the oxidation process. Moreover, a CoSi2 thin film was deposited on the nitric acid oxidized ZrO2 as the self-assembled layer of the memory device. After the device fabrication, the electrical and material characteristics of the CoSi2 nanocrystal memory devices have also been demonstrated and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Matrix Multiplication Using Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata to Implement Conventional Microelectronics

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1036 - 1042
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1001 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) shows promise as a postsilicon CMOS, low-power computational technology. Nevertheless, to generalize QCA for next-generation digital devices, the ability to implement conventional programmable circuits based on nor, and , and or gates is necessary. To this end, we devise a new QCA structure, the QCA matrix multiplier (MM), employing the standard Coulomb blocked, five quantum-dot QCA cell and quasi-adiabatic switching for sequential data latching in the QCA cells. Our structure can multiply two N × M matrices, using one input and one bidirectional input/output data line. The calculation is highly parallelizable, and it is possible to achieve reduced calculation time in exchange for increasing numbers of parallel MM units. We show convergent, ab initio simulation results using the intercellular Hartree approximation for one, three, and nine MM units. The structure can generally implement any programmable logic array or any matrix multiplication-based operation. View full abstract»

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  • Suspended Carbon Nanotube Lateral Field Emitters and Receivers

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1043 - 1046
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    We fabricated suspended carbon nanotube lateral field emitters and receivers that are efficient, operational at low bias voltage, scalable to large scale, and able to be integrated into the conventional electronic devices. They grew from ~120-nm-thick, 100-μm-long, and 20-μm-wide floating parallel electrodes formed on silicon substrates with thick thermal silicon oxide. From the 100-μm-long cathode and anode electrode with the separation of 20 μm, the field emission current density of 10 mA/cm2 was observed at as low as 27 V or 1.35 V/μm. View full abstract»

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  • Growth of Ga _{bm 2} O _{bm 3} Nanowires and the Fabrication of Solar-Blind Photodetector

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1047 - 1052
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (759 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors report the growth of nanowires by heating the GaN/sapphire template. It was found that density, average length, and average diameter of the nanowires all increased as we increased the grown temperature. It was also found that β-Ga2O 3 nanowires with good crystal quality could be achieved only at high temperatures (i.e., 1050 and 1100 °C). Solar-blind β-Ga2O 3 nanowire photodetector was also fabricated by depositing interdigitated contact electrodes. With an incident light wavelength of 255 nm and an applied bias of 5 V, it was found that measured responsivity of the photodetector was 3.72×10-1 mA/W. View full abstract»

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  • Origin of Stress Memorization Mechanism in Strained-Si nMOSFETs Using a Low-Cost Stress-Memorization Technique

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1053 - 1058
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (844 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Implementation of strained-Si MOSFETs with optimum low-cost stress-memorization technique for a 40-nm technology CMOS process was demonstrated. Devices fabricated on (1 0 0) substrate with 〈1 0 0〉channel orientation provide additional 8% current drivability improvement for strained-Si nMOSFETs without any degradation of pMOSFETs performance. The stress-memorization technique (SMT) mechanism was experimentally verified by studying the impact of layout geometry (length of source/drain LS/D and polyspacing) on the device performance. In the SMT devices with L S/D down to 0.11 μm and polyspace reduced to 120 nm, no obvious current improvement and more performance degradation are observed compared with control device (only strained contact etch-stop layer), indicating that the benefit of the SMT is substantially eliminated and showing that the SMT-induced stress is mainly originated from the source/drain region in our case. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology is devoted to the publication of manuscripts of archival value in the general area of nanotechnology, which is rapidly emerging as one of the fastest growing and most promising new technological developments for the next generation and beyond.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Fabrizio Lombardi
Dept. of ECE
Northeastern Univ.