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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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  • Sensitive Dependence of Efficiency on Cathode-Wall Position in a Coaxial Vircator—Numerical Studies

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1573 - 1576
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (158 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple coaxial virtual cathode oscillator is studied in this paper by varying the wall position of the cathode holder. It is shown that power surges occur at discrete reflector (wall) positions. Efficiency levels above 10% are observed for tens of nanoseconds. View full abstract»

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  • FDTD Analysis of Terahertz Wave Propagation in a High-Temperature Unmagnetized Plasma Slab

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1577 - 1584
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (446 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Terahertz (THz) waves have been attracting much attention for a variety of technologies in recent years. However, only limited several experimental investigations on the terahertz characterization of plasmas have been reported. In this paper, a finite-difference time-domain method is applied to model the terahertz wave propagation in a high-temperature unmagnetized plasma. The rational polynomial function is established based on a hot plasma dispersion relation, and then, the relationship between D and E is deduced in the time domain. In the frequency domain, the reflection and transmission coefficients of terahertz waves through the hot unmagnetized plasma slab are computed, and their dependences on plasma frequency, plasma thickness, and collision frequency are studied. The results show theoretically that, when the terahertz wave passes through the plasma layer, its amplitude is obviously modulated by the electron density profile, the collision frequency, and the electron temperature. Finally, the potential application of terahertz waves in plasma diagnostics has been discussed. View full abstract»

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  • The Influence of Protection Gas Pressure on the Descaling Process of Vacuum Arc in Removing Oxide Layer on Metal Surface

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1585 - 1590
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (772 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Removing an oxide layer on a metal surface by vacuum arc has been preliminarily used in the metallurgical industry as an environment-friendly substitutor for the traditional acid-washing technique. In this paper, the influence of protection gas pressure on descaling process is investigated experimentally. Arc images taken by a high-speed digital camera indicated that the descaling rate was closely related to the motion pattern of cathode spots in different gas pressures. The decrease of descaling rate with the increase of gas pressure could be partly attributed to the formation of cathode-spot group and its less mobility at high gas pressure. The influence of gas pressure on the power density of cathode spot was also analyzed. It seemed that higher gas pressure would lead to the decrease of the ratio of power input into the cathode spot to the total arc power, which could also contribute to the decrease of the descaling rate. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Low-Temperature Plasma on Microorganism Inactivation and Quality of Freshly Squeezed Orange Juice

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1591 - 1597
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (281 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dielectric barrier discharge is used to generate low temperature plasma (LTP) for the treatment of freshly squeezed orange juice, which was inoculated with and without three kinds of microorganisms, respectively. Four experiments were designed and conducted: 1) When freshly squeezed orange juice samples inoculated with either Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Candida albicans were treated with LTP for 12,8, and 25 s, respectively, the numbers of each microorganism decreased more than 5 logs; 2) when orange juices without the aforementioned microor ganism inoculation were treated with LTP for inactivating original microorganisms inside and then stored at 4°C refrigeration, the total plate count and the proliferation rate of original microor ganism were both reduced significantly (counting per each 4-d during storage); 3) when orange juice samples without microor ganism inoculation were treated with LTP, the LTP treatment had insignificant effect on the values of vitamin C, total acid, turbidity,°Brix, and pH of orange juice; 4) when orange juice samples were inoculated with S. aureus, E. coli, or C. albicans, respectively, and their pH values were slightly decreased by adding HC1 (similar to that after LTP treatment), there was no obvious inactivation effects due to the reduction of pH values. It was proposed that microorganism inactivation was mainly due to reactive species and charged particles instead of slight pH reduction, and LTP treatment was able to effectively inactivate microbes and maintain the quality of orange juice. View full abstract»

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  • Antibacterial Property and Tribological Behavior of Duplex-Surface-Treated AISI 304 Stainless Steel

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1598 - 1605
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    The duplex treatment of plasma alloying with Cu on plasma alloyed AISI 304 stainless steel with Ni is carried out using a double-glow plasma surface alloying technique. The antibacterial and unlubricated tribological properties of the untreated, Ni-modified, and duplex-treated stainless steel have been investigated by using a spread plate method and a ball-on-disk wear testing method, respectively. The element distribution, phase structure, and microstructure were analyzed by glow discharge spectrum, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that the duplex-treated layer with a high Cu content not only exhibits excellent antibacterial properties but also significantly improves the tribological behavior of stainless steel in ambient air. Based on some results from surface characterization, the mechanism of the antibacterial properties and tribological behavior is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Circuit Parameters and Wire Properties on Exploding a Copper Wire in Water

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1606 - 1612
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (589 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The physical processes that occur during the initial stages of nanosecond explosion of thin wires play an important role in the development of plasma for nanoparticle preparation. The transition of the wire material from the condensed state to conducting plasma has not yet been fully understood. In this paper, underwater electrical explosions of copper wires were investigated with pulsed voltage in the timescale of a few microseconds. A self-integrating Rogowski coil and a voltage divider were used for the measurements of the current and the voltage on the wire load, respectively. The current rise rate was adjusted by changing the circuit parameters, including the discharge voltage and circuit inductance, and the copper wire properties consisting of the length and the diameter. The effect of the current rise rate on the phase transitions involving melting from solid to liquid and vaporization from superheated liquid to the vapor-drop mixture was obtained by the analysis of the current and voltage waveforms of copper wire explosion. The energy of melting and vaporization was calculated based on experimental waveforms of current and voltage. In addition, the effect of applied voltage, circuit inductance, and the length and diameter of copper wire was acquired on the electrical explosion characteristics of copper wires. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of Thickness Effect on Electric Breakdown Strength of Polymers Under Nanosecond Pulses

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1613 - 1618
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The thickness effect on electric breakdown strength (EBD) of four kinds of polymers under nanosecond pulses is investigated. The polymers are polyethylene, PTFE, PMMA, and nylon. The test samples are 0.5-3.5 mm in thickness (d) and are immersed in transformer oil. The nanosecond pulse is based on a Tesla-type generator, TPG200, which is with values of pulsewidth of 8.5 ns and rise time of 1.5 ns. The experimental results show that EBD is 1-2 MV/cm and decreases as d increases. The dependence of EBD on d is analyzed with the Weibull statistical distribution. It is concluded that logEBD versus log d is linear. By replotting the experimental data and by comparing with Martin's results, it is found that the slope for the linear dependence is about -1/8. With this conclusion, the breakdown probability is researched. It is shown that, to get a breakdown probability as low as 0.5%, the applied field should be decreased to about half of EBD. View full abstract»

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  • Electron Temperature and Arc Diameter in a Sand-Filled HBC Fuse

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1619 - 1630
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (880 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electron temperature as a function of time in a model high-breaking-capacity fuse has been determined from measurement of the relative intensity of the Si II spectral lines at 505, 597, and 636 nm. The fuses used in this paper consisted of a 0.55-mm-diameter Ag wire fusible element surrounded by silica (SiO2) sand. The spectra were resolved with a grating spectrometer and recorded by a gated image intensifier coupled to a linear photodiode array for prospective currents of 1.25- and 4.5-kA amplitudes and for arc lengths of 112 and 240 mm. The electron temperatures varied during the life of the arc from no significant change (for 1.25-kA peak prospective current through the long fuse) to ~50% decrease (for 4.5-kA peak prospective current through the short fuse). Average temperatures, excluding data points at the early and late times during the arc discharge when the most extreme temperatures were measured, were as follows: 1.8 × 104 K and 1.1 × 104 K at 1.25- and 4.5-kA peak prospective currents, respectively, for the 112-mm fuse and 1.4 × 104 K and 1.5 × 104 K at 1.25- and 4.5-kA peak prospective currents, respectively, for the 240-mm fuse. The individual data points, however, exhibited a wide scatter about the line of best fit. Detailed analysis of the data indicates that it is essential to include the intensity of all of the doublets previously listed when measuring the plasma electron temperature and that self-absorption at 636 nm is, at least for the present experiment, not a source of error. The measured electron temperatures were used to calculate the Spitzer conductivity of the plasma which, together with the measured electrical characteristics of the arc, enabled the variation of the diameter of the arc over time to be estimated. View full abstract»

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  • Laser Plasma Generation in Liquids. Possible Perturbations of the Boundary Layer Dynamics in a Metallic Surface in a Cell Filled With Conducting Liquid

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1631 - 1634
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the surrounding region of a metal immersed in an aqueous solution, a boundary layer with a complex structure is formed. When pulsed-laser-induced plasma is produced in the bulk of the liquid, galvanic pulses appear in the short term, while the pH, electrode potential, and temperature of the liquid (properties of the system related to the conduction mechanisms) vary in the long term. To prove that the plasma perturbs the dynamics of the boundary layer, via the shock wave resulting from the dielectric breakdown, the beam of a Nd+3:YAG laser was focused onto a cell containing a metal piece to create a plasma plume near its surface. To this end, the dependence of the galvanic pulse amplitude with both the distance from the plate to the plasma and the laser pulse energy was investigated. Moreover, the pH, the electrode potential of the metal, and the temperature variation of the solution along the duration of the experiments were systematically monitored. The results obtained suggest that the perturbation of the interface by the shock wave generated as a result of the laser-produced plasma is a reasonable hypothesis. View full abstract»

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  • Thirteenth special issue on high-power microwave generation

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1635
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  • Special issue on Z-pinch plasmas

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1636
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science information for authors

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C3
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  • Affiliate Plan of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
1428 Miracerros Loop South
Santa Fe, NM  87505  87505  USA
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