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Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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  • Schedule Optimization of Time-Triggered Systems Communicating Over the FlexRay Static Segment

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (921 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    FlexRay is a new high-bandwidth communication protocol for the automotive domain, providing support for the transmission of time-critical periodic frames in a static segment and priority-based scheduling of event-triggered frames in a dynamic segment. The design of a system scheduling with communication over the FlexRay static segment is not an easy task because of protocol constraints and the demand for extensibility and flexibility. We study the problem of the ECU and FlexRay bus scheduling synthesis from the perspective of the application designer, interested in optimizing the scheduling subject to timing constraints with respect to latency- or extensibility-related metric functions. We provide solutions for a task and signal scheduling problem, including different task scheduling policies based on existing industry standards. The solutions are based on the Mixed-Integer Linear Programming optimization framework. We show the results of the application of the method to case studies consisting of an X-by-wire system on actual prototype vehicles. View full abstract»

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  • A Delay-Dependent Dual-Rate PID Controller Over an Ethernet Network

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 18 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1229 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a methodology to design controllers able to cope with different load conditions on an Ethernet network is introduced. Load conditions induce time-varying delays between measurements and control. To face these variations an interpolated, delay-dependent gain scheduling law is used. The lack of synchronization is solved by adopting an event-based control approach. The dual-rate control action computation is carried out at a remote controller, whereas control actions and measurements are taken out locally at the controlled process site. Stability is proved in terms of probabilistic linear matrix inequalities. TrueTime simulations in an Ethernet case show the benefit of the proposal, which is later validated on an experimental test-bed Ethernet environment. View full abstract»

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  • Formal Vulnerability Analysis of a Security System for Remote Fieldbus Access

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 30 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As fieldbus networks are becoming accessible from the Internet, security mechanisms to grant access only to authorized users and to protect data are becoming essential. This paper proposes a formally based approach to the analysis of such systems, both at the security protocols level and at the system architecture level. This multilevel analysis allows the evaluation of the effects of an attack on the overall system, due to security problems that affect the underlying security protocols. A case study on a typical fieldbus security system validates the approach. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless Model-Based Predictive Networked Control System Over Cooperative Wireless Network

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 41 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (522 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Owing to their distributed architecture, networked control systems (NCSs) are proven to be feasible in scenarios where a spatially distributed feedback control system is required. Traditionally, such NCSs operate over real-time wired networks. Recently, in order to achieve the utmost flexibility, scalability, ease of deployment, and maintainability, wireless networks such as IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (LANs) are being preferred over dedicated wired networks. However, conventional NCSs with event-triggered controllers and actuators cannot operate over such general purpose wireless networks since the stability of the system is compromised due to unbounded delays and unpredictable packet losses that are typical in the wireless medium. Approaching the wireless networked control problem from two perspectives, this work introduces a practical wireless NCS and an implementation of a cooperative medium access control protocol that work jointly to achieve decent control under severe impairments, such as unbounded delay, bursts of packet loss and ambient wireless traffic. The proposed system is evaluated on a dedicated test platform under numerous scenarios and significant performance gains are observed, making cooperative communications a strong candidate for improving the reliability of industrial wireless networks. View full abstract»

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  • A Comprehensive Analysis of the MAC Unreliability Problem in IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 52 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1620 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) represent a very promising solution in the field of wireless technologies for industrial applications. However, for a credible deployment of WSNs in an industrial environment, four main properties need to be fulfilled, i.e., energy efficiency, scalability, reliability, and timeliness. In this paper, we focus on IEEE 802.15.4 WSNs and show that they can suffer from a serious unreliability problem. This problem arises whenever the power management mechanism is enabled for energy efficiency, and results in a very low packet delivery ratio, also when the number of sensor nodes in the network is very low (e.g., 5). We carried out an extensive analysis-based on both simulation and experiments on a real WSN-to investigate the fundamental reasons of this problem, and we found that it is caused by the contention-based Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol used for channel access and its default parameter values. We also found that, with a more appropriate MAC parameters setting, it is possible to mitigate the problem and achieve a delivery ratio up to 100%, at least in the scenarios considered in this paper. However, this improvement in communication reliability is achieved at the cost of an increased latency, which may not be acceptable for industrial applications with stringent timing requirements. In addition, in some cases this is possible only by choosing MAC parameter values formally not allowed by the standard. View full abstract»

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  • Physical Movement Monitoring Using Body Sensor Networks: A Phonological Approach to Construct Spatial Decision Trees

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 66 - 77
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (698 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Monitoring human activities using wearable sensor nodes has the potential to enable many useful applications for everyday situations. Limited computation, battery lifetime and communication bandwidth make efficient use of these platforms crucial. In this paper, we introduce a novel classification model that identifies physical movements from body-worn inertial sensors while taking collaborative nature and limited resources of the system into consideration. Our action recognition model uses a decision tree structure to minimize the number of nodes involved in classification of each action. The decision tree is constructed based on the quality of action recognition in individual nodes. A clustering technique is employed to group similar actions and measure quality of per-node identifications. We pose an optimization problem for finding a minimal set of sensor nodes contributing to the action recognition. We then prove that this problem is NP-hard and provide fast greedy algorithms to approximate the solution. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our distributed algorithm on data collected from five healthy subjects. In particular, our system achieves a 72.4% reduction in the number of active nodes while maintaining 93.3% classification accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Development and Implementation of Parameterized FPGA-Based General Purpose Neural Networks for Online Applications

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 78 - 89
    Cited by:  Papers (23)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the development and implementation of a generalized backpropagation multilayer perceptron (MLP) architecture described in VLSI hardware description language (VHDL). The development of hardware platforms has been complicated by the high hardware cost and quantity of the arithmetic operations required in online artificial neural networks (ANNs), i.e., general purpose ANNs with learning capability. Besides, there remains a dearth of hardware platforms for design space exploration, fast prototyping, and testing of these networks. Our general purpose architecture seeks to fill that gap and at the same time serve as a tool to gain a better understanding of issues unique to ANNs implemented in hardware, particularly using field programmable gate array (FPGA). The challenge is thus to find an architecture that minimizes hardware costs, while maximizing performance, accuracy, and parameterization. This work describes a platform that offers a high degree of parameterization, while maintaining generalized network design with performance comparable to other hardware-based MLP implementations. Application of the hardware implementation of ANN with backpropagation learning algorithm for a realistic application is also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Timing-Failure Risk Assessment of UML Design Using Time Petri Net Bound Techniques

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 90 - 104
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1783 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Software systems that do not meet their timing constraints can cause risks. In this work, we propose a comprehensive method for assessing the risk of timing failure by evaluating the software design. We show how to apply best practises in software engineering and well-known Time Petri Net (TPN) modeling and analysis techniques, and we demonstrate the effectiveness of the method with reference to a case study in the domain of real-time embedded systems. The method customizes the Australian standard risk management process, where the system context is the UML-based software specification, enriched with standard MARTE profile annotations to capture nonfunctional system properties. During the risk analysis, a TPN is derived, via model transformation, from the software design specification and TPN bound techniques are applied to estimate the probability of timing failure. TPN bound techniques are also exploited, within the risk evaluation and treatment steps, to identify the risk causes in the software design. View full abstract»

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  • Resource Allocation in Free-Choice Multiple Reentrant Manufacturing Systems Based on Machine-Job Incidence Matrix

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 105 - 114
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we introduce machine-job incidence (MJI) matrix that can be obtained from Steward sequencing matrix and Kusiak machine-part incidence matrix. Methods for determination of structural properties of free-choice multiple reentrant systems (FMRF) are proposed and an explanation on how the content (number of active jobs) of those structures can be controlled. This paper gives a new method on how to determine if allocation of resources, in a form of repeatable sequences, gives stable system behavior. Although efficiency of the proposed methods have been demonstrated on examples involving manufacturing workcells, the method can be used for other discrete-event systems as well, as long as the system under study belongs to FMRF class. View full abstract»

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  • A Fuzzy Method for Global Quality Index Evaluation of Solder Joints in Surface Mount Technology

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 115 - 124
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (563 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, the requirement of compact devices caused an increasing use of Surface Mount Technology. This technology guarantees the reduction of the size of electronic packages by exploiting solder joint interconnection technology. Nevertheless, parameter variations can occur during the deposition and printing of the soldering paste on a board, compromising its correct working. In this paper, it is proposed a fuzzy architecture for computing an index which provides a quantitative refined assessment about the quality of the soldered interconnections. This task is performed by reproducing the modus operandi of the human experts during their assessments. The proposed architecture consists of three modules connected in series: a feature extraction block and two fuzzy ones. The presented solution keeps the benefits of a neurofuzzy system previously proposed in literature, like the reduction of equipment and computational costs. Moreover, it implies two further advantages: the influence of the human experts in its design is reduced and its implementation is reasonable. Experimental results confirm such advantages, in fact, the architecture approximates the human assessments reliably. View full abstract»

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  • Mean Shift-Based Defect Detection in Multicrystalline Solar Wafer Surfaces

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 125 - 135
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2178 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an automated visual inspection scheme for multicrystalline solar wafers using the mean-shift technique. The surface quality of a solar wafer critically determines the conversion efficiency of the solar cell. A multicrystalline solar wafer contains random grain structures and results in a heterogeneous texture in the sensed image, which makes the defect detection task extremely difficult. Mean-shift technique that moves each data point to the mode of the data based on a kernel density estimator is applied for detecting subtle defects in a complicated background. Since the grain edges enclosed in a small spatial window in the solar wafer show more consistent edge directions and a defect region presents a high variation of edge directions, the entropy of gradient directions in a small neighborhood window is initially calculated to convert the gray-level image into an entropy image. The mean-shift smoothing procedure is then performed on the entropy image to remove noise and defect-free grain edges. The preserved edge points in the filtered image can then be easily identified as defective ones by a simple adaptive threshold. Experimental results have shown the proposed method performs effectively for detecting fingerprint and contamination defects in solar wafer surfaces. View full abstract»

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  • Defect Inspection in Low-Contrast LCD Images Using Hough Transform-Based Nonstationary Line Detection

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 136 - 147
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2447 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a Hough transform-based method to identify low-contrast defects in unevenly illuminated images, and especially focus on the inspection of mura defects in liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The proposed method works on 1-D gray-level profiles in the horizontal and vertical directions of the surface image. A point distinctly deviated from the ideal line of a profile can be identified as a defect one. A 1-D gray-level profile in the unevenly illuminated image results in a nonstationary line signal. The most commonly used technique for straight line detection in a noisy image is Hough transform (HT). The standard HT requires a sufficient number of points lie exactly on the same straight line at a given parameter resolution so that the accumulator will show a distinct peak in the parameter space. It fails to detect a line in a nonstationary signal. In the proposed HT scheme, the points that contribute to the vote do not have to lie on a line. Instead, a distance tolerance to the line sought is first given. Any point with the distance to the line falls within the tolerance will be accumulated by taking the distance as the voting weight. A fast search procedure to tighten the possible ranges of line parameters is also proposed for mura detection in LCD images. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of a Liquid Epoxy Molding Process Using a Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Fuzzy Regression Approach

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 148 - 158
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (476 KB)  

    Modeling of manufacturing processes is important because it enables manufacturers to understand the process behavior and determine the optimum operating conditions of the process for a high yield, low cost and robust operation. However, existing techniques in modeling manufacturing processes cannot address the whole common issues in developing models for manufacturing processes: a) manufacturing processes are usually nonlinear in nature; b) a small amount of experimental data is only available for developing manufacturing process models; c) outliers often exist in experimental data; d) explicit models in a polynomial form are often preferred by manufacturing process engineers; and e) models with satisfactory prediction accuracy are required. In this paper, a modeling algorithm, namely, the particle swarm optimization-based fuzzy regression (PSO-FR) approach, is proposed to generate fuzzy nonlinear regression models, which seek to address all of the common issues in developing models for manufacturing processes. The PSO-FR first employs the operations of particle swarm optimization to generate the structures of the process models in nonlinear polynomial form, and then it employs a fuzzy coefficient generator to identify outliers in the original experimental data. Fuzzy coefficients of the process models are determined by the fuzzy coefficient generator in which the experimental data excluding the outliers is used. The effectiveness of the PSO-FR approach is evaluated by modeling the manufacturing process liquid epoxy molding process which is a commonly used technology for microchip encapsulation in electronic packaging. Results were compared with those based on the commonly used modeling methods. It was found that PSO-FR can achieve better goodness-of-fitness than other methods. Also, the prediction accuracy of the model developed based on the PSO-FR is better than the other methods. View full abstract»

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    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 159
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    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 160
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  • IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

Knowledge in the IST (Information Society Technologies) field envisions a technology bifurcation in the field of intelligent automation systems and real-time middle-ware technologies in the next 5-10 years. The scope of the journal considers the industry’s transition towards more knowledge-based production and systems organization and considers production from a more holistic perspective, encompassing not only hardware and software, but also people and the way in which they learn and share knowledge. The journal focuses on the following main topics: Flexible, collaborative factory automation, Distributed industrial control and computing paradigms, Internet-based monitoring and control systems, Real-time control software for industrial processes, Java and Jini in industrial environments, Control of wireless sensors and actuators, Systems interoperability and human machine interface.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Kim F. Man
City University of Hong Kong