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Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date July 2010

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 413
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  • Pd/Au/SiC Nanostructured Diodes for Nanoelectronics: Room Temperature Electrical Properties

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 414 - 421
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (553 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pd/Au/SiC nanostructured Schottky diodes were fabricated embedding Au nanoparticles (NPs) at the metal-semiconductor interface of macroscopic Pd/SiC contacts. The Au NPs mean size was varied controlling the temperature and time of opportune annealing processes. The electrical characteristics of the nanostructured diodes were studied as a function of the NPs mean size. In particular, using the standard theory of thermoionic emission, we obtained the effective Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the effective ideality factor observing their dependence on the annealing time and temperature being the signature of their dependence on the mean NP size. Furthermore, plotting the effective SBH as a function of the effective ideality factor we observe a linear correlation, indicating that the Au NPs act as lateral inhomogeneities in the Schottky diodes according to the Tung's model. Therefore, we can control the size, fraction of covered area, and surface density of such intentionally introduced inhomogeneities. The application of the Tung's model for the electronic transport in inhomogeneous Schottky contacts allow us to obtain, in particular, the homogeneous SBH. These nanostructured diodes are proposed as possible components of integrated complex nanoelectronic devices. View full abstract»

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  • Continuum Models Incorporating Surface Energy for Static and Dynamic Response of Nanoscale Beams

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 422 - 431
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (290 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nanoscale beams are commonly found in nanomechanical and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and other nanotechnology-based devices. Surface energy has a significant effect on nanoscale structures and is associated with their size-dependent behavior. In this paper, a general mechanistic model based on the Gurtin-Murdoch continuum theory accounting for surface energy effects is presented to analyze thick and thin nanoscale beams with an arbitrary cross section. The main contributions of this paper are a set of closed-form analytical solutions for the static response of thin and thick beams under different loading (point and uniformly distributed) and boundary conditions (simply-supported, cantilevered, and clamped ends), as well as the solution of the free vibration characteristics of such beams. Selected numerical results are presented for aluminum and silicon beams to demonstrate their salient response features. It is shown that classical beam theory is not accurate in situations where the surface residual stress and/or surface elastic constants are relatively large. An intrinsic length scale for beams is identified that depends on beam surface properties and cross-sectional shape. The present work provides a convenient set of analytical tools for researchers working on NEMS design and fabrication to understand the static and dynamic behavior of nanoscale beams including their size-dependent behavior and the effects of common boundary conditions. View full abstract»

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  • High-Frequency Measurements on InAs Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors Using Coplanar Waveguide Contacts

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 432 - 437
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (366 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a 50-μm-pitch coplanar waveguide pattern for on-wafer high-frequency measurements on nanowire FET is used. The contact structure exhibits relatively large parasitic elements in comparison to the intrinsic device making a precise deembedding both necessary and challenging. A single InAs nanowire FET with a large gate length of 1.4 μm possesses after deembedding a maximum stable gain higher than 30 dB and a maximum oscillation frequency of 15 GHz. The gate length scaling of the nanowire transistor is modeled using the experimental transconductance data of a set of transistors and an analytical model. On this basis, both the device performance and the expectation of high-frequency measurements at small gate lengths are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A New Method for Robust Damping and Tracking Control of Scanning Probe Microscope Positioning Stages

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 438 - 448
    Cited by:  Papers (47)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper demonstrates a simple second-order controller that eliminates scan-induced oscillation and provides integral tracking action. The controller can be retrofitted to any scanning probe microscope with position sensors by implementing a simple digital controller or operational amplifier circuit. The controller is demonstrated to improve the tracking bandwidth of an NT-MDT scanning probe microscope from 15 Hz (with an integral controller) to 490 Hz while simultaneously improving gain-margin from 2 to 7 dB. The penalty on sensor induced positioning noise is minimal. A unique benefit of the proposed control scheme is the performance and stability robustness with respect to variations in resonance frequency. This is demonstrated experimentally by a change in resonance frequency from 934 to 140 Hz. This change does not compromise stability or significantly degrade performance. For the scanning probe microscope considered in this paper, the noise is marginally increased from 0.30 to 0.39 nm rms. Open and closed-loop experimental images of a calibration standard are reported at speeds of 1, 10, and 31 lines per second (with a scanner resonance frequency of 290 Hz). Compared with traditional integral controllers, the proposed controller provides a bandwidth improvement of greater than 10 times. This allows faster imaging and less tracking lag at low speeds. View full abstract»

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  • Nonquasi-Static Effects and the Role of Kinetic Inductance in Ballistic Carbon-Nanotube Transistors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 449 - 463
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (483 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nonquasi-static effects in ballistic carbon-nanotube (CN) FETs (CNFETs) are examined by solving the Boltzmann transport equation self-consistently with the Poisson equation. We begin by specifying the proper boundary conditions that should be employed in time-dependent simulations at high speeds; these are the proper boundary conditions for a characterization of the so-called intrinsic transistor, i.e., the internal portion of the device that is unaffected by the source and drain contacts. A transmission-line model that includes both the kinetic inductance (LK) and quantum capacitance (CQ) is then analytically developed from the Boltzmann and Poisson equations, and it is shown to represent the intrinsic transistor's behavior at high frequencies, including a correct prediction of resonances in the transistor's y-parameters. Finally, we show how to represent LK using lumped elements in the transistor's traditional quasi-static equivalent circuit, and we demonstrate that the resulting circuit is capable of modeling the intrinsic behavior of a ballistic CNFET, including the observed resonances, to frequencies beyond the unity-current-gain frequency fT. External parasitics can be easily added for an overall compact model of ballistic CNFET operation. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Through the Use of Functionalized Carbon-Nanotube-Reactive Polymer Composites

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 464 - 469
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (603 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on a new principle yielding enhanced electromagnetic shielding, using as an example a composite comprised of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) integrated with a reactive ethylene terpolymer (RET). Such composites were synthesized through the chemical reaction of the functional groups on the CNT with the epoxy linkage of the RET polymer. The main advantages of these composites include good dispersion with low electrical percolation volume fractions (~0.1 volume%), yielding outstanding microwave shielding efficiency for electromagnetic interference applications. The shielding effectiveness was characterized for both single-walled and multiwalled CNT-based composites and was much enhanced in the former. The specific roles of absorption and reflection in determining the total shielding, as a function of the nanotube filling fraction, is also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • One-Dimensional Surface Plasmon Photonic Crystal Slab (SPPCS) for a Nanophotodiode

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 470 - 473
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (637 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For miniaturization of a photodiode, we present a new design concept to increase photogeneration rate in a small active domain by using subwavelength structures consisting of surface plasmon photonic crystal slab (SPPCS) acting like a near-field generator and an antireflection coating. The polarizability of rectangular metallic cylinder predicts surface plasmon (SP) resonance frequency in the SPPCS photodiode. Thus, the enhanced near-field intensity arising from SP resonant oscillation has a potential to solve the low photogeneration problem. In addition, photonic band structure dramatically changes TM photonic maps with extraordinary transmission and low reflection, thereby leading to an efficient nanophotodiode. View full abstract»

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  • Theory of Nano-Electron-Fluidic Logic (NFL): A New Digital “Electronics” Concept

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 474 - 486
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (567 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new digital “electronics” concept is introduced. The concept, called nano-electron-fluidic logic (NFL), is based on the generation, propagation, and manipulation of plasmons in a 2-D electron gas behaving as an electron fluid. NFL gates are projected to exhibit femtojoule power dissipations and femtosecond switching speeds at finite temperatures. NFL represents a paradigm shift in digital technology and is poised as a strong candidate for “beyond-CMOS” digital logic. View full abstract»

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  • Direct Tip Shape Determination of a Berkovich Indenter: Effect on Nanomechanical Property Measurement and Description of a Worn Indenter

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 487 - 493
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The minimization of sources of uncertainty in nanoindentation experiments is crucial for accurate determination of nanomechanical properties. A common source of uncertainty in these measurements is the estimation of tip shape and size. Besides the experimental determination of the indenter's real geometry, determination of the instrument's compliance is also necessary. We use an atomic-force-microscope-based procedure for the determination of nanoindentation tip parameters needed to account for errors induced by tip shape nonideality and to permit the evaluation of the relative contributions of the instrumental errors associated with the experimentally determined values of hardness and modulus. We compare the definitions of the currently used tip shape area function based on physically relevant parameters with the scan and propose a hyperbolic definition that meets all physically relevant criteria while being simple enough to yield good results with numerical nonlinear fitting routines. View full abstract»

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  • Gold/Molecule/p ^+ Si Devices: Variable Temperature Electronic Transport

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 494 - 503
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1122 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although a considerable amount of experimental and theoretical work has been devoted to nanoelectronic systems with molecular components, relatively little work has been done on molecular electronic devices on technologically relevant substrates such as silicon. Metal-molecule-semiconductor (MMS) studies have generally focused on structures in which the semiconductor barrier is dominant or treated the semiconductor as a metallic contact. In this paper, we present measured temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics of gold/molecular monolayer/p+ silicon devices. We explore how the bandstructure of the degenerately doped semiconductor, molecular electronic properties, surface states, and molecular vibronic properties contribute to the electronic transport. We also demonstrate that molecule-dominated behavior can be achieved in a MMS device by appropriate engineering of the contact electronic properties. View full abstract»

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  • Design of New Logic Architectures Utilizing Optimized Suspended-Gate Single-Electron Transistors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 504 - 512
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1129 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The operation and performances of the suspended-gate single-electron transistor (SET) are investigated through simulation. The movable gate is 3-D optimized, so that low actuation voltage (0.4 V), fast switching (1 ns), and ultralow pull-in energy (0.015 fJ) are simulated. A two-state capacitor model based on the 3-D results is then embedded with a SET analytical model in a SPICE environment to investigate the operation of the device. Through the control of the Coulomb oscillation characteristics, the position of the movable gate enables a background charge insensitive coding of the information. New circuit architectures with applications in cellular nonlinear network and pattern matching are also proposed and simulated. View full abstract»

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  • Electromechanical Behavior of Carbon Nanotube Turfs Under Torsion

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 513 - 517
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (494 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the electromechanical behavior of carbon nanotube (CNT) turfs when a torque is applied. High aspect ratio (~3.83) cylindrical CNT turfs were grown by a three-zone temperature chemical vapor deposition (TZT-CVD). A distinctive apparatus is developed to apply a torque on the CNT turf and measure the torsional angle simultaneously. Electrical resistance of CNT turf can be recorded during the torsional process. From the experimental results, wrinkles are observed on the exterior of CNT turfs when a torque is applied. The electrical resistance will rise with the increasing shear strain and will rise suddenly after torsional angle of 80°. It indicates that the structure of CNT turf can sustain large shear strain before torsional angle of 80°. In the torsional process, turf structure will go through strain, rupture, and break. Also, the critical buckling angle always occurs at the resistance change exceeding 5%. From the resistance changes, the buckling time and the buckling angle can be forecast. Compared with individual CNT, the CNT turf possesses relatively low critical shear strength of several MPa. View full abstract»

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    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 518
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    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 519
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    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 520
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology information for authors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C3
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  • Blank page [back cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology is devoted to the publication of manuscripts of archival value in the general area of nanotechnology, which is rapidly emerging as one of the fastest growing and most promising new technological developments for the next generation and beyond.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Fabrizio Lombardi
Dept. of ECE
Northeastern Univ.