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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1 - 1537
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • Pulsewidth Variation of an Axial Vircator

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1538 - 1545
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The KALI-1000 pulse power system has been used to generate single-pulse nanosecond-duration high-power microwaves from an axial virtual cathode oscillator. The typical electron beam parameters were 250 kV, 15 kA, and 100 ns, with a current density of a few hundreds of amperes per square centimeter. The shot-to-shot variation of the microwave pulsewidth was studied for various anode-cathode gaps and two different cathode materials (velvet and graphite). Results indicated that the average microwave pulsewidth for a diode with a graphite cathode increased as the anode-cathode gap was increased. The one-way analysis of variance was employed to examine the statistical correlation between the diode voltage, current, perveance, and the microwave pulsewidth for various diode gaps and for two different cathode materials. It was shown that the microwave pulsewidth variations are not statistically correlated with the diode voltage, current, and perveance. View full abstract»

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  • Three-Dimensional Simulation of MIG for 42-GHz 200-kW Gyrotron

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1546 - 1550
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a three-dimensional (3-D) simulation of a triode-type magnetron injection gun (MIG) for a 42-GHz 200-kW gyrotron with a transverse-to-axial velocity ratio of the electron beam at 1.22 and a maximum transverse-velocity spread of 3.2%. The operating mode of the gyrotron is TE_03, and it is operated in the fundamental harmonic. The MIG has been designed by using some tradeoff equations and the 3-D particle-tracing code (computer simulation technology). The simulated results have been validated with the results obtained using the 3-D code OPERA Vector Fields and the two-dimensional trajectory codes EGUN and TRAK. View full abstract»

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  • High Repetition-Rate Operation of a Compact Buncher for Microwaves

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1551 - 1555
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (895 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, we have designed and built a new microwave tube; it has been given the name “Arletron.” It works in S-band, and we describe in this paper its operation. A 200-keV 1-kA annular electron beam (e-beam) is strongly bunched in a simple assembly of two pillbox cavities. The bunching occurs at the frequency of the -mode resonance of the system. An extracting cavity, inserted just downstream from the buncher, has been used to extract and to convert the kinetic energy of the beam into an RF wave that is then radiated by a conical antenna. The Arletron is a short and compact high-power microwave source whose repetition rate depends on the pulsed power system; operation at 100 Hz has been routinely achieved. The e-beam does not intercept grids or electrodes before being collected. MAGIC simulations predict that an Arletron can be, in principle, operated from S-band to C-band (2-6 GHz). Although a magnetic field is needed to propagate the beam, it is low enough to be produced by permanent magnets. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of a Ridge-Loaded Folded-Waveguide Slow-Wave System for the Millimeter-Wave Traveling-Wave Tube

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1556 - 1562
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (322 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a ridge-loaded folded-waveguide slow-wave structure (SWS) for millimeter-wave traveling-wave tube (TWT) is presented. The theory of high-frequency characteristics, which includes: 1) the dispersion properties; and 2) the beam-wave interaction impedance of this structure, is analyzed. The theoretical results agree well with those obtained by the 3-D electromagnetic simulation software HFSS. The relationships of the dispersion characteristics and the interaction impedance versus ridge dimensions are numerically calculated and discussed. It is indicated from the investigation that the ridge loading can decrease the phase velocity and the relative bandwidth; however, the interaction impedance increases noticeably. A ridge-loaded folded-waveguide SWS with proper ridge dimensions may be applied for higher gain and electron efficiency in millimeter-wave regimes. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Simulations of a Relativistic Inverted Magnetron

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1563 - 1573
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (869 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new design for an inverted magnetron is presented and modeled both analytically, using a single particle smooth bore relativistic approach, and numerically, using a massively parallel electromagnetic particle-in-cell code, Improved Concurrent Electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell (ICEPIC) code. Analysis and simulation confirm that the inverted magnetron design presented here is capable of oscillating in the π mode at axial magnetic fields of the order of ~0.1 T. ICEPIC simulations demonstrate that the inverted magnetron is capable of fast start-up, mitigation of mode competition, π-mode dominance, and high output power, of the order of 1 GW in some cases. Moreover, these performance features spanned over a variety of magnetic fields and input voltages. In simulations, the inverted magnetron design presented here demonstrated that end-loss current, a common source of energy leakage in relativistic magnetrons, has been eliminated as a source of energy loss. However, radio frequency output power efficiencies only remained comparable with standard relativistic designs. This was due to poor energy exchange between the particle and field. Thus, a refinement of the slow wave structure may be necessary. View full abstract»

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  • A Rectangular Groove-Loaded Folded Waveguide for Millimeter-Wave Traveling-Wave Tubes

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1574 - 1578
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A folded waveguide (FW) is a promising slow-wave structure (SWS) for millimeter-wave traveling-wave tubes (TWTs) with the advantages of high power and considerable bandwidth. A novel rectangular groove-loaded FW SWS is analyzed for the purpose of gaining higher power with a smaller size compared with the normal circuit. The high-frequency characteristics, including dispersion properties and interaction impedance, are investigated by numerical simulation, and the nonlinear large-signal performance of such a TWT is also analyzed by a 3-D particle-in-cell code MAGIC3D. Compared with a normal circuit, larger gain and electronic efficiency together with notably higher output power at a Ka-band are predicted by the simulation. Meanwhile, the novel circuit is also much shorter than the normal circuit with good performance at the working frequencies. It, therefore, will favor the miniaturized design of a high-power millimeter-wave TWT. View full abstract»

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  • Compensation of Beamlet Deflection by Mechanical Offset of Grid Apertures in the SPIDER Ion Source

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1579 - 1583
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1046 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The SPIDER experiment's main goal is to test the extraction of negative ions from an ITER-size ion source. It is designed to extract 1 280 negative ion beamlets and accelerate them up to a 100 kV potential. The negative ion beam at exit and the operating parameters will be carefully measured and optimized in order to match the ITER requirements for the Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) ion sources. Inside a negative ion accelerator, there are generally two main factors that can cause the deflection of the ion beamlets: the repulsion among beamlets and the electron suppression magnetic field. These two effects are both to be considered highly detrimental for the ITER NBI since they are expected to cause higher heat loads on the ITER NBI neutralizer and decrease the overall beam quality (in terms of aiming and divergence). Hence, they should also be considered and minimized for the SPIDER device, where it will be possible to precisely investigate the beamlet footprint using an instrumented calorimeter relatively close to the accelerator exit. This paper presents a design optimization process aiming at compensating the two described effects. To make this, a mechanical offset of the grounded grid apertures is considered. The OPERA-3-D code (Vector Fields Co. Ltd.) is used as the main tool for this optimization process because it can take into account beamlet repulsion and the interaction among the beamlets and grids. This is made by solving the electrostatic Poisson's equation with a finite element approach to calculate the particle trajectories of the negative ions under the influence of electrostatic fields, magnetic fields, and space charge. View full abstract»

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  • Exact Space-Charge Field Solutions for Cylindrically Symmetric Beam Currents in a Circular Conductor Pipe

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1584 - 1591
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (354 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We derive an exact formalism for calculating the space-charge fields of an electron beam inside of a perfectly conducting cylindrical pipe. The formalism utilizes a series expansion of the beam-charge and current densities in Bessel functions in conjunction with a time-dependent Green's function method to compute the exact space-charge fields due to the beam with the appropriate conductor boundary conditions. The formalism can be utilized for theoretical and numerical studies of high-space-charge beams, such as those found in high-power microwave sources. As a numerical example, we demonstrate how this formalism can be implemented numerically to compute the space-charge fields for a bunched beam which is undergoing radial oscillations. View full abstract»

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  • Temporal Correlations Between Hard X-Ray and Neutron Pulses in the PACO Plasma Focus Device

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1592 - 1597
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (570 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An experimental study on the fluctuations in the instants of time and amplitudes of the peaks in the voltage, current time derivative, X-rays, and neutron signals during a 150-shot series in a 2 kJ Plasma Focus device is presented. The results show a reasonable correlation between the time of the voltage peak and that of X-ray emission, in agreement with the picture of the formation of an electron beam accelerated by this voltage. However, the time differences between X-rays and neutron maximum emission are difficult to interpret in terms of a common origin. View full abstract»

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  • Study on Characteristic Properties of Annealed SiOC Film Prepared by Inductively Coupled Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1598 - 1602
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (186 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A SiOC film made by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition at radio-frequency power of 800 W with the precursor methyltrimethoxysilane was analyzed to find out the dielectric constant that was caused by the polarization. The dielectric constant was obtained by C-V measurement using the structure of the Al/SiOC fllm/p-Si substrate. The peak shift observed in the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for the film was closely related to the bond structure of Si-O-C, in which the blue shift of Si-O-C was due to the increased intensity of the bond Si-O-Si at the right shoulder in the main bond range of 940-1220 cm-1. As the intensity of the peak Si-O-Si increases, the dielectric constant, the thickness, and the roughness decrease with the increment of hardness and modulus. However, the very little carbon content under 5% based on the SiO2 film decreases the polarity in the final film and then enhanced the surface flatness. Moreover, the dielectric constant decreases by lowering polarization, which contributes to increasing the hardness and reducing the thickness, depending on how carbocations recombine with other broken segments of precursor molecules and depending on the stabilization by the dispersion of Si-O-Si on the surface of the substrate. The space effect due to the steric hindrance of terminal Si-CH3 or Si-OCH3 bond with pieces of the alkyl group induces to increase the thickness of the SiOC film by producing nanocavities inside the thin film. View full abstract»

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  • One-Dimensional Fluid Model of Methane Plasma for Diamond-Like Coating

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1603 - 1614
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1001 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Physical modeling with numerical simulation is very useful for researchers to understand and improve the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process for coating of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. In this paper, we implement a fluid model including a chemical reaction mechanism for methane plasmas. Employing a finite-difference method, we solve for the low-pressure RF plasma phase in a parallel-plate reactor via the local field equilibrium approximation model, based on which the distribution of the electrons and ions along with the electric potential is obtained. The validation of our simulation is carried out by comparing the model predictions with the results from a previous particle-in-cell work. Our simulations show that the concentration of neutral species is much higher than that of charged species. CH3 is found to be the major contributing species for deposition as its concentration and boundary flux are higher than those of the other depositing species. The effects of the electrode gap, reactor pressure, and RF voltage amplitude on the species density distributions and depositing species boundary fluxes are studied. Although the deposition rate may be increased (when the number density and boundary flux of depositing species increase) by changing the operating conditions, the variation of C2H5 concentration and boundary flux requires more attention because it may affect the quality of DLC coating. View full abstract»

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  • Surface Treatment of Polyethylene Terephthalate Films Using a Microsecond Pulse Homogeneous Dielectric Barrier Discharges in Atmospheric Air

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1615 - 1623
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (787 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Drived by a μs pulse high-voltage power supply, a homogeneous DBD in atmospheric air is generated between two plane-parallel electrodes, with PTFE plates as dielectric barriers. The discharge generated shows homogeneous discharge characteristics. The light emission is radially homogeneous and covers the entire surface of the electrodes, and a single current pulse with duration of about 1 s and amplitude of less than 1 A appears in each voltage pulse. The homogeneous DBD is used to treat the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films to improve their surface hydrophilicity, and as the main operating parameters, the effects of discharge power density of the homogeneous DBD on the surface treatment are also studied. The surface properties of PET films before and after treatments are studied using the following: 1) contact angle and surface energy measurement; 2) attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR); 3) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); and 4) scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of contact angle and surface energy measurements reveal that the homogeneous DBD treatment can improve the surface hydrophilicity of PET films, as it can induce a remarkable decrease in water contact and a remarkable increase in surface energy. The results of SEM, XPS, and FTIR shows that improvement of the hydrophilicity due to both the introduction of oxygen-containing polar groups onto the surface and the etching of the surface. It is found that increasing discharge power density of homogeneous DBD can induce more effective treatment of PET films, and less treatment time is needed to achieve the same level of surface treatment by increasing the discharge power density. View full abstract»

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  • Inactivation of Bacillus Spores Using a Low-Temperature Atmospheric Plasma Brush

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1624 - 1631
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The plasma sporicidal effects on Bacillus atrophaeus spores were studied using a low-temperature atmospheric plasma brush in terms of the following conditions: 1) plasma conditions; 2) plasma gas compositions; 3) plasma exposure time; and 4) the types of supporting media. It was found that the plasma brush with O_2 addition was very effective in inactivating the Bacillus spores. With 0.33, 0.7, and 1 vol % (5, 10, and 15 sccm) oxygen addition, the plasma exposure time of achieving a 99.9999% reduction of the spores was less than 4, 2.5, and 1.5 min, respectively. It was noted that the plasma inactivation efficiency was also dependent on the type of supporting media, on which the spores were seeded. With plasma exposure, significant damages to sporal structure were observed by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination and leakage of intracellular proteins and DNAs were detected by monitoring the light absorbance at wavelengths of 280 and 260 nm, respectively. Results obtained in this paper indicate that the low-temperature atmospheric plasma technology is promising in various decontamination applications such as sterilization of daily used heat-sensitive items and emergency treatment of biological warfare agents. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Torque and Force Analysis of Toroidal Field Coil Using Numerical and Experimental Results Applicable to Tokamak Reactors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1632 - 1638
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1081 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A toroidal field coil (TFC) is composed of several individual toroidal coils (ITCs), which are connected in series and distributed in the toroidal and symmetrical forms. This paper presents the analytical equations of mutual inductance and electromagnetic torque of the TFC that are applicable to Tokamak reactors. The analytical equations of translational forces, which are imposed on the ITCs of the TFC, are also discussed in this paper. These equations are based on those formulated by Neumann. The numerical analysis of the integrations resulting from these equations is solved using the extended three-point Gaussian algorithm. The results obtained from the numerical simulation agree with the empirical results and the virtual work theorem, which indicates the reliability of the presented equations. The behavior of the mutual inductance of the coil shows that the maximum stored energy is obtained when the electromagnetic torque is zero and vice versa. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Enhancement by Using Graphite-In-Diamond Nanoparticles on MgO Protective Film in AC Plasma Display

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1639 - 1643
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (782 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Graphite-in-diamond (GiD) nanoparticles in which the secondary-electron-emission coefficient was larger than the MgO protective film were introduced to enhance the electrical and optical characteristics in alternating-current plasma displays. The GiD nanoparticles suspended stably in ethanol solvent were sprayed uniformly on an MgO film. Based on the results of field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis after continuous operation for approximately 300 h, the morphology of the GiD nanoparticles as well as the carbon element in the particles was preserved nicely, and their characteristics could ensure long lifetime without degradation in plasma environment. It is noted that the average firing voltages of the GiD panels are 135 and 80 V lower than those of the conventional one for gas mixtures of Ne + He (50%) + Xe (15%) and Ne + He (50%) + Xe (30%), respectively. It was revealed that the optimum coverage ratio of the GiD nanoparticles sprayed on the MgO film was 6%. The luminous efficiency of the GiD panel was improved up to 40% for relatively higher xenon contents. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Implementation of Dimmable Electronic Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps Based on Power-Dependent Lamp Model

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1644 - 1650
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (487 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple and easy-to-use electric-circuit model for fluorescent lamps is deduced from experimental tests. The lamp arc is modeled as a power-dependent resistance. By incorporating the lamp model with electronic ballast, design equations for dimmable electronic ballasts using half-bridge resonant inverter are derived, and then the dimming operation characteristics can be predicted analytically. Detailed analysis and design of a dimmable electronic-ballast fluorescent-lamp circuit with frequency control are presented. Accordingly, design guidelines for determining circuit parameters are provided. An electronic ballast with half-bridge series-resonant parallel-loaded inverter is used as an example for illustrating the design procedure. A prototype circuit for a T8-36W fluorescent lamp is built and tested to verify the validity of the proposed model. View full abstract»

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  • A Compact Repetitive Unipolar Nanosecond-Pulse Generator for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Application

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1651 - 1655
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (573 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dielectric barrier discharge excitated by pulsed power is a promising approach for producing nonthermal plasma at atmospheric pressure, but pulsed power generators vary widely in performance and should be chosen according to application requirements. In this paper, a repetitive unipolar nanosecond-pulse generator is constructed using resonant charging and one-stage magnetic compression circuits, where IGBT and magnetic switches are the key units, respectively. The generator is capable of providing repetitive pulses with a voltage of up to 30 kV and duration of 70 ns at a 300 resistive load. Output pulse voltage can be adjusted by varying ac input voltage or trigger pulse-width. This compact and convenient generator has been used successfully to produce stable dielectric barrier discharge. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement of Surface Flashover Performance in Vacuum of A-B-A Insulator by Adopting ZnO Varistor Ceramics as Layer A

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1656 - 1661
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (539 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new insulation system of ZnO varistor ceramic-Al2O3 ceramic-ZnO varistor ceramic insulators (defined as A-B-A insulators) is proposed to improve surface flashover performance in vacuum so that it is possible to reduce the electric field at the vacuum-insulator-cathode triple junction (CTJ) by changing the conductivity and permittivity of the ZnO varistor ceramic layer of the A-B-A insulators. Then, the influences of the conductivity and permittivity of ZnO varistor ceramics on the dc and impulse surface flashover voltage in vacuum were experimentally investigated, respectively. It was found that the dc surface flashover voltage of the samples increases greatly with a decrease of the dc conductivity of the ZnO varistor ceramic layer and is improved by 81% compared with the Al2O3 ceramic sample. It is attributed to the decrease of the electric field at the vacuum-layer A-CTJ caused by the conductivity of layer A larger than that of layer B and, furthermore, by the nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of layer A, i.e., ZnO varistor ceramics. Additionally, the impulse surface flashover voltage first increases and then decreases with a decrease of the permittivity of the ZnO varistor ceramic layer and is increased by 136%. It is explained by the decrease of the electric field at the triple junction by the permittivity of layer A larger than that of layer B and, furthermore, by the nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of layer A. These results demonstrate the insulation system of the ZnO varistor ceramic-Al2O3 ceramic-ZnO varistor ceramic insulators as an effective way to improve surface flashover performance in vacuum. View full abstract»

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  • Rapid Prototyping of Safety System for Nuclear Risks of the ITER Tokamak

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1662 - 1669
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (902 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ITER tokamak (Latin for “the way”) is the next step toward the realization of electricity-producing fusion power plants, since it has been designed to reach the plasma burning condition. The Central Safety System for Nuclear Risk (CSS) is the control system in charge to assure nuclear safety for the ITER plant, the personnel, and the environment. Since the CSS is a critical safety system, its validation and commissioning play an important role, and the required level of reliability must be demonstrated. In such a scenario, it is strongly recommended to use modeling and simulation tools since the early design phase. Indeed, mathematical models will help in the definition of the control system requirements. These models can be used for the rapid prototyping of the safety system, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations can be performed to assess the performance of the control hardware against a plant simulator. This paper introduces the methodology and the software/hardware architecture used to develop both a CSS prototype and a ITER plant model suitable for the test and validation of this prototype. View full abstract»

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  • Study on Firing Conditions of Multigap Gas Switch for Fast Linear Transformer Driver

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1670 - 1674
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (763 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As one of the critical elements of fast linear transformer driver (FLTD), gas switch directly influences the output parameters, stability, and reliability of generators based on FLTD technology. In this paper, a multigap gas switch with six gaps in series has been investigated to study the proper firing conditions to get better performance for FLTD. The self-breakdown voltage with different gas pressure has been studied to derive the working ratio of the switch. The triggered breakdown delay and jitter with different charge voltage, gas pressure, and working ratio have been studied. The results indicate that when the switch is triggered by a 100-kV trigger voltage pulse under 180-kV charge voltage and 0.325-MPa pure nitrogen (70% working ratio), the delay time and the jitter are 34 and 1 ns, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Tests of a 13-kA/6.5-kV Thyristor Switch for a Pulsed Inductive Plasma Source

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1675 - 1681
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (893 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the design, construction, and test procedure of a closing-switch prototype based on thyristors are described. In particular, details are given about the design criteria and the triggering board architecture, which is a high-side-biased self-supplied unit using electrical energy derived from a local snubber network for the gate drive. The structure guarantees a hard firing gate pulse for the required high-dI/dt application. Furthermore, the results of the prototype tests are presented and discussed. The stack assembly has a holding voltage of 6.5 kV and is used for switching a series resonant circuit with a ringing frequency of 12 kHz for a pulsed inductive plasma source. Maximum current amplitudes of 13 kA and pulse energies of more than 600 J were switched during the test procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Study of Anode Activities in High Current Vacuum Arc Subjected to Axial Magnetic Fields Under Different Conditions

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1682 - 1691
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1823 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, high current vacuum arc (HCVA) characteristics and anode melting pool (AMP) flow phenomena under different conditions are researched and analyzed. Particularly, rotation phenomena of AMP are observed and analyzed. First, the influence of different arc currents on arc column and anode activities is researched. Experimental results show that the rotation phenomena of AMP become more significant when arc currents are very high. Then, the influence of electrode configurations on the AMP rotation is investigated. For larger h/D value electrode, vacuum arc can become more unstable and uncontrollable, the rotation of anode melting region cannot be found; for smaller h/D, the vacuum arc is more stable and the vacuum arc is controlled effectively by the axial magnetic field (AMF), also significant rotation of AMP has been found. For a smaller anode electrode, anode melting and rotation of AMP is more serious, which is due to the same energy inputs smaller electrode. Finally, the influence of pure Cu and CuCr30 electrode on anode melting and flow is compared and analyzed. Experimental results show that AMP rotation with pure Cu material is more significant than that with CuCr30 material for the same arc current interruption. Liquid macroparticles' diameters with pure Cu electrode are significantly larger than that with CuCr30 materials. View full abstract»

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  • The Role of Operational Feedback and R&D in ITER Safety

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1692 - 1698
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    This paper presents an overview of the safety-related operating feedback taken into account in the ITER baseline design and of the previously completed and ongoing research and development (R&D) activities in support of ITER safety analyses. Operating feedback relevant to ITER mostly comes from previous and currently existing fusion devices and from the operation of tritium laboratories. Regarding the safety-related R&D, since the early times of the ITER project, an extensive program has been devoted to understanding the issues, gathering data on source terms, modeling underlying phenomena, and developing analytical tools for safety analysis. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
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Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
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