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Robotics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date June 2010

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Robotics publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • 1T2R Parallel Mechanisms Without Parasitic Motion

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 401 - 410
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (458 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Parasitic motion is a major drawback of the general 1T2R parallel mechanism (PM), where T denotes a translation degree of freedom (DOF) and R a rotational DOF. This paper investigates the type synthesis of the 1T2R PM without parasitic motion. First, a brief review on the planar-spherical bond and its mechanical generators is presented. Then, the difference between the general and special aT bR motion is discussed. Relations between the parasitic motion and the general and special aTbR motion are revealed. An infinitesimal 1T2R PM with rotation bifurcation is presented as a special case. Further, the definition of the 1T2R PM without parasitic motion is presented, and the limb bond {G(u)}{S(N )} is identified. Geometrical conditions to construct an 1T2R PM without parasitic motion are presented, and nonoverconstrained 1T2R PMs without parasitic motion are synthesized. Idle pairs in the nonoverconstrained 1T2R PMs without parasitic motion are detected. Finally, overconstrained 1T2R PMs without parasitic motion are obtained by removing the idle pairs in the nonoverconstrained 1T2R PMs. View full abstract»

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  • Kinematic-Parameter Identification for Serial-Robot Calibration Based on POE Formula

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 411 - 423
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (383 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a generic error model, which is based on the product of exponentials (POEs) formula, for serial-robot calibration. The identifiability of parameters in this error model was analyzed. The analysis shows the following: 1) Errors in all joint twists are identifiable. 2) The joint zero-position errors and the initial transformation errors cannot be identified when they are involved in the same error model. With either or neither of them, three practicable error models were obtained. The joint zero-position errors are identifiable when the following condition is satisfied: Coordinates of joint twists are linearly independent. 3) The maximum number of identifiable parameters is 6n + 6 for an n-degree-of-freedom (DOF) generic serial robot. Simulation results show the following: 1) The maximum number of identifiable parameters is 6r + 3t + 6, where r is the number of revolute joints, and t is the number of prismatic joints. 2) All the kinematic parameters of the selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) robot and programmable universal machine for assembly (PUMA) 560 robots were identified by using the three error models, respectively. The error model based on the POE formula can be a complete, minimal, and continuous kinematic model for serial-robot calibration. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Registration Based on Noisy Planes With Unknown Correspondences for 3-D Mapping

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 424 - 441
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1764 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a robot-pose-registration algorithm, which is entirely based on large planar-surface patches extracted from point clouds sampled from a three-dimensional (3-D) sensor. This approach offers an alternative to the traditional point-to-point iterative-closest-point (ICP) algorithm, its point-to-plane variant, as well as newer grid-based algorithms, such as the 3-D normal distribution transform (NDT). The simpler case of known plane correspondences is tackled first by deriving expressions for least-squares pose estimation considering plane-parameter uncertainty computed during plane extraction. Closed-form expressions for covariances are also derived. To round-off the solution, we present a new algorithm, which is called minimally uncertain maximal consensus (MUMC), to determine the unknown plane correspondences by maximizing geometric consistency by minimizing the uncertainty volume in configuration space. Experimental results from three 3-D sensors, viz., Swiss-Ranger, University of South Florida Odetics Laser Detection and Ranging, and an actuated SICK S300, are given. The first two have low fields of view (FOV) and moderate ranges, while the third has a much bigger FOV and range. Experimental results show that this approach is not only more robust than point- or grid-based approaches in plane-rich environments, but it is also faster, requires significantly less memory, and offers a less-cluttered planar-patches-based visualization. View full abstract»

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  • Active Stereo Tracking of N\le 3 Targets Using Line Scan Cameras

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 442 - 457
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (923 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a general approach for the simultaneous tracking of multiple moving targets using a generic active stereo setup. The problem is formulated on the plane, where cameras are modeled as “line scan cameras,” and targets are described as points with unconstrained motion. We propose to control the active system parameters in such a manner that the images of the targets in the two views are related by a homography. This homography is specified during the design stage and, thus, can be used to implicitly encode the desired tracking behavior. Such formulation leads to an elegant geometric framework that enables a systematic and thorough analysis of the problem at hand. The benefits of the approach are illustrated by applying the framework to two distinct stereo configurations. In the first case, we assume two pan-tilt-zoom cameras, with rotation and zoom control, which are arbitrarily placed in the working environment. It is proved that such a stereo setup can track up to N = 3 free-moving targets, while assuring that the image location of each target is the same for both views. The second example considers a robot head with neck pan motion and independent eye rotation. For this case, it is shown that it is not possible to track more than N = 2 targets because of the lack of zoom. The theoretical framework is used to derive the control equations, and the implementation of the tracking behavior is described in detail. The correctness of the results is confirmed through simulations and real tracking experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Time Parameterization of Humanoid-Robot Paths

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 458 - 468
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1190 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a unified optimization framework to solve the time-parameterization problem of humanoid-robot paths. Even though the time-parameterization problem is well known in robotics, the application to humanoid robots has not been addressed. This is because of the complexity of the kinematical structure as well as the dynamical motion equation. The main contribution of this paper is to show that the time parameterization of a statically stable path to be transformed into a dynamically stable trajectory within the humanoid-robot capacities can be expressed as an optimization problem. Furthermore, we propose an efficient method to solve the obtained optimization problem. The proposed method has been successfully validated on the humanoid robot HRP-2 by conducting several experiments. These results have revealed the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Motion Planning With Dynamics by a Synergistic Combination of Layers of Planning

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 469 - 482
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (708 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To efficiently solve challenges related to motion-planning problems with dynamics, this paper proposes treating motion planning not just as a search problem in a continuous space but as a search problem in a hybrid space consisting of discrete and continuous components. A multilayered framework is presented which combines discrete search and sampling-based motion planning. This framework is called synergistic combination of layers of planning ( SyCLoP) hereafter. Discrete search uses a workspace decomposition to compute leads, i.e., sequences of regions in the neighborhood that guide sampling-based motion planning during the state-space exploration. In return, information gathered by motion planning, such as progress made, is fed back to the discrete search. This combination allows SyCLoP to identify new directions to lead the exploration toward the goal, making it possible to efficiently find solutions, even when other planners get stuck. Simulation experiments with dynamical models of ground and flying vehicles demonstrate that the combination of discrete search and motion planning in SyCLoP offers significant advantages. In fact, speedups of up to two orders of magnitude were obtained for all the sampling-based motion planners used as the continuous layer of SyCLoP. View full abstract»

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  • Compliant Control of Multicontact and Center-of-Mass Behaviors in Humanoid Robots

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 483 - 501
    Cited by:  Papers (41)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1221 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new methodology for the analysis and control of internal forces and center-of-mass (CoM) behavior, which are produced during multicontact interactions between humanoid robots and the environment. The approach leverages the virtual-linkage model that provides a physical representation of the internal and CoM resultant forces with respect to reaction forces on the supporting surfaces. A grasp/contact matrix describing the complex interactions between contact forces and CoM behavior is developed. Based on this model, a new torque-based approach for the control of internal forces is suggested and illustrated on the Asimo humanoid robot. The new controller is integrated into the framework for whole-body-prioritized multitasking, thus enabling the unified control of CoM maneuvers, operational tasks, and internal-force behavior. The grasp/contact matrix is also proposed to analyze and plan internal force and CoM control policies that comply with frictional properties of the links in contact. View full abstract»

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  • A Probabilistic Particle-Control Approximation of Chance-Constrained Stochastic Predictive Control

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 502 - 517
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1324 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Robotic systems need to be able to plan control actions that are robust to the inherent uncertainty in the real world. This uncertainty arises due to uncertain state estimation, disturbances, and modeling errors, as well as stochastic mode transitions such as component failures. Chance-constrained control takes into account uncertainty to ensure that the probability of failure, due to collision with obstacles, for example, is below a given threshold. In this paper, we present a novel method for chance-constrained predictive stochastic control of dynamic systems. The method approximates the distribution of the system state using a finite number of particles. By expressing these particles in terms of the control variables, we are able to approximate the original stochastic control problem as a deterministic one; furthermore, the approximation becomes exact as the number of particles tends to infinity. This method applies to arbitrary noise distributions, and for systems with linear or jump Markov linear dynamics, we show that the approximate problem can be solved using efficient mixed-integer linear-programming techniques. We also introduce an important weighting extension that enables the method to deal with low-probability mode transitions such as failures. We demonstrate in simulation that the new method is able to control an aircraft in turbulence and can control a ground vehicle while being robust to brake failures. View full abstract»

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  • Stochastic Modular Robotic Systems: A Study of Fluidic Assembly Strategies

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 518 - 530
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1550 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modular robotic systems typically assemble using deterministic processes where modules are directly placed into their target position. By contrast, stochastic modular robots take advantage of ambient environmental energy for the transportation and delivery of robot components to target locations, thus offering potential scalability. The inability to precisely predict component availability and assembly rates is a key challenge for planning in such environments. Here, we describe a computationally efficient simulator to model a modular robotic system that assembles in a stochastic fluid environment. This simulator allows us to address the challenge of planning for stochastic assembly by testing a series of potential strategies. We first calibrate the simulator using both high-fidelity computational fluid-dynamics simulations and physical experiments. We then use this simulator to study the effects of various system parameters and assembly strategies on the speed and accuracy of assembly of topologically different target structures. View full abstract»

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  • Actively Controlled Manipulation of a Magnetic Microbead Using Quadrupole Magnetic Tweezers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 531 - 541
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the theoretical analysis and experimental investigation of actively controlled manipulation of a magnetic microbead using quadrupole magnetic tweezers. Bead dynamics, magnetic actuation, and visual measurement are analyzed. A feedback control law is developed and implemented to stabilize and steer the motion of the magnetic microbead. It is developed in two steps. First, an inverse model, which is associated with a lumped-parameter analytical force model, is derived to enable feedback linearization. Second, linear controllers are designed to achieve motion stabilization and manipulation of the magnetic microbead. A proportional-gain controller along with feedback linearization is implemented to establish a stable trapping of the magnetic bead to facilitate system calibration. Experiments are then performed to validate the derived inverse force model and theoretical analysis. In addition, a minimum-variance controller is designed and employed to reduce the variance of the bead's Brownian motion. The control performance in terms of variance reduction, nanostepping, and large-range steering is then experimentally demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Modeling and Control of Biologically Inspired Vortex Ring Thrusters for Underwater Robot Locomotion

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 542 - 554
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1127 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new type of underwater thruster was designed to provide high-accuracy, low-speed maneuvering to underwater robots. Located internal to the vehicle surface, these thrusters have a minimal effect on the forward-drag profile of the vehicle. These thrusters, whose inspiration comes from the natural propulsion of cephalopods and jellyfish, generate control forces by successive ingestion and expulsion of jets of water from a cavity mounted in the hull of the vehicle. The jetting process has no net mass flux but results in a positive momentum flux. A time-dependent thrust model was developed, which predicted the thruster dynamics as a function of time, actuation frequency, and thruster-driving parameters. A linear transfer-function model was developed to approximate both the thruster and vehicle dynamics, which led to maneuver categorization into three regimes: Cruising, Docking, and Transition. The predicted frequency response was verified through hybrid simulation to be accurate for predicting general trends and cutoff frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Intrinsic Wrench Estimation and Its Performance Index for Multisegment Continuum Robots

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 555 - 561
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (914 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the intrinsic capability of full-wrench estimation of multisegment continuum robots with multiple flexible backbones. Intrinsic-full-wrench estimation refers to the ability of continuum robots to also serve as force and moment sensors by using measurements of axial loads on their backbones. This end-effector-as-sensor approach fulfills the rapidly increasing needs for miniature-robotic-surgical tools with haptic sensing ability subject to various limitations, such as size, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibility, sterilizability, etc. A performance index for the intrinsic wrench-sensing capability is introduced and evaluated to show how this index can serve as a design guide for continuum robots that provide force sensing. View full abstract»

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  • An Analytical Continuous-Curvature Path-Smoothing Algorithm

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 561 - 568
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (663 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An efficient and analytical continuous-curvature path-smoothing algorithm, which fits an ordered sequence of waypoints generated by an obstacle-avoidance path planner, is proposed. The algorithm is based upon parametric cubic Bézier curves; thus, it is inherently closed-form in its expression, and the algorithm only requires the maximum curvature to be defined. The algorithm is, thus, computational efficient and easy to implement. Results show the effectiveness of the analytical algorithm in generating a continuous-curvature path, which satisfies an upper bound-curvature constraint, and that the path generated requires less control effort to track and minimizes control-input variability. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed-Actuation Mechanism for a Finger-Type Manipulator: Theory and Experiments

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 569 - 575
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (774 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a distributed-actuation method has been newly proposed based on a simple sliding-actuation mechanism for a finger-type manipulator design. Based on the spatially distributed force on the proposed sliding-actuation mechanism, it has been shown that the distributed actuation provides additional design freedom to optimize the manipulator performance. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we developed a finger-type manipulator, which consists of four links with three joints, and performed experiments. The experimental results show that the fingertip force of the developed manipulator can be effectively increased and easily managed by the distributed-actuation method. View full abstract»

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  • Global Manipulation Planning in Robot Joint Space With Task Constraints

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 576 - 584
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (543 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We explore global randomized joint-space path planning for articulated robots that are subjected to task-space constraints. This paper describes a representation of constrained motion for joint-space planners and develops two simple and efficient methods for constrained sampling of joint configurations: tangent-space sampling (TS) and first-order retraction (FR). FR is formally proven to provide global sampling for linear task-space transformations. Constrained joint-space planning is important for many real-world problems, which involves redundant manipulators. On the one hand, tasks are designated in workspace coordinates: to rotate doors about fixed axes, to slide drawers along fixed trajectories, or to hold objects level during transport. On the other hand, joint-space planning gives alternative paths that use redundant degrees of freedom (DOFs) to avoid obstacles or satisfy additional goals while performing a task. We demonstrate that our methods are faster and more invariant to parameter choices than the techniques that exist. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Object Configurations to Minimize the Positioning Error in Visual Servoing

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 584 - 589
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (370 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Image noise unavoidably affects the available image points that are used in visual-servoing schemes to steer a robot end-effector toward a desired location. As a consequence, letting the image points in the current view converge to those in the desired view does not ensure that the camera converges accurately to the desired location. This paper investigates the selection of object configurations to minimize the worst-case positioning error due to the presence of image noise. In particular, a strategy based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) and barrier functions is proposed to compute upper and lower bounds of this error for a given maximum error of the image points. This strategy can be applied to problems such as selecting an optimal subset of object points or determining an optimal position of an object in the scene. Some examples illustrate the use of the proposed strategy in such problems. View full abstract»

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  • The Effects of Time Lag on Driving Performance and a Possible Mitigation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 590 - 593
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fixed time lags within control systems are known to reduce the speed and accuracy of human-control actions. Further, the effects of variable time lags are not well-studied or understood but may exacerbate the negative effects associated with fixed time lags. Several studies have demonstrated mechanisms designed to combat the effects of time lag, which include adaptation, mathematical predictors and filters, and predictive displays. This experiment examined the effects of both fixed and variable time lag on a simulated-indirect-vision-driving task, as well as a possible mitigation (predictive display) for these effects. Results revealed that variable time lag significantly increased average lane offset more than fixed time lag, which indicates a decrease in driver accuracy. A predictive display significantly reduced lane offset and increased vehicle speed for both fixed and variable time lags. The predictive display also resulted in lower reports of operator workload. These results revealed the negative performance affects of variable time lag and demonstrated the utility of a predictive display to overcome the negative performance effects associated with fixed and variable time lags. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on robotic sense of touch

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 594
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  • 2011 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2011)

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 595
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  • IEEE Foundation [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 596
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  • IEEE Robotics and Automation Society Information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Robotics Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Robotics covers both theory and applications on topics including: kinematics, dynamics, control, and simulation of robots and intelligent machines and systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Frank Park
Seoul National University