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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 9 • Date Dec. 1988

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Multipath interconnection: a technique for reducing congestion within fast packet switching fabrics

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1480 - 1488
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (953 KB)  

    The banyan interconnection is prone to internal link congestion, resulting in a blocking switch architecture. Several solutions that have been implemented to reduce the severity of link congestion offer packets a multiplicity of paths, which tend to increase packet delay variability and allow delivery of out-of-sequence packets. This, in turn, can lead to an increase in end-to-end protocol complexity, particularly in the case of real-time services. A solution called multipath interconnection is proposed to overcome this difficulty. Multiple (i.e., alternate) paths are provided and one is selected at call-setup time. Subsequent packets belonging to the call are constrained to follow the selected path. A number of path selection strategies are presented.<> View full abstract»

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  • HYPASS: an optoelectronic hybrid packet switching system

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1500 - 1510
    Cited by:  Papers (48)  |  Patents (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1086 KB)  

    An architecture is presented for an optoelectronic hybrid packet switching system (HYPASS) for the distribution of multiple-bit-rate broadband services. HYPASS is based on an input-buffered/output-controlled arbitration protocol. The internal routing and interconnection utilizes a passive optical transport network with wavelength-tunable laser transmitters and fixed wavelength receivers. The single-stage multiwavelength optical interconnect provides an internally nonblocking network for large throughput routing of the bit-serial optical signals. An internal optical control network, with fixed-wavelength trouble receivers, sends output port information to the input nodes for arbitration and control. Packet buffer storage and control processing is performed by word-parallel electronic circuitry. The characteristics and device requirements for this design are presented along with results of a performance analysis of the arbitration and control protocol.<> View full abstract»

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  • Architecture of a packet switch based on banyan switching network with feedback loops

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1521 - 1527
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)  

    The authors propose and describe an original feedback banyan switching network topology and control algorithm. This feedback banyan network prevents congestion even at high throughput. It does so by establishing a feedback route for the output packets from the output port to the input port of the banyan switching network. Input accommodated logical channels that do not encounter congestion within the switching network are output directly from the intended output port. Other packets are returned to the input port via the feedback route, then rerouted.<> View full abstract»

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  • The 'Prelude' ATD experiment: assessments and future prospects

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1528 - 1537
    Cited by:  Papers (40)  |  Patents (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1094 KB)  

    The Prelude experimental model represents a complete network which can integrate any bit rate from data to moving pictures by an asynchronous time-division (ATD) technique. To get reliable and full assessment of ATD, the model is made up of a switch, a concentrator, two home networks, and terminals. The project started in 1982 and was completed in the middle of 1987. The success of the experiment proves the feasibility of ATD, which is now agreed on as a possible solution for future ISDN (integrated-services digital network) use. The authors address the results derived from the experiment and analyze the trends that can be expected for the future. First, an outline of Prelude is given to describe the state of the arc reached within the experiment. Each element of the system is described with special emphasis on the switching matrix, as its optimized and efficient implementation could lead to short-term industrial developments. Then a thorough assessment of the whole system is given from which future evolutions are most likely to be derived. Possible ATD fields of application are given.<> View full abstract»

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  • Layered ATM systems and architectural concepts for subscribers' premises networks

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1545 - 1555
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1154 KB)  

    The authors review the essential elements of the ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) technique and presents a framework for the definition of ATM, based on the ISDN (integrated-services digital network) protocol reference model. A layered functional model of an ATM open system is presented and the relation with existing packet techniques is studied. The use of ATM in the subscribers' premises network (SPN) is analyzed. A two-tier SPN architecture is proposed covering both residential and business environments, in line with the modeling principles outlined. The merits of this architecture in the field of standardization are emphasized. Some implementation issues and the relation with the reference configuration are discussed.<> View full abstract»

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  • Very high speed and high capacity packet switching for broadband ISDN

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1556 - 1564
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (940 KB)  

    The authors discuss and propose a very-high-speed and high-capacity packet-switching (HPS) architecture for a future broadband ISDN (integrated-services digital network). The HPS network accommodates various communication services, such as voice, high-speed data, high-speed still picture, and video services. The proposed architecture has three significant principles: a high-speed oriented simple network protocol, separation of signaling and network control from data transfer, and hardware switching. These principles provide fast- and high-throughput transmission for data packets and reliable transmission and processing for call-control packets. The HPS protocol structure is addressed, which provides high flexibility for various communications services as well as high-speed capability. A 3-Gb/s capacity and building-block-structured packet-switching system architecture, using bus- and loop-type switch fabric, is also presented.<> View full abstract»

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  • Performance comparison of error control schemes in high-speed computer communication networks

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1565 - 1575
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1171 KB)  

    The authors examine the performance of two different approaches for handling the loss and/or corruption of messages as they are transmitted between two end users in a high-speed network. In the link-by-link approach, two adjacent nodes in an end-to-end path locally detect and recover from message loss or corruption along their joining link. In the end-to-end approach, recovery is done solely on the basis of a single end-to-end protocol. The authors develop analytic performance models, validated with simulation, for comparing the performance of these two approaches. The authors find that for the range of network parameters of practical interest, an end-to-end approach towards error control is superior to a link-by-link approach, even under assumptions that would overly favor the link-by-link approach, while at the same time requiring fewer network resources (e.g. buffers, computation time) than the link-by-link approach. The performance differences arise primarily from the increased buffer requirements of the link-by-link approach.<> View full abstract»

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  • Real-time packet switching: a performance analysis

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1576 - 1586
    Cited by:  Papers (47)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1014 KB)  

    The authors model the internal structure of a packet-switching node in a real-time system and characterize the tradeoff between throughput, delay, and packet loss as a function of the buffer size, switching speed, etc. They assume a simple shared-single-path switch fabric, though the analysis can be generalized to a wider class of switch fabrics. They show that with a small number of buffers the node will provide a guaranteed delay bound for high-priority traffic, a low average delay for low-priority traffic, no loss of packets at the input and low probability of packet loss at output.<> View full abstract»

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  • Queueing in high-performance packet switching

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1587 - 1597
    Cited by:  Papers (378)  |  Patents (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (854 KB)  

    The authors study the performance of four different approaches for providing the queuing necessary to smooth fluctuations in packet arrivals to a high-performance packet switch. They are (1) input queuing, where a separate buffer is provided at each input to the switch; (2) input smoothing, where a frame of b packets is stored at each of the input line to the switch and simultaneously launched into a switch fabric of size Nb*Nb; (3) output queuing, where packets are queued in a separate first-in first-out (FIFO) buffer located at each output of the switch; and (4) completely shared buffering, where all queuing is done at the outputs and all buffers are completely shared among all the output lines. Input queues saturate at an offered load that depends on the service policy and the number of inputs N, but is approximately 0.586 with FIFO buffers when N is large. Output queuing and completely shared buffering both achieve the optimal throughput-delay performance for any packet switch. However, compared to output queuing, completely shared buffering requires less buffer memory at the expense of an increase in switch fabric size.<> View full abstract»

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  • Flow control schemes and delay/loss tradeoff in ATM networks

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1609 - 1616
    Cited by:  Papers (69)  |  Patents (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (778 KB)  

    Performance and flow control mechanisms, which represent ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) flexibility, are discussed. To control performance, delay- and/or loss-sensitive service classes, and two mechanisms to realize these classes, are proposed. It is shown that it is possible to have better performance than with other mechanisms, such as no-class distinction or simple priority methods. It is further suggested that this performance controllability results in the provision of multiple logical services, including quasi-STM (synchronous transfer mode; compatible with circuit switching), by an ATM network. ATM flow control is based on a call-oriented resource allocation mechanism similar to circuit switching. The concepts of call/line bit rate ratio and multiplexing degree are seen to be significant for efficient use of resources. When the network handles calls with large call/line bit rate ratios, user-specified flow control parameters at the call setup phase are important for resource assignment. The definition of two types of maximum throughput of each call and its usage for resource management are proposed.<> View full abstract»

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  • The impact of the ATM concept on video coding

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1623 - 1632
    Cited by:  Papers (129)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2390 KB)  

    The induction of the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) concept may significantly influence the coding of video services for broadband networks. The authors show how the absence of a physical channel structure and the ability to switch bursty traffic can be used to enhance video coding. Packetization defects and their impact on picture quality, coding algorithms, and synchronization schemes are studied. The authors describe variable-bit-rate coding and report on the results obtained with a hardware implementation of a variable-bit-rate video codec. Statistical multiplexing gain figures are given. The influence of cell loss on image quality is discussed and simulation results are given. A layered coding model offering good cell loss concealment properties and high flexibility is described.<> View full abstract»

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  • Resource allocation for broadband networks

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1598 - 1608
    Cited by:  Papers (233)  |  Patents (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB)  

    The major benefit of a broadband integrated ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) network is flexible and efficient allocation of communications bandwidth for communications services. However, methods are needed for evaluating congestion for integrated traffic. The author suggests evaluating congestion at different levels, namely the packet level, the burst level, and the call level. Congestion is measured by the probabilities of packet blocking, burst blocking, and call blocking. He outlines the methodologies for comparing these blocking probabilities. The author uses the congestion measures for a multilayer bandwidth-allocation algorithm, emulating some function of virtual circuit setup, fast circuit switching, and fast packet switching at these levels. The analysis also sheds insight on traffic engineering issues such as appropriate link load, traffic integration, trunk group and switch sizing, and bandwidth reservation criteria for two bursty services View full abstract»

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  • Nonblocking copy networks for multicast packet switching

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1455 - 1467
    Cited by:  Papers (182)  |  Patents (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (956 KB)  

    In addition to handling point-to-point connections, a broadband packet network should be able to provide multipoint communications that are required by a wide range of applications. The essential component to enhance the connection capability of a packet network is a multicast packet switch, capable of packet replications and switching, which is usually a serial combinations of a copy network and a point-to-point switch. The copy network replicates input packets from various sources simultaneously, after which copies of broadcast packets are routed to their final destination by the switch. A nonblocking, self-routing copy network with constant latency is proposed. Packet replications are accomplished by an encoding process and a decoding process. The encoding process transforms the set of copy numbers, specified in the headers of incoming packets, into a set of monotone address intervals which form new packet headers. The decoding process performs the packet replication according to the Boolean interval splitting algorithm through the broadcast banyan network, the decision making is based on a two-bit header information. This yields minimum complexity in the switch nodes View full abstract»

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  • Multichannel bandwidth allocation in a broadband packet switch

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1489 - 1499
    Cited by:  Papers (77)  |  Patents (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (972 KB)  

    The problem of bandwidth allocation in a packet switch supporting broadband services is addressed. To reduce the performance constraints imposed by limiting a data link to a single broadband packet channel, the author introduces the concept of channel group as a set of broadband packet channels that is viewed as a single data-link connection by routing entities. He uses a two-step bandwidth allocation scheme. At connection setup time, a call is allocated to a channel group. At transmission time, specific channels of a group are optimally allocated to the packets destined to the group. Because of the statistical smoothing of the large number of sources served by a channel group, the traffic performance of the switch is improved. This scheme also allows super-rate switching, i.e., the support of services with peak bandwidth exceeding the capacity of a single packet channel. The author shows the feasibility of this scheme in a Batcher-banyan switch, by implementing in hardware the bandwidth allocation at transmission time. Performance improvements obtained by this scheme are also provided in different traffic environments View full abstract»

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  • A fast packet switch for the integrated services backbone network

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1468 - 1479
    Cited by:  Papers (35)  |  Patents (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1076 KB)  

    With the projected growth in demand for bandwidth and telecommunication services will come the requirement for a multiservice backbone network of far greater efficiency, capacity, and flexibility than ISDN (integrated-services digital network) is able to satisfy. This class of network has been termed the broadband ISDN, and the design of the switching nodes of such a network is the subject of much research. The author investigates one possible solution. The design and performance, for multiservice traffic, is presented for a fast packet switch based on a nonbuffered, multistage interconnection network. It is shown that for an implementation in current CMOS technology, operating at 50 MHz, switches with a total traffic capacity of up to 150 Gb/s can be constructed. Furthermore, if the reserved service traffic load is limited on each input port to a maximum of 80% of switch port saturation, then a maximum delay across the switch of on the order of 100 μs can be guaranteed, for 99% of the reserved service traffic, regardless of the unreserved service traffic load View full abstract»

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  • Design of transmission and multiplexing systems for broadband packet networks

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1511 - 1520
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    Dynamic time-division multiplexing (DTDM) is a flexible network transport technique capable of handling both continuous and bursty traffic effectively. By using three different multiplexing architectures in the network, DTDM permits graceful evolution of the existing circuit switching network into a flexible broadband packet communications network supporting integrated voice, data, and video traffic. The first multiplexing stage uses a packet assembler to multiplex different broadband services into a common DTDM-format serial bit stream. The second multiplexing stage uses a statistical packet multiplexer to concentrate network traffic for more efficient use of transmission facilities. The third multiplexing stage uses a synchronous time-division multiplexer for high-speed point-to-point transparent transmission. The multiplexer uses a simple tributary synchronization scheme based on positive and negative block justification, which combines the concept of controlled-slip and bit-stuffing techniques while maintaining information integrity. A generic CMOS LSI chip has been designed for use in the three-stage multiplexing system View full abstract»

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  • Definition of network options for the Belgian ATM broadband experiment

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1538 - 1544
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)  

    The definition of a system requires the selection of a number of basic options. PTM (packet transfer mode) is a generic concept grouping a number of similar techniques which enable very flexible switching and transmission. The author describes the options and parameters which have been selected for a Belgian experiment planned in the early 1990s. Discussed are the following aspects: ATD (asynchronous time division) versus FPS (fast packet switching), including fixed or variable packet length, the optimal packet length, transmission and switching speed, and the number of lower-layer capabilities View full abstract»

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  • Routing of multipoint connections

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1617 - 1622
    Cited by:  Papers (720)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)  

    The author addresses the problem of routing connections in a large-scale packet-switched network supporting multipoint communications. He gives a formal definition of several versions of the multipoint problem, including both static and dynamic versions. He looks at the Steiner tree problem as an example of the static problem and considers the experimental performance of two approximation algorithms for this problem. A weighted greedy algorithm is considered for a version of the dynamic problem which allows endpoints to come and go during the life of a connection. One of the static algorithms serves as a reference to measure the performance of the proposed weighted greedy algorithm in a series of experiments View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

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Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT