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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date April 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1 - 901
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • PIC MC Using Free Path for the Simulation of Low-Pressure RF Discharge in Argon

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 902 - 908
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (828 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we used the particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo techniques 1 Dimension 3 Velocities and 3 Dimensions 3 Velocities to simulate low-pressure radio-frequency (RF) discharge in argon. The plasma conditions are 50-100 mtorr of pressure and 200 V of peak RF voltage at 13.56 MHz. The method used in collision treatment is based on an optimized estimation of the collision free path which is independent of the electron energy. It depends only on the maximum of total cross sections. To reduce the number of null collisions, two maximums of total cross sections are chosen. The results obtained were compared with data from experiments that were already carried out. View full abstract»

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  • Head-on Collisions of Two Electrostatic Solitary Waves in Electron–Positron–Ion Plasmas

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 909 - 914
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (133 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the characteristics of the head-on collision between two electrostatic solitary waves in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas are studied. The electrons and positrons are assumed to be isothermal/adiabatic and dynamic, whereas positively charged ions are considered stationary. Using the extended Poincare??-Lighthill-Kuo method, the Korteweg-de Vries equations and the analytical phase shifts after the head-on collision of two solitary waves are derived. The results show that the ion-to-electron number density ratio, and the positron-to-electron temperature ratio have strong effects on the phase shifts. View full abstract»

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  • Multipactor in Microwave Transmission Systems Using Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 915 - 922
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (450 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A numerical simulation analysis is made of the effect of signal transmission using the quadrature phase-shift keying of a constant-amplitude RF carrier wave on the initiation of multipactor breakdown in RF devices operating under close-to-vacuum conditions. It is found that this form of signal modulation has a suppressing effect on the growth of the multipactor electron avalanche that depends on the parameters of the system. However, for technically realistic values of signal and phase-shift frequencies, the effect is found to be small. View full abstract»

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  • Energy and Current Density Measurements of RITS-6 Large-Area Diode Electron Beam

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 923 - 932
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    The depth-dose measurements of Radiographic Integrated Test Stand-6 large-area diode electron beam operating at approximately 10-MV peak voltage suggest a 10 ?? 0.5-MeV equivalent monoenergetic electron beam. The unfolded electron spectrum reveals electrons > 1 MeV above the peak magnetically insulated transmission line voltage. The 1-D slices of the beam spatial profile obtained in the depth-dose measurements observe greater than 20% nonuniformity in the beam current density. The time-resolved measurements of the beam current density profile using images of beam-generated Cerenkov light show 2-D nonuniformities in the beam current density that change slowly during the 60-ns pulse, which do not depend strongly on the cathode surface condition. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Underwater Discharge for Modification of Cellulose Materials

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 933 - 936
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electric parameters of ??face?? underwater discharges were under study. Oscillograms of current and voltage were obtained for various conditions of discharge ignition, and dynamic current-voltage characteristics were obtained. The application of this type of discharge for delignification processes of rough bast fibers (flax, hemp, and jute) in different solutions was investigated. The residual lignin was determined after plasma-solution treatment and after a shorter chemical treatment with reduced alkalinity. Such two-stage treatment was shown to be effective considerably as far as the delignification degree was 68% for flax, 64% for hemp, and 39% for jute, which are higher than those of lignin removal by traditional chemical technologies. View full abstract»

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  • A New PDP Cell Structure for High Luminous Efficacy With Low-Voltage Driving

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 937 - 942
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    We propose a new plasma display panel cell structure, called the dual ignition discharge electrodes (DIDE) structure, with a long electrode gap to realize high luminous efficacy. The proposed DIDE structure has a long electrode gap (200 ??m ~ 400 ??m) but can nevertheless be driven at relatively low voltage because of auxiliary electrodes that are formed on the front panel. The discharge characteristic of the DIDE structure is much different from the characteristic of the conventional structure, and it was analyzed through infrared emission images that are taken by an intensified charge-coupled device camera and discharge current waveforms. These studies explain the unique discharge characteristics of the DIDE structure, which originate in the ignition discharge that is generated by its own electrode structure and driving waveform. The proposed long electrode gap and low voltage effect of the DIDE structure resulted in a very high luminous efficacy of 7.5 lm/W in a monochrome green test with Ne-Xe (12%) mixture at 400 torr. View full abstract»

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  • Laser Guiding in the Randomicity of Discrete Surface Strengthening by Arc Discharge

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 943 - 947
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1122 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several discharge areas by laser-guided discharge (LGD) were compared with those by common arc discharge. The randomicity of discharge areas by common arc discharge was controlled by laser guiding on two scales: large scale (the spacing of the discharge areas) and small scale (the inside of the discharge area). The position of the discharge area overlapped completely with a laser focus; therefore, the distribution and surface shape of the discharge areas were controlled. The stochastic movement of anode spot in the discharge area was controlled by laser guiding. As such, the repetitive melting and solidifying of microstructures in the discharge area was constrained. The tempered microstructures in the discharge area were voided, the utilization efficiency of input energy was improved, and the strengthened depth of the discharge areas was increased. The regularity of cross-sectional shape of the discharge area was also improved. The hardness of microstructures in both discharge areas is greater than that of the base material. The highest level of hardness of microstructures in both discharge areas measures above 1000 HV. In summary, the hardness of microstructures in the discharge area by LGD is larger and more discrete than that by common arc discharge. View full abstract»

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  • Nonthermal Plasma Needle: Development and Targeting of Melanoma Cells

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 948 - 952
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A nonthermal plasma torch has been developed to study the targeted killing of melanoma cells. In this paper, 1205Lu melanoma cells and keratinocytes were exposed to the plasma. These cells were transfected with green fluorescent protein in order to establish a system for coculture with primary keratinocytes. Results show that a 10 s treatment with plasma causes a morphological change in the melanoma cells, as observed after 18 h. However, after only 15 min following plasma treatment, a significant killing of melanoma cells was observed, with a much reduced killing of keratinocytes. Nonthermal plasma may serve as an effective tool for future therapeutic cancer treatment. View full abstract»

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  • Photoinactivation of the Escherichia coli by the Pulsed Dielectric Barrier Discharge Excilamp Krypton Chlorine Emitted at 222 nm

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 953 - 956
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (175 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The photoinactivation of the Escherichia coli bacteria with the pulsed dielectric barrier discharge excilamp krypton chorine (KrCl) emitted at 222 nm is presented. The Escherichia coli, with the initial density of 34.106 colony forming units (CFU)/??L, has been irradiated in the aqueous and on the surface medias, respectively. A high reduction rate in the survival density of E. coli has been reached by the photoinactivation in both media during the first 30 s. The photoinactivation resulted in the logarithmic reduction factor of 5.6 log and 5.1 log within irradiation time of 30 s on the surface and in the aqueous medias, respectively. At the high dose of 2880 mJ/cm2 , the logarithmic reduction factor reached 6.1 log and 5.5 log on the surface and in the aqueous medias, respectively. The first tailing plateau was appeared on the surface and in the aqueous medias at 60 and 300 s of irradiation time, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasmas Applied to Active Packaging of Apples

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 957 - 965
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (779 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Active packaging of fruits and vegetables uses films that absorb molecules from or contribute molecules to the produce. The pilot application developed in this paper has resulted in the deposition of film to apples. A prospective application relates to replacing hot wax that is expensive and that lowers the textural quality of the apple. This was the early motivation of this paper. Moreover, the focus of this paper will be mostly on the reactor design and film evaluation. The cold-plasma zone was obtained by increasing the voltage on a needle-to-needle electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) was sufficiently high to yield electron avalanches and self-propagating streamers. The ??corona onset criterion?? was used to design the cold-plasma reactor. The apple was placed in a treatment chamber downstream from the activation zone (cold-plasma zone). Selected physical properties of the film were measured. Environmental scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared studies of samples were also performed to determine the presence of the film. Electromagnetic modeling was applied to the design of the cold-plasma reactor, and those results are presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • A New Structure Optimization Method for the Interneedle Distance of a Multineedle-to-Plane Barrier Discharge Reactor

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 966 - 972
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    A new method for the interneedle-distance optimization of a multineedle-to-plane barrier discharge reactor is presented. As we know, there is gas breakdown when, in some regions between electrodes, the electric field is higher than the breakdown field; hence, the region may play a dominant role for the discharge, and the enhancement of its volume ratio in the reactor will allow an increase in discharge energy density. This can be achieved by structure optimization. With the finite-element method, the 3-D profiles of an electrostatic field in the reactor are acquired for a series of interneedle distances, thereby the one-to-one relationship between the volume ratio and interneedle distance is obtained. This allows the optimal interneedle distance for power input efficiency to be identified, as related to the maximal volume ratio. The optimal distance is between 7.2 and 8.4 mm in our simulation range, decreasing with the increase of operating voltages from 16 to 26 kV. The simulation results are experimentally validated by discharge energy measurement as well as the performance of SO2 removal from indoor air. This structure optimization method leads to a simple way to obtain the optimal interneedle distance for energy input efficiency and hence benefits commercial use. View full abstract»

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  • Plasma Sterilization: Opportunities and Microbial Assessment Strategies in Medical Device Manufacturing

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 973 - 981
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (377 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Non-thermal gas discharge plasmas have significant potential as novel sterilization/decontamination agents in medical device manufacturing, and such agents may well be accepted by regulatory agencies. A number of aspects of plasma technology are currently under active investigation by many institutions and companies in order to obtain a thorough understanding of plasma sterilization as an alternative to conventional sterilization methods for heat sensitive medical devices. This paper focuses on the use of plasmas in microbial inactivation in medical-device manufacturing, describing some of the opportunities and microbial assessment strategies, as well as a possible surrogate for assessing microbial inactivation by plasma. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Ambient Pressure on the Axial Behavior of  \hbox {Ar}{-}\hbox {H}_{2} Transferred Thermal Arc-Plasma Column

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 982 - 989
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    Measurements of axial temperature and electron density have been carried out for Ar-H2 dc transferred arc-plasma columns under varying ambient-pressure conditions (100-760 torr). Optical emission spectroscopy has been used as the diagnostic tool. Temperature was determined by the relative intensity method using atomic hydrogen lines. The electron-density measurements were obtained from the Stark width of the H?? (486.13 nm) line. Possible deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) has been studied by using H?? transitions and by measuring the population factor using ArI (696.5 nm) transition. The nonideality along the plasma column has been studied using the electron-density data. The plasma approaches weakly nonideal conditions near substrate. The maximum deviation from LTE conditions also arises near the transferred anode substrate. With an increase in pressure, the volume of plasma approaches LTE. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Microfilaments on DC Plasma Torches and Afterglows

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 990 - 995
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (417 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of microfilaments on the operation of direct-current (dc) atmospheric-pressure nitrogen plasma torches. We measure the roto-vibrational temperatures of the first negative and second positive systems of the N2 and N2 + species, as well as the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in the plasma plume and at several distances away from the source. The EEDF is measured using both planar and double-point Langmuir probes. We found that the operation of a dc nitrogen plasma torch in a mixed glow/microfilament regime results in the ejection of high-energy electron bullets from the torch nozzle. The frequency of these electron bullets outside the plasma coincides with the microfilament frequency. Furthermore, the microfilament frequency is shown to have a direct correlation with the N2 + roto-vibrational temperature. The electron bullets possess a highly non-Maxwellian EEDF and maintain their nonequilibrium energies while contained within the N2 substrate gas. View full abstract»

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  • KSTAR Charge Exchange Spectroscopy System

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 996 - 1000
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The charge exchange spectroscopy (CES) system for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device is designed to obtain profiles of the ion temperature and rotation velocity by using modulated neutral beam injection and a background system. The CES diagnostic will measure the ion temperature of carbon and other impurities, in conjunction with the neutral heating beam in KSTAR. The visible light from the plasma will be concentrated via collection optics, assembled, and imaged onto quartz fibers. We show the progress of the KSTAR CES diagnostic including the collection assembly, lens design, and cassette system. The KSTAR CES system utilizes a 1.33-m Czerny-Turner spectrometer with variable wavelength. The detector is a thinned back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) that has high quantum efficiency and high readout speed. The spectrometer and CCD detector that will be used in the KSTAR CES system have been tested. Two CES diagnostics systems for KSTAR are compared. View full abstract»

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  • Measurements of the Propagation Velocity of an Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Plume by Various Methods

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1001 - 1007
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (748 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The propagation behavior of atmospheric-pressure plasma plumes has recently attracted lots of attention. In this paper, five different methods are used to measure the propagation velocity of an atmospheric-pressure plasma plume. The first method, named the ??current method,?? obtains the propagation velocity of the plasma plume by measuring the currents carried by the plasma plume at different positions. The second method, named the ??voltage method,?? obtains the plume propagation velocity by measuring the plasma plume voltage potential at different positions along the plasma jet with a voltage divider. The third method, called the ??charge method,?? which significantly interferes with the plume propagation, estimates the plume propagation velocity by measuring the charges deposited on the surface of a quartz tube. The fourth method, which is the noninterference method, obtains the plume propagation velocity by capturing the dynamics of the plasma plume with an intensified charge-coupled device camera. Finally, the fifth method estimates the plume propagation velocity based on the temporal optical-emission intensity measurement of the selected species by using a spectrometer. The advantage and disadvantage of each method are discussed. The experimental results show that plasma plume velocities obtained from the five methods have reasonable agreement with each other. They are all in the range of 104 m/s. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of Compact Explosively Driven Ferroelectric Generators

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1008 - 1014
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (874 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pressure simulations have been performed for several experimental explosively driven ferroelectric generators, with 2.54-cm-diameter PZT EC-64 discs as the ferroelectric material, using the hydrodynamic code system CTH, developed by Sandia National Laboratories. An empirical relationship was found between the results of the pressure simulations and the output voltages of the experimental generators, and an algorithm was generated to convert the simulated pressure into open-circuit voltage. This empirical algorithm has been applied to simulations of different experimental ferroelectric generators, and the results show a good correlation when compared to the corresponding experimental open-circuit output voltages. The experimentally achieved output voltages normalized for a thickness range from 14 to 34 kV/cm. View full abstract»

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  • Investigating Long-Distance Exploding-Wire Restrike

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1015 - 1018
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    An experimental setup was built using commonly available high-voltage laboratory equipment to investigate the creation of exploding-wire restrikes up to 9 m long. Sets of voltage traces are presented with varying applied average electric fields. Restrikes (formation of plasma paths) have been found to occur in a region of average electric field between 5.6 and 15 kV/m. The average electric field of this region of restrikes is relatively low and will assist in investigation of novel plasma conductor configurations. View full abstract»

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  • Output Characteristics of a Kind of High-Voltage Pulse Transformer With Closed Magnetic Core

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1019 - 1027
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    A new kind of miniature high-voltage pulse transformer based on closed magnetic core is developed, and its output characteristics are analyzed in this paper. The amplitude of the output high-voltage pulse of the transformer is 210 kV, the step-up ratio is 1:105, and the effective coupling coefficient is 0.984. The time-domain and frequency responses of the transformer have also been analyzed in detail by circuit theory. The experimental results show that the pulse transformer can respond well to square voltage pulse with a pulsewidth ranging from 5 to 100 ??s and a frequency band ranging from 100 Hz to 500 kHz. With these characteristics, the small pulse transformer with very low cost can be used for applications of dielectric barrier discharge and high-voltage nanosecond-pulse generator. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Simulation of the Motion of a Cathode-Spot System on a Planar Electrode in Magnetic Field

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1028 - 1032
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (285 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with simulation of cathode-spot motion in the self-consistent magnetic field in 3-D formulation. Plasma jets are modeled as cylinders of a small radius, their conductivity depending on the magnetic field. Electrodes are modeled in their actual 3-D geometry. The magnitude and direction of the velocity of the cathode-spot motion versus the magnetic-field components are taken from the experimental data on the motion of a single spot. The dependence of the cathode-jet conductivity on the magnetic field is found by means of interpolating the Volt-Tesla characteristics (VTCs) for a single spot from the same work. Use is made of the mechanism for spot splitting at currents exceeding some threshold of the current and spot destruction at currents lower than another threshold. Attainment of the steady state by the voltage across the discharge was studied and found to take place after the spots reach the electrode edge. The temporal dependences of the histograms of spot distribution in the current were derived. The obtained results are used to plot the VTC of a system of spots. The qualitative behavior of the dependences agrees with experiment, which is an argument in favor of the assumption that the behavior of a high-current arc is determined to a large extent by that of a system of individual cathode spots interacting via the common self-consistent magnetic field. View full abstract»

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  • Study of Different Models of the Wall Ablation Process in Capillary Discharge

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1033 - 1041
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Wall ablation is a critical physical process in the capillary plasma generator for electrothermal-chemical (ETC) guns, and its characteristics directly determine the generator's performance. In this paper, three different ablation models for the capillary discharge are studied. First, based on a recently developed two-layer kinetic model that takes into account the structure of the sheath in the plasma-wall transition region, ablation characteristics of two typical materials used in the ETC gun plasma generator, polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene, are calculated. These data are required for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma modeling, and for analysis of the characteristics of different materials from the viewpoint of capillary material selection. Then, using discharge parameters of a typical ETC plasma generator working cycle, three widely used ablation models are compared and analyzed. These models are the two-layer kinetic model (model-K), a model based on the Langmuir law (model-L) and a simplified arc-wall interaction model (model-E). The time dependence of the ablation rate and total ablated mass are calculated with each method, and then the features of the different ablation models are discussed. It demonstrates that the model-K is the most reliable model in terms of predictions accuracy, while its computational efficiency is poorer when applied in MHD simulations compared with the model-E. View full abstract»

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  • Detailed Particle and Power Fluxes Into ITER Castellated Divertor Gaps During ELMs

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1042 - 1046
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (637 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plasma deposition in narrow gaps between tiles of ITER plasma-facing components during ELMs is simulated by means of particle-in-cell technique. The particle and power loads onto and between the divertor tiles are estimated for a multispecies plasma. We simulate an equal mixture of deuterium and tritium (T) for the main plasma with one impurity, the carbon (C). The aim of this paper is to know whether the C ions can enter the narrow gaps between tiles and with which energy. Due to its radioactivity, the T deposition in the gaps is also of high interest and is estimated. The two basic orientations of the gap with respect to the magnetic field lines, poloidal and toroidal, have been studied. The global penetration of the two hydrogen species into the gap is on the order of the gap width ( ~ 0.5 mm), and their own contribution on the total heat flux to the gap is given. The main impurity penetrates into the gap in between 50% to 70% of the total plasma-deposition length but with a power deposited representing less than 1% of the total deposited power. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Analysis of Forces and Torques on the Baseline and Enhanced ITER Shield Modules due to Plasma Disruption

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1047 - 1051
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (833 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An electromagnetic analysis is performed on the ITER shield modules under different plasma-disruption scenarios using the OPERA-3d software. The models considered include the baseline design as provided by the International Organization and an enhanced design that includes the more realistic geometrical features of a shield module. The modeling procedure is explained, electromagnetic torques are presented, and results of the modeling are discussed. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
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