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Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date March 2010

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 129 - 130
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  • Fractal Dimension of Conducting Paths in Nickel Oxide (NiO) Thin Films During Resistance Switching

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 131 - 133
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (629 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A resistance-switching model in nickel oxide thin film is proposed based on Poisson distribution of electrical switching power. Conductive percolating network in soft breakdown surface may be the source of resistance switching. The main body of network may remain unchanged, but a portion of network is broken and healed repeatedly during switching. Dependence of reset current on electrode area is explained by fractal dimension. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Nanometeric Plasmonic Refractive Index Sensor

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 134 - 137
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (759 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) refractive index sensor based on the coupling of a split waveguide mode with a cavity mode in the metal is proposed and studied in this paper. Both analytic and simulated results show that the resonant wavelength of the sensor has a linear relationship with the refractive index of materials under sensing. Based on the relationship, the refractive index of the material can be obtained from the detection of the resonant wavelength. The resolution of refractive index of the nanometeric sensor can reach as high as 10-6, given the wavelength resolution of 0.01 nm. It can be applied to high-resolution biosensor. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of Sub-10 nm Planar Nanofluidic Channels Through Native Oxide Etch and Anodic Wafer Bonding

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 138 - 141
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1105 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple, multiple-hydrofluoric (HF)-dip process is developed and characterized to etch native silicon-dioxide (SiO2) to obtain shallow silicon trenches. The room-temperature SiO2 grow-etch-grow process yields an etch rate of ~ 1 nm/HF-dip with atomically smooth trench surface. Low-temperature, low-voltage anodic bonding yields sub-10 nm deep planar nanochannels with aspect ratios as small as 0.002. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Photocurrent Spectra of SiGe/Si Quantum-Well Solar Cell

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 142 - 148
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple theoretical model is proposed to quantitatively explain the dependence of photocurrent spectra for multiple quantum-well (MQW) p-i-n diode on the absorption coefficient and the applied reverse bias. Excellent agreement is obtained between model calculation and the experimental photocurrent spectra for a 30-period 15-nm Si0.85Ge0.15/15-nm Si MQW p-i-n diode, where the background doping density and the built-in potential are treated as adjustable parameters. Using the model, the absorption coefficient extracted from the measured photocurrent spectra at low bias is in well agreement with the directly measured absorption coefficient. Also, the model parameters (the background doping density and the built-in diode potential) are in excellent agreement with the values of these quantities independently measured by C-V method. In terms of this model, the relation between the background doping and the photocurrent response is analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • Evolution of Various Nanostructures and Preservation of Self-Assembled InAs Quantum Dots During GaAs Capping

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 149 - 156
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3634 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The fabrication of nanostructures such as quantum rods (QRDs), quantum dot pairs (QDPs), bridged QDPs, and dimpled QDs (DQDs) is achieved by an application of a shallow GaAs layer using solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). More specifically, the shape transition and evolution process as well as the preservation of original dome shape of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) are studied during the thin capping of GaAs layers in terms of morphology and optical property. As QDs are required to be capped for their applications and optical characterizations, it is critical to understand the mechanism during the capping process. QDs go through a significant shape transition and eventually evolve into various nanostructures at temperatures between 500??C and 400??C, while the original dome shape can be maintained at temperatures below 360??C. The shape evolutions are mainly driven by diffusion process induced by redistribution of surface chemical potential and strain matrix. Photoluminescence (PL) results show a blue-shift with increasing capping temperature for a fixed capping thickness, which adequately matches with morphological evolution. View full abstract»

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  • Artificial Anisotropy in Circular Photonic Crystals and Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 157 - 169
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (9922 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we analyze the birefringence effect in circular photonic crystals (CphCs). The studied CphCs are dielectric rings (DRs) and photonic crystals with cylindrical air holes arranged in circular patterns. The dielectric concentric circular patterns admit two preferred propagation directions defined by an extraordinary and an ordinary refractive index, representing two electric field polarizations. These electric fields are diffracted inside the crystal or are localized in a central microcavity region. We prove the induced artificial anisotropy in DRs through the geometrical equivalence with the corresponding thin-film multilayer structure. The equivalence is obtained through the geometrical synthesis of the wavefront propagation inside the artificial anisotropic structure. As applications, we analyze a Si/SiO2 DR Bragg reflector and a GaAs CphC microcavity resonator. The Bragg theory is validated by numerical time-domain approaches that are well suited to solve scattering problems. The microcavity resonance analysis and the Q -factor evaluation are performed by the finite-element method modeling. View full abstract»

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  • An Optimized Majority Logic Synthesis Methodology for Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 170 - 183
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1797 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) has been widely considered as a replacement candidate for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS). The fundamental logic device in QCA is the majority gate. In this paper, we propose an efficient methodology for majority logic synthesis of arbitrary Boolean functions. We prove that our method provides a minimal majority expression and an optimal QCA layout for any given three-variable Boolean function. In order to obtain high-quality decomposed Boolean networks, we introduce a new decomposition scheme that can decompose all Boolean networks efficiently. Furthermore, our method removes all the redundancies that are produced in the process of converting a decomposed network into a majority network. In existing methods, however, these redundancies are not considered. We have built a majority logic synthesis tool based on our method and several existing logic synthesis tools. Experiments with 40 multiple-output benchmarks indicate that, compared to existing methods, 37 benchmarks are optimized by our method, up to 31.6%, 78.2%, 75.5%, and 83.3% reduction in level count, gate count, gate input count, and inverter count, respectively, is possible with the average being 4.7%, 14.5%, 13.3%, and 26.4%, respectively. We have also implemented the QCA layouts of 10 benchmarks by using our method. Results indicate that, compared to existing methods, up to 33.3%, 76.7%, and 75.5% reduction in delay, cell count, and area, respectively, is possible with the average being 8.1%, 28.9%, and 29.0%, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling SWCNT Bandgap and Effective Mass Variation Using a Monte Carlo Approach

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 184 - 193
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2622 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Synthesizing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with accurate structural control has been widely acknowledged as an exceedingly complex task culminating in the realization of CNT devices with uncertain electronic behavior. In this paper, we apply a statistical approach in predicting the SWCNT bandgap and effective mass variation for typical uncertainties associated with the geometrical structure. This is first carried out by proposing a simulation-efficient analytical model that evaluates the bandgap (Eg) of an isolated SWCNT with a specified diameter (d) and chirality (??). Similarly, we develop an SWCNT effective mass model, which is applicable to CNTs of any chirality and diameters >1 nm. A Monte Carlo method is later adopted to simulate the bandgap and effective mass variation for a selection of structural parameter distributions. As a result, we establish analytical expressions that separately specify the bandgap and effective mass variability (Eg??, m?? *) with respect to the CNT mean diameter (d??) and standard deviation (d??). These expressions offer insight from a theoretical perspective on the optimization of diameter-related process parameters with the aim of suppressing bandgap and effective mass variation. View full abstract»

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  • CMOL/CMOS Implementations of Bayesian Polytree Inference: Digital and Mixed-Signal Architectures and Performance/Price

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 194 - 211
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1185 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we focus on aspects of the hardware implementation of the Bayesian inference framework within the George and Hawkins' model. This framework is based on Judea Pearl's belief propagation. We then present a ??hardware design space exploration?? methodology for implementing and analyzing the (digital and mixed-signal) hardware for the Bayesian (polytree) inference framework. This, particular, methodology involves: analyzing the computational/operational cost and the related microarchitecture, exploring candidate hardware components, proposing various custom architectures using both traditional CMOS and hybrid nanotechnology CMOS/nanowire/molecular hybrid (CMOL), and investigating the baseline performance/price of these hardware architectures. The results suggest that hybrid nanotechnology is a promising candidate to implement Bayesian inference. Such implementations utilize the very high density storage/computation benefits of these new nanoscale technologies much more efficiently, for example, the throughput per 858 mm2 obtained for CMOL-based architectures is 32-40 times better than the TPM for a CMOS based multiprocessor/multifield-programmable gate array system, and almost 2000 times better than the TPM for a single PC implementation. In general, the assessment of such hypothetical hardware architectures provides a baseline for large-scale implementations of Bayesian inference, and guidance for implementing the same using nanogrid structures. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of the Series Resistance Extracted From Si Nanowire FETs Using the Y -Function Technique

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 212 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (518 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The series resistance, R sd in silicon nanowire FETs (Si-NWFET) is extracted unambiguously, using the Y -function technique, in conjunction with the drain current and transconductance data. The volume channel inversion in Si-NWFET renders the charge carriers relatively free of the surface scattering and concomitant degradation of mobility. As a result, the Y -function of Si-NWFET is shown to exhibit a linear behavior in strong inversion, thereby enabling accurate extraction of R sd. The technique is applied to nanowire devices with channel lengths 82, 86, 96, 106, 132, and 164 nm, respectively. The extracted R sd values are shown nearly flat with respect to the gate voltage, as expected from Ohmic contacts but showed a large variation for all channel lengths examined. This indicates the process parameters involved in the formation of series contacts vary considerably from device to device. The present method only requires a single device for extraction of R sd and the iteration procedure for data fitting is fast and stable. View full abstract»

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  • Combustion Synthesis and Characterization of Bulk Nanocrystalline {\bf Fe}_{\bf 88} {\bf Si}_{\bf 12} Alloy

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 218 - 222
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1106 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Bulk nanocrystalline Fe88Si12 alloy is fabricated by a combustion synthesis processing that is convenient, low in cost, and capable of being scaled up. The Fe88Si12 alloy consists of two phases: ??-Fe(Si) and Fe3Si. It is a composite structure of meshwork dispersed in a matrix. The meshwork is a few micrometers in length and 0.5-1 ??m in diameter, and the grain size of the matrix is in the range of 5-15 nm. The nanocrystalline Fe88Si12 alloy is yielded at 1760 MPa with a large ductility of 14.6% in compressive test. Moreover, the coercive force of the product is approximately 3.6 A/m and saturation magnetization is about 196 emu/g. The results suggest that the product exhibits good mechanical behavior and soft magnet properties. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of Cobalt Nanowires Fabricated in Anodic Alumina Template Through AC Electrodeposition

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 223 - 228
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1768 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cobalt nanowires were fabricated by alternating current electrodeposition using anodic porous alumina template. Diameter of the pores was controlled by the pore widening time. Effect of pore widening time on the magnetic properties and microstructure of the nanowires was investigated. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the pores as well as nanowires. Magnetic properties were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature, and were found to be size-dependent. When the field was applied parallel to the nanowires, coercivity of the nanowires reaches to the maximum value ~2200 Oe for 10 min pore widening time. Coercivity decreases linearly with further increase in the pore widening time. In the case, when the field was applied perpendicular to the nanowires, coercivity was found to decrease monotonically when the pore widening time was increased from 0 to 10 min. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of Fractal Surfaces by Electron Beam Lithography

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 229 - 236
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3530 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a method based on electron beam lithography to fabricate patterns of fractal islands on a surface. The island morphology resembles that of a random deposition of particles in a diffusion-limited aggregation regime in 2-D, which is often encountered in the growth of atoms and molecules upon ultrahigh vacuum sublimation. With our fabrication protocol, the morphological parameters of the fractal islands (correlation length, fractal dimension, coverage, and roughness) can be controlled. The fabricated structures can be used as templates for investigating the interplay of self-affinity on thin film nucleation and growth, the adsorption of functional molecules, and the anchoring of living cells. Also they can be exploited as masters for nanoimprinting lithography and replica molding. View full abstract»

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  • Role of Metal–Semiconductor Contact in Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 237 - 242
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1698 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a systematic study of the role of metal/semiconductor nanowire (NW) contact in back-gated Ge and Si NW Schottky-barrier (SB) FETs. Our results show that the performance of such devices is largely dominated by the carrier injection efficiency at the source contact, which, in turn, is controlled by metal contact depth and gate bias. Using low-temperature annealing of back-gated Ge and Si NW SB FETs with nickel (Ni) contacts as source and drain, we monitor the evolution of the device current as the contact metal progressively diffuses into the NWs. The drain current, which is measured at a given gate and drain bias, first increases as the contact metal diffuses into the NW, reaches a maximum, and subsequently decreases. These results can be explained by the interplay between carrier injection efficiency through the metal/NW SB, which increases with the metal contact depth, and the number of available states in the NW between contact and the bottom oxide, which decreases with the metal contact depth. View full abstract»

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  • Electronic Properties of Nitrogen-Atom-Adsorbed Graphene Nanoribbons With Armchair Edges

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 243 - 247
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1355 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we systematically study adsorption of nitrogen atom on graphene nanoribbons with armchair edges (AGNRs). It is found that the N atom prefers to be adsorbed at the edge. The adsorption mechanism is discussed from the strong hybridization between the electron states in both N adatom and AGNR. It is also exhibited that the ??p-d molecular bands appear in the electronic structures. For some AGNRs, the electronic structures are spin-polarized, in which the ??p-d molecular bands are split off. However, other AGNRs are spin-unpolarized, which can be turned into p-type AGNRs. These results indicate that the properties of AGNRs can be strongly modified through the adsorption of N atom. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation and Analysis of Mismatching Properties for Nanoscale Strained MOSFETs

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 248 - 253
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates and analyzes the matching properties of nanoscale strained MOSFETs under various bias conditions. Through a comprehensive comparison between coprocessed strained and unstrained PMOSFETs, the impact of process-induced uniaxial strain on the matching performance of MOS devices has been assessed and analyzed. Our examination indicates that, in the low-gate-voltage-overdrive (|Vgst|) regime, the normalized drain current mismatch (??(??Id)/Id) of the strained device is almost the same as that of the unstrained one at a given transconductance to drain current ratio ( g m/ld). In the high |Vgst| linear regime, the ??(??Id)/Id for the strained device is smaller than that of the unstrained one because of its smaller normalized current factor mismatch. In the high |Vgst| saturation regime, the improvement in the ??(??Id)/Id for the strained device is further enhanced because of the reduced critical electric field at which the carrier velocity becomes saturated. View full abstract»

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  • Selective Alignment of Gold Nanowires Synthesized With DNA as Template by Surface-Patterning Technique

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 254 - 257
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (932 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The direct and selective assembly of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-templated metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Cu, and Pd) nanowires (NWs) is a key technique for the application to electronic devices and nanowire-based biosensors. In this study, a new technique was developed to carefully control the interval of DNA-templated gold NWs (AuNWs) using surface-patterning techniques. The ??-DNA molecules were stretched and aligned along 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) region formed uniformly by self-assembly and patterned by electron beam lithography process, and then treated by positively charged gold nanoparticles to form DNA-templated AuNWs. ??-DNA molecule was verified to be immobilized and stretched into parallel lines only on the surface of APS-coated parallel paths by surface-patterning technique, and it was possible to control the interval of DNA-templated AuNWs. Also, DNAs were confirmed to be assembled not on the bare SiO2 region but on the APS region defined by amine groups. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement of Thermal Stability of Ni Germanide Using a Ni–Pt(1%) Alloy on Ge-on-Si Substrate for Nanoscale Ge MOSFETs

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 258 - 263
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1445 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, thermally stable Ni germanide using a Ni-Pt(1%) alloy and TiN capping layer is proposed for high-performance Ge MOSFETs. The proposed Ni-Pt(1%) alloy structure exhibits low-temperature germanidation with a wide temperature window for rapid thermal processing. Moreover, sheet resistance is stable and the germanide interface shows less agglomeration despite high-temperature postgermanidation anneal up to 550 ??C for 30 min. In addition, the surface of the Ni-Pt(1%) alloy structure is smoother than that of a pure Ni structure both before and after the postgermanidation anneal. Only the NiGe phase and no other phases such as PtxGey and NixPt1-xGey can be observed in X-ray diffraction results, but X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that PtGe is formed during the postgermanidation anneal. The larger Pt atomic radius is believed to inhibit the diffusion of Ni into the Si substrate, thereby improving the thermal stability of the NiGe. The higher melting point of PtGe is also believed to improve thermal stability. Therefore, this proposed Ni-Pt(1%) alloy could be promising for high-mobility Ge MOSFET applications. View full abstract»

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  • Quality without compromise [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 264
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology information for authors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C3
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    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology is devoted to the publication of manuscripts of archival value in the general area of nanotechnology, which is rapidly emerging as one of the fastest growing and most promising new technological developments for the next generation and beyond.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Fabrizio Lombardi
Dept. of ECE
Northeastern Univ.