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Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3  Part 1 • Date March 2010

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Magnetics publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 693 - 694
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  • Chairman's Preface

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 695
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  • The 20th Magnetic Recording Conference

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 696
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  • 2 {\hbox {Tb\it/\in}}^{2} Reader Design Outlook

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 697 - 701
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (609 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We review the 2 Tbit/in2 reader design landscape based on existing knowledge and projection. We found that the reader signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requirement will be highly challenging due to the rapid increase in noise and the additional requirements from assisted writing. An acceptable level of channel bit density can be achieved in spite of a slow head-to-media spacing (HMS) reduction provided that both the shield-to-shield (SS) spacing and the ¿a¿ parameter scale with the bit length. We expect the side reading control for high ktpi to be difficult, and potentially a reader side shield will be required. The reader will likely use a higher quality MgO tunneling giant magnetoresistance (TGMR) stack with improved permanent-magnet coercivity. Certain new structures such as the differential reader or the trilayer will likely be part of the solution. View full abstract»

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  • Predicted Effects of Pinhole and Surface Roughness in Magnetoresistive Read Head

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 702 - 708
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1059 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Magnetoresistive read heads based on giant magnetoresistance spin-valves or magnetic tunnel junctions have been widely used in magnetic recording. In the fabrication of these nano structures, the surface roughness is crucial to the performance of the devices, both electrically and magnetically. In this work, we theoretically study the effect of roughness and pinholes in magnetic tunnel junctions and nanowire systems. Results are compared to experiment. View full abstract»

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  • Perspectives of Read Head Technology for 10 Tb/in ^{2} Recording

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 709 - 714
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (445 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For a read head design, two of the most important parameters are the resolution and the signal to the noise ratio (SNR). For 10 Tb/in2 recording, the sensor dimensions required to achieve the resolutions are derived for various bit aspect ratio (BAR) designs. It is shown that the today's shielded read head technology is unable to scale down to meet the linear density requirement. By analyzing the data rate requirements at various BAR values, it is argued that the current tunnel magnetoresistance head is no longer suitable to provide high SNR due to its high impedance. A differential dual spin valve (DDSV) , which does not need to have magnetic shields, is proposed to achieve the required SNR and linear resolution of the read head for 10 Tb/in2. A systematical analysis on the effect of stiffness field, magnetic shields and media field shows that thermally activated magnetic noise may not necessarily be a crucial limiting factor for 10 Tb/in2. The conventional course to increase SNR by increasing GMR ratio is still applicable. Assuming realistic constraints and requirements, we come out with the DDSV reader specifications for 10 Tb/in2 recording. With a stiffness field of 300 Oe and an operating current density of 4 ? 107 A/cm2, a SNR of 20 dB can be achieved under a media field of 300 Oe for an unshielded DDSV reader having a GMR ratio of 12%. Preliminary studies show that DDSV is very promising for the application in 10 Tb/in2. The differential effect in DDSV is demonstrated using two types of dual spin valve. For a dual spin valve with two reference layer (RL) magnetizations in the same direction, the total resistance change under uniform field is the sum of two spin valves as expected, while for another similar dual spin valve but with the two RL magnetizations in the opposite direction, no resistance change is observed in the dynamic field region from 300 Oe to - 300 Oe. View full abstract»

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  • Finite-Element and Micromagnetic Modeling of Write Heads for Shingled Recording

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 715 - 721
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2051 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Finite element method (FEM) modeling was used in conjunction with micromagnetic media simulations to investigate new write heads for shingled recording targeting 2 terabit per square inch (Tbit/in2) and above on conventional continuous media. In order to obtain higher recording densities, an asymmetric main pole yoke, corner shields, and an ultimate MR read head were investigated. The validity of a FEM model solving Maxwell's equations (Maxwell FEM) was investigated and compared with a Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) micromagnetic model. It was found that the magnetostatic recording field obtained by Maxwell FEM and the quasi-static field obtained by micromagnetic calculation were in good agreement provided the micromagnetic mesh quality was good. It was also found that the dynamic recording field closely followed a driving current of up to 1.0 GHz. Finally, the required medium signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was considered. View full abstract»

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  • High Density Perpendicular Recording With Wrap-Around Shielded Writer

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 722 - 729
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1635 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wrap-around shielded writers combining both trailing shield and side shield have been studied both by modeling and by experiments. WAS design is demonstrated to have superior performance over its predecessor trailing shielded writer in perpendicular magnetic recording systems. While maintaining the down-track performance, the side shield significantly reduces the side fringing field, thus enabling high track densities. In this paper, various aspects of WAS design are investigated. Issues unique to side shielded design such as near and far track erasure are also discussed in detail. An outlook of future PMR writer and recording systems design is presented at the end. View full abstract»

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  • High Field-Gradient Design of Single-Pole Write-Head With Planar Pole Structure

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 730 - 737
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1836 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A planar single-pole head generating a large head field was investigated to improve head field distribution with a steep field gradient. Good writing performance is generally difficult for a narrow track writer. This work presents a novel design of the main pole shape, the three-step-slope, to achieve a high gradient and strong write head field for terabit recording. Furthermore, the medium design was investigated to increase head-to-medium interaction for achieving a high field gradient and narrow field distribution. A soft guard band in the recording layer and a cross-track groove on the SUL surface were effective for improving the field gradient. View full abstract»

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  • Trapping Electron Assisted Magnetic Recording

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 738 - 743
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Moving towards 10 Tb/in2 areal density, finding a proper recording scheme with enough write-ability is the most challenging task of a magnetic recording system. Some recording schemes with enhanced write-ability, such as HAMR, MAMR, graded media, etc., have been proposed to achieve higher recording density. Here we propose a new alternative approach for enhanced writing-trapping electron assisted magnetic recording (TEAMR). In the TEAMR configuration, an electrical bias is applied to the main pole of the write head with the disk media and the other parts of head slider grounded. As the main pole area is very small, the electrostatic force produced by electrical potential is a few orders smaller than the air bearing force at the rear pad. Therefore, it will not affect the flying performance of the head slider. At the nanometer head media spacing, a very strong electrical field is produced in the head media interface. This strong electrical field will cause free electrons to accumulate (be trapped) at the interfacial surfaces of metallic magnetic grains. These trapped electrons are localized in the surface atoms of magnetic grains and will alter the valance-electron band filling of those surface atoms. For many magnetic materials, the extra band-filling electrons reduce the magnetic anisotropy energy and make it easier to be magnetically switched. In this work, the TEAMR effect was proved by the experiment study on Co alloy based commercial disk media. The first principle calculation on L10 ordered FePt crystal shows that the magnetic anisotropy can be reduced to zero with around 0.38 electrons trapped into 1 unit cell of FePt. Further increase in trapped electrons will change the magnetic easy axis from out-of-plane to in-plane, which is considered as a negative magnetic anisotropy. With the magnetic anisotropy reduction at the surface atoms of each grain, micromagnetic simulation result shows that the effective switching field can be reduced to- around 11% of anisotropy field for a 1.6 ? 1.6 ? 3.2 nm3 FePt grain. Thus TEAMR can be another good candidate for energy assisted recording requiring very little modification to the current perpendicular magnetic recording system. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Design Challenges of Thermally Assisted Magnetic Recording Heads

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 744 - 750
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1671 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We developed three home-made modeling programs to design thermally assisted magnetic recording heads: optical beam propagation method for waveguides, optical finite difference time domain method for plasmon generators, and thermal/micromagnetic finite difference method for the recording media. These models lead to the following results. To get higher throughput efficiency of the waveguide, the periodic wavy thickness of the inlet can provide better inlet coupling with laser diode light, and the wavy taper shape can improve the propagation efficiency. As for plasmon generators, the model requires waveguide, recording media and main-pole to estimate the correct performance, because the optimized design depends on all of these parts. Our proposed sharp pointed plasmon generator can provide tiny near field spot, and it must have good scalability for narrow track recording. In addition to these optics models, we performed recording process simulation. As a result, depending on the condition of the thermal spot and head field alignment, either thermal or magnetic field can be dominant in creating the final magnetic transition in the media. The signal to noise ratio and the transition curvature are greatly affected by the recording process. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Assisted Magnetic Recording Utilizing Perpendicular Spin Torque Oscillator With Switchable Perpendicular Electrodes

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 751 - 757
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1177 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a systematic micromagnetic modeling study on microwave assisted magnetic recording (MAMR) utilizing a perpendicular spin torque oscillator (PSTO) to generate localized circular ac field. The PSTO at narrow track width naturally produces a circular field rotating at desired high frequency within the plane of the media, resulting in a substantially enhanced effective write field gradient. With the STT oscillator generated ac field waveform, recording simulations show that area recording density exceeding 3 Tbits/in2 can be readily achieved with a medium signal-to-noise ratio above 13 dB (1T-SNR) and thermal stability at KuV = 60 kB T300°K. View full abstract»

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  • Planarization of Patterned Recording Media

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 758 - 763
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1124 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The planarization of patterned recording media is essential to overcome the ¿flying height reduction¿ and ¿flying instability¿ of the head-slider. This paper reports two planarization techniques; one by compressing a morphological smooth surface onto a low glass transition temperature Tg/UV curable polymer/material coated patterned sample, while the other employs spin coating to coat patterned disks. A roughness of 0.3 nm was achieved by planarization using compression of smooth Si onto 35 K PMMA (heated above Tg to decrease its viscosity). It was also found that decreasing the spin speed from 5000 rpm to 1000 rpm improves the filling of grooves using spin coating of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) decreasing the height difference between the filled groove region and the land region from about 6 nm to 4 nm. Initial investigation using compression of smooth Si onto diluted HSQ also shows a decrease of roughness as dilution increases from 50.0% to 66.6%. Both techniques were applied in the planarization of a UV curable resist. The results show that about 1 nm is observed between the patterned and unpatterned regions using only spin coating. However, with compression using a flat mold, no height difference on average is observed. View full abstract»

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  • Slider Dynamics in the Lubricant-Contact Regime

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 764 - 769
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1350 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Thermal fly-height control sliders that are capable of subnanometer level actuation are used to investigate the vertical, down-track, and off-track slider dynamics in slider-disk lubricant contact. Slider-lubricant contact introduces significant excitation in all three directions, and the slider dynamics is dependent on the degree of lubricant-contact. The lubricant surface has a significant role in determining the physical clearance and slider fly-height. While slider-lubricant contact may be successfully achieved by carefully controlling the heater power, improved slider designs and associated heater induced protrusion profiles are necessary to successfully mitigate contact induced vibrations and meet the challenges for future hard disk drives. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of Magnetic Erasure Due to Transient Slider-Disk Contacts

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 770 - 777
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1072 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Erasure of magnetic information due to transient slider-disk contacts is investigated. A three-dimensional thermal-mechanical model of a transient contact between a slider and a multilayered thin film disk is developed. Temperature and plastic strain distributions in the contact zone are evaluated and erasure of information is determined based on a simplified erasure criterion. The effect of material properties and impact conditions on erasure is determined for disks with glass and aluminum substrate. Design recommendations for minimization of erasure are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Pressure Sensor Implementation for Head Media Spacing Reduction

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 778 - 781
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (610 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Altitude performance is one of the key considerations in the head media interface design for hard disk drives (HDD). With conventional head media interface without thermal fly-height control (TFC), it is necessary to budget in the air bearing fly-height loss due to altitude effect. In order to reduce the sensitivity to altitude, some other performance need to be sacrificed. With TFC technology, there is an alternative approach to achieve superior altitude performance without trading off other performance. A pressure sensor is installed to the HDD to monitor the ambient pressure. When the pressure changes, the pressure sensor reports the pressure to the channel, and the TFC heater power is adjusted accordingly to maintain a constant fly-height at all altitudes. The pressure sensor has been implemented in the HDD successfully. The objective of this paper is to characterize the pressure sensor performance in the HDD application. The head-media spacing (HMS) was monitored with pressure sensor compensation turned off and on when exposed to different pressure to simulate altitude effects. The HMS was measured with harmonic sensor based on Wallace's spacing equation. It was demonstrated that the pressure sensor is effective in maintaining constant spacing at wide range of altitudes. View full abstract»

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  • Second-Stage Actuation for Hard Disc Drives Through MEMS Technology

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 782 - 789
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1973 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Taking advantage of microelectromechanical system technology, a slider with an integrated microactuator (SLIM) for use in hard disc drives was devised. It allows both a lowering to the operating static flying height and a second-stage actuation for ultraprecision track following. By placing the read/write element on a small chiplet rather than on the trailing edge of a slider, the design promises to be cost competitive. This paper provides an overview over the research results achieved so far. It discusses the fabrication technology applied for fabricating both the micromagnetics and micromechanics and presents experimental dynamic test results on SLIM devices which-although not yet flyable-do have fully functional microactuators. View full abstract»

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  • Recording Front-End Systems Analysis

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 790 - 797
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1430 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As data rates continue to increase, front-end design techniques and analysis must evolve in order to manage the transmission line effects and the parasitic effects of the transducer, electronics, and electrical interconnect. In addition, the complete write process contains linear and non-linear effects, which requires write signal wave-shaping for optimum performance. Data signal fidelity is maintained by proper termination at the read/write integrated circuit (IC), which is dependent on the read/write transducer's impedance range. For writing, transmission-line termination techniques along with the write-driver electronics are utilized to induce the required overshoot for transitions in the write current waveform. For reading, the key aspects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and bandwidth are the parasitic components at the read transducer and the input at the read amplifier. The Noise Figure (NF) of the front-end system can be modeled to include the parasitic effects along with the transmission losses of the interconnect. Here, we expound on design techniques and component values for the front-end system. View full abstract»

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  • Head/Media Integration Challenge Toward 1 \hbox {Tb/in}^{2} Perpendicular Recording

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 798 - 803
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigated medium noise using spinstand testing and calculation from the view point of head/media integration for 1 Tb/in 2, focusing on two kinds of noise sources: transition noise in the track center and track edge noise. A quantitative relationship between transition noise and magnetic cluster size of media was clarified. This relationship indicates that the transition noise can be reduced by reducing the magnetic cluster. In the track edge noise, there are two noise sources: edge line fluctuation and increase in transition length at the edges. The edge line fluctuation noise degrades low density SNR. We show that a high cross-track field gradient of writer and small magnetic cluster of media are effective to reduce the edge line fluctuation. The increase in transition length at the edges degrades high linear density SNR. The transition length at the edges increases as transition curvature increases. Both increase in transition length at the edges and large transition curvature make the magnetic write width narrow and erase band width wide. Large track edge noise was observed when the transition curvature was large. Therefore reducing the transition curvature is an effective way to reduce track edge noise. In the micromagnetic calculation for 1 Tb/in2 , high 2 T-SNR of 13.7 dB (1 T: 2200 kfci) at magnetic write width of 54 nm was obtained from a combination of graded Hk media with small magnetic cluster and wraparound shielded writer with high cross-track field gradient and small transition curvature. View full abstract»

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  • Channel Models and Detectors for Two-Dimensional Magnetic Recording

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 804 - 811
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (812 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two-dimensional magnetic recording (TDMR) is a novel recording architecture intended to support densities beyond those of conventional recording systems. The gains from TDMR come primarily from more powerful coding and signal processing algorithms that allow the bits to be packed more tightly on the disk, and yet be retrieved with acceptable error rates. In this paper, we present some preliminary results for an advanced channel model based on micromagnetic simulations, coined the Grain Flipping Probability model. This model requires a one-time computationally complex characterization phase, but subsequently provides fast and accurate two-dimensional (2-D) readback waveforms that include effects captured from micromagnetic simulations and the statistical effects derived from the granularity of the recording medium. We also show the performance of several detectors over a pre-existing TDMR channel model directly as a function of channel density rather than the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). View full abstract»

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  • Channel Modeling and Capacity Bounds for Two-Dimensional Magnetic Recording

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 812 - 818
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (310 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two-dimensional magnetic recording (TDMR) differs from traditional track recording in that the bit-size-to-grain-size ratio is drastically reduced so that the channel bits are roughly of the same sizes as those of the magnetic media grains. This is envisioned to be achieved by shingled writing, a write-process in which the corner-writer partially overwrites the previously written adjacent track, effectively writing very closely spaced narrow tracks with no guard bands. Since the tracks are very narrow, they can be read by an array of read-elements whose spacing is equal to the narrow track pitch, creating a two-dimensional (2-D) array of readback signals (the two dimensions being the cross-track and the down-track dimensions). In the absence of an array of read elements, the same 2-D readback can be obtained by progressive scans of a single read element that reads one narrow track at a time and stores the readback signal in a 2-D array. In this paper, we present simple magnetic grain media models and shingled-write process models that capture the essence of TDMR. We assume that the granular recording medium consists of randomly shaped tiles (each tile represents a grain), randomly covering the medium plane. We then derive a suitable 2-D read/write process model. Using proper information-theoretic inequalities and bounding techniques, we derive methods to bound the capacities of TDMR channels. The results reveal that information capacities in excess of 0.6 user bits per grain are possible to attain over TDMR channels. View full abstract»

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  • A Parametric Study of Inter-Track Interference in Bit Patterned Media Recording

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 819 - 824
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (230 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a parametric study of inter-track interference (ITI) in the context of bit patterned media (BPM) recording channels. Bit error rate (BER) simulation results for optimal bit detection at moderate-to-high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) show that, in a certain range of ITI levels, increased ITI does not necessarily degrade performance. This observation applies to channels both with and without intersymbol interference (ISI) as well as in the absence and presence of track misregistration (TMR). In the case of no ISI, an exact analysis of the BER performance of optimal bit detection provides a complete explanation of the observed effect of ITI. For channels with ISI, error event analysis of a joint-track maximum-likelihood sequence detector provides insight into the observed impact of varying levels of ITI on BER performance. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous PES Generation, Timing Recovery, and Multi-Track Read on Patterned Media: Concept and Performance

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 825 - 829
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (955 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents new work on the performance of the method for simultaneously detecting the position and timing error in bit patterned media (BPM). The regular spatial arrangement of bits in BPM allows position information and timing information to be extracted from the data. Our method exploits interference between adjacent tracks by employing a read head wider than the track pitch. The method also provides the capability of reading data from two tracks at the same time. Here we employ a more realistic read head field and more realistic shapes of the bit islands in simulations than in prior work. We determine the sensitivity of the position detection, timing recovery, and bit error rate of the method to manufacturing variations in the locations and sizes of bits. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics publishes research in science and technology related to the basic physics and engineering of magnetism, magnetic materials, applied magnetics, magnetic devices, and magnetic data storage.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Pavel Kabos
National Institute of Standards and Technology