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Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May 1967

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Group

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): nil1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Breaker page]

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): nil1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • From the Editors

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 381
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Reliability Predictions and System Support Costs

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 382 - 389
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    A case study demonstrates that spares requirements based on operational reliability predictions result in the system being undersupported during its burn-in and useful-life phases by average factors of 42.2 and 4.22, respectively. However, systems spares requirements based on logistics estimates result in the system being oversupported during its burn-in phase by an average factor of 4.26 with this factor probably increasing as the system enters the useful-life phase of its life cycle. Adequate system support within predetermined cost estimates will be achieved only when reliability predictions are accurate and when systems spares requirements are computed separately for the equipment burn-in phase and useful-lfe phase. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of Measurement Limits to Optimize Production Losses

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 390 - 399
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    The dollar consequence functions associated with consumer's and producer's risks are developed and optimized through use of computer technology. The bivariate normal distribution is used to compute the probabilities resulting from establishment of test limits inside or outside of specffication limits after the manner of Grubbs and Coon [1] and Eagle [2]. Methods of application and precautions during use are described. Practical limits on parameters are discussed, but these are shown to exert no mathematical restrictions on the solutions presented. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum Power Division for Phase-Modulated Deep-Space Communications Links

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 400 - 409
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2117 KB)  

    Optimum power division is required in deep-space communications links to maximize transmission range or data rate and to permit efficient performance of both carrier tracking and data reception functions. A simple, graphical technique has been developed for phase-modulated links to determine the particular set of peak phase deviations, or modulation indexes, which results in an optimum power division between the carrier and any combination of sine-wave and square-wave subcarriers. Whereas previous methods for the selection of modulation indexes generally necessitated either lengthy solutions of simultaneous equations or complex computer programs, the methods developed in this paper involve simplified graphical procedures, using the trigonometric and Bessel function expressions which describe the power balance between carrier and subcarriers. The optimization procedure is a valuable tool for preliminary design analysis and should be of interest to communications-system engineers, The techniques developed here are particularly applicable when subcarriers have wide differences in data rates, since under these conditions, it becomes increasingly difficult to select arbitrarily the proper modulation indexes. Channel optimization is developed for both nominal and worst-case link conditions and examples are presented to demonstrate the techniques involved. View full abstract»

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  • Free-Flight Models in Wind Tunnels

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 410 - 416
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A radio telemetry system is described which permits the acquisition of aerodynamic data from free-flight models in wind tunnels. Small transistorized telemeters are used. The telemeters are frequency modulated by either variable-capacitance pressure transducers or by variable-resistance heat-transfer transducers. The models are generally recovered intact after tunnel runs, allowing repeated runs using a single model and permitting recalibrations to verify that no calibration changes have occurred. As many as four channels of data have been recorded simultaneously from a single model at Mach 20. These were base pressure and heat-transfer rate, and forebody surface pressure and heat-transfer rate on 9-deg half-angle, blunt cone models. Several single-channel, base-pressure measurements have been made on 10-deg half-angle, sharp cone models at Mach numbers of 4, 8, and 10. Sample aerodynamic data transmitted during these tests are presented to illustrate the performance of these telemetry systems. View full abstract»

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  • The Lunar Orbiter Attitude Control Simulator

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 417 - 423
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Testing the attitude control system of the LUNAR ORBITER was accommplished in an air-bearing facility specifically designed for that purpose. This facility was designed to minimize external disturbances in the platform by seismic motion of the floor, mass deflection of the platform, turbine torques from the air bearing, and thermal currents in the room. The facility was used for the System Design Verification tests. These tests included limit-cycle operation, maneuver sequences, wide-angle Sun acquisition and the star-acquisition (Canopus) sequence. Maneuver angle resolution was to be at least 0.1°±0.1° with the capability of measuring three-axis maneuvers for angles to 80°. The design philosophy as evolved from the experience obtained on company-funded research activities as well as the constraints and approach are presented. Solutions to the facility problem areas, which were predicted or encountered during testing, are detailed. Test results, verifying the solutions to the problems encountered, are discussed. Typical operating characteristics of the simulator during different phases of the LUNAR ORBITER test program are presented View full abstract»

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  • Instrumentation of a Pilot Counterflow Facility

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 424 - 432
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    In the VKF Counterflow Facility a small test model is launched upstream through the test section flow of a shock tunnel, thus producing relative velocities greater than that of either single component. This facility is presently capable of simulating model velocities greater than 30 000 ft/s (9.2 km/s) and altitudes from 50 000 to 200 000 ft (15.2 to 61 km). Instrumentation systems and components essential to the operation of this facility are described in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Measuring Techniques Applied in an MHD-Augmented Shock Tunnel

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 433 - 440
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    The determination of the detailed performance of an MHD-augmented high-enthalphy shock tunnel requires the simultaneous measurment of a large number of aerodynamic, electrical, and electromagnetic parameters in a test time interval of the order of several hundred microseconds. In the feasibility study currently being conducted in our laboratory of such a device, an extensive measuring system was set up and evaluated, and is being used to acquire facility performance data. This paper describes this measuring system, discusses the modifications and adaptations applied to make the various components of the system operable and compatible, and gives illustrative examples of the performance of the system. View full abstract»

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  • A Quasi-Optic Imaging Resonator for Plasma Diagnostics

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 441 - 446
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1968 KB)  

    A new resonant quasi-optic interferometer has been developed which has a unique capability to deduce spatial information about perturbing plasma media. The fundamental property of the resonator is that it is multiply degenerate. Its geometry consists of four spherical mirrors arranged in a confocal ring configuration such that the transverse modes are simultaneously resonant. Energy is coupled into and out of the resonator by thin dielectric film beam splitters. When perturbed, it is found that the resonant frequency of the system depends on the point at which the field is measured and this dependence is directly related to the geometry of the perturbation. The results of a theoretical analysis of the perturbation of the resonator are presented and preliminary experimental measurements of a 4-mm system are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Signal Acquisition Techniques for Receiving Arrays of Large-Aperture Antennas

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 447 - 459
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2868 KB)  

    This paper considers the signal phase acquisition problem for arrays of large-aperture steerable antennas. In particular, long-range signal acquisition is considered for those cases in which the signal-to-noise ratio in each antenna-receiver channel is too low to permit signal phase-lock in each individual receiver. Techniques are discussed which promise to extend the array acquisition sensitivity toward that of an equivalent-area single-aperture antenna. Several acquisition methods are analyzed mathematically and an approximate minimum power threshold estimated for each technique. A numerical comparison between the acquisition techniques for various assumed atmospheric conditions is presented which indicates the limitations on array sensitivity imposed by both the transmission medium and the acquisition technique. View full abstract»

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  • Magnetically Driven Shock-Tube Flow Studies at High Velocities

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 460 - 464
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    An attempt to employ a magnetically driven shock tube as a tool for aerodynamic studies of high velocity and high enthalpy flows is described. Examples of results are given. View full abstract»

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  • Measuring Rotational Motion with Linear Accelerometers

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 465 - 472
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)
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    Inertial navigation systems usually use gyroscopes to sense angular motion and use accelerometers to sense linear acceleration. It is feasible, however, using only linear accelerometers as sensors, to determine both the angular velocity and the linear acceleration of a vehicle. This paper presents and compares five configurations of linear accelerometers which may be used to determine both the angular motion and the linear motion of a vehicle. View full abstract»

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  • Measuring Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation from High-Temperature Nitrogen

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 473 - 480
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    In this technique, small blunt models are launched into a mixture of nitrogen and neon in a ballistic range, and the radiation from the shock layer on the forward face of the model is measured during the last few microseconds of flight by a radiometer directly in the flight path of the model. The ultraviolet radiation is sensed with the phosphor sodium salicylate. Comparison with other techniques and a brief summary of results are given. View full abstract»

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  • Damping Gimballess Inertial Navigation Systems

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 481 - 493
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The mechanization of a gimballess inertial system for space navigation is considered. An error analysis reveals that the errors contain both sinusoidal and diverging components. Error damping methods are proposed and it is shown that damping can be achieved by using appropriate damping circuits and auxiliary information obtained from devices such as stellar trackers, velocity-measuring optical Doppler, or radar Doppler. Computer-stored reference-trajectory information can also be used for error damping. View full abstract»

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  • Feedback Realization of a Continuous-Time Optimal Filter

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 494 - 509
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    Another derivation of a continuous-time optimal linear filter is presented. Using this result as a point of departure, a feedback version of this continuous filter is postulated and shown to be optimal in the limit as the ``feedback gain'' becomes infinite. It is then demonstrated that the need for this infinite feedback gain can frequently be eliminated. This feedback realization of the continuous optimal filter has application to the problem of optimally mixing two or more redundant signals, each contaminated by random noise. The feedback configuration has the advantages of simplicity and the bounding of otherwise troublesome very large errors. A simple example is given of the mixing of two (velocity) references each having exponentially correlated error. View full abstract»

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  • Radar Waveforms for Suppression of Extended Clutter

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 510 - 517
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1944 KB)  

    A common problem in waveform design is to adapt the transmitted signal to the target environment in order that the interference from extended fields of scatterers is reduced. This problem is investigated here for the special case of detection of a single target in the ``vicinity'' of an extended clutter space. The paper considers the possibility of confining the matched-filter response in delay and Doppler, or ambiguity function, to a narrow strip with arbitrary orientation in the delay-Doppler plane. It is shown that strict confinement of the response is achievable only with waveforms that are unlimited in both time and frequency domain. With practical waveforms, which are necessarily of finite extent, one merely can trade close-target separability against detectability in the background clutter. Thus, one form of the resolution problem is exchanged against the other. The paper examines these effects quantitatively. View full abstract»

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  • A Superlimiting Phased-Array Receiving System in a Two-Source Environment

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 518 - 526
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3929 KB)  

    The performance of a uniformly spaced phased-steered line array with element channel superlimiting is studied for far-field sources consisting of 1) two sinusoidal signals with different frequencies and angular locations, and 2) a sinusoid and a noise signal at different angular locations. Attention is focused on the nonlinear case where internal noise is negligible compared to both input signals. The analysis for the two-sinusoid case gives the precise frequencies, positions, and amplitudes of all apparent sources. In addition to the two active sources, the array output has an array of images arranged symmetrically in sine space about the larger input, at intervals equal to the spacing between the two active sources. For the case of a separated sinusoid and a noise source, the analysis shows that the angular positions and average powers of the array outputs duplicate the double-sinusoid results, but the images have noise-like spectra. The analyses are confirmed by experimental results obtained with a 60-element superlimiting X-band array. View full abstract»

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  • Everyman's Doppler Satellite Navigation System

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 527 - 554
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6345 KB)  

    This paper describes a system of navigation by measurement of the Doppler shift in the radio transmissions from a near-Earth satellite, and simple equipment for making the measurements. It also shows that the current information which is needed by the navigator can be reduced to a number containing six decimal digits. Finally, it shows that the computations needed for the navigator to obtain a fix can be performed witlh the aid of tables that can be prepared at least 18 months in advance. Using these tables and a simple slide rule, but no other computational aids, a fix accurate to about 500 meters can be obtained in about 10 minutes. More accuracy can be obtained at the expense of time, or time can be saved at the expense of accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Appendixes to "Continuous Time-Varying Optimal Feedback Applied to the Augmentation and Rapid Alignment of Inertial Systems''

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 555 - 560
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    The original paper was presented at the IEEE/G-AES Aerospace Systems Conference, Seattle, Wash., July 11-15, 1966, and was published (less Appendixes) in the Supplement to this Transactions, vol. 2, no. 4, PP. 661-678, July 1966. The four appendices cover: The White Noise Case; A Common Start-Up Problem; Revised Vector Error-Propagation Block Diagram; and Two-Dimensional Model of Inertial System for the "Complete" Position (Or Velocity) Inertial and on Ground Alignment Problems. View full abstract»

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  • How the government does business with private contractors [Penel Discussion]

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 561 - 573
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    The following is the transcription of the tape recording of a seminar at the 1966 Aerospace and Electronics Systems Convention October 3, 1966. Session Chairman and Moderator: Major General Allen T. Stanwix-Hay, US Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary of Defense (I&L). View full abstract»

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  • Comments on ``Monopulse Radars Excited by Gaussian Signals''

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 574
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • On the Radar Echo from Aircraft

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 574 - 577
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (813 KB)  

    The nonstationarity of the low-frequency radar echo envelope observed from an aircraft is shown and a simple model of the echo is suggested. This model, devised specifically for simulation studies using computers, reproduces the characteristics of the observed envelope, demonstrating the correlation between the observed nonstationarity and aircraft motion relative to the receiver. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems focuses on the equipment, procedures, and techniques applicable to the organization, installation, and operation of functional systems designed to meet the high performance requirements of earth and space systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Lance Kaplan
Army Research Laboratory