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Robotics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Robotics publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • Tactile Sensing—From Humans to Humanoids

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (149)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2383 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Starting from human ??sense of touch,?? this paper reviews the state of tactile sensing in robotics. The physiology, coding, and transferring tactile data and perceptual importance of the ??sense of touch?? in humans are discussed. Following this, a number of design hints derived for robotic tactile sensing are presented. Various technologies and transduction methods used to improve the touch sense capability of robots are presented. Tactile sensing, focused to fingertips and hands until past decade or so, has now been extended to whole body, even though many issues remain open. Trend and methods to develop tactile sensing arrays for various body sites are presented. Finally, various system issues that keep tactile sensing away from widespread utility are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Consequences of Geometric Imperfections for the Control of Redundantly Actuated Parallel Manipulators

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 21 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Actuation redundancy increases and homogenizes the kinematic dexterity and stiffness as well as the force distribution among the actuators of parallel-kinematics machines (PKMs). It also allows for internal prestresses within the PKM without affecting the environment that can potentially be used to account for secondary tasks, such as active stiffness and backlash-avoiding control. However, in the presence of geometric uncertainties, this feature can become a serious problem, since then, control forces may be annihilated, or even some of the intentional prestress components may interfere with the environment. While model uncertainties can generally be tackled with robust-control concepts, actuation redundancy of PKM impedes the use of established robust-control schemes. The effect of such uncertainties and the applicability of standard model-based control schemes are analyzed in this paper. It is shown that geometric uncertainties lead to parasitic perturbation forces that cannot be compensated by adjustment of the controls. An amended version of the augmented PD and computed torque-control scheme is proposed that does not suffer from such effects. View full abstract»

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  • Pursuit-Evasion on Trees by Robot Teams

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 32 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (713 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present graph-clear: a novel pursuit-evasion problem on graphs which models the detection of intruders in complex indoor environments by robot teams. The environment is represented by a graph, and a robot team can execute sweep and block actions on vertices and edges, respectively. A sweep action detects intruders in a vertex and represents the capability of the robot team to detect intruders in the region associated to the vertex. Similarly, a block action prevents intruders from crossing an edge and represents the capability to detect intruders as they move between regions. Both actions may require multiple robots to be executed. A strategy is a sequence of block and sweep actions to detect all intruders. When instances of graph-clear are being solved, the goal is to determine optimal strategies, i.e., strategies that use the least number of robots. We prove that for the general case of graphs, the problem of computation of optimal strategies is NP-hard. Next, for the special case of trees, we provide a polynomial-time algorithm. The algorithm ensures that throughout the execution of the strategy, all cleared vertices form a connected subtree, and we show that it produces optimal strategies. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Deployment of Distributed Teams of Robots From Temporal Logic Motion Specifications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 48 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a computational framework for automatic synthesis of decentralized communication and control strategies for a robotic team from global specifications, which are given as temporal and logic statements about visiting regions of interest in a partitioned environment. We consider a purely discrete scenario, where the robots move among the vertices of a graph. However, by employing recent results on invariance and facet reachability for dynamical systems in environments with polyhedral partitions, the framework from this paper can be directly implemented for robots with continuous dynamics. While allowing for a rich specification language and guaranteeing the correctness of the solution, our approach is conservative in the sense that we might not find a solution, even if one exists. The overall amount of required computation is large. However, most of it is performed offline before the deployment. Illustrative simulations and experimental results are included. View full abstract»

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  • Decentralized Localization of Sparsely-Communicating Robot Networks: A Centralized-Equivalent Approach

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 62 - 77
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1070 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Finite-range sensing and communication are factors in the connectivity of a dynamic mobile-robot network. State estimation becomes a difficult problem when communication connections allowing information exchange between all robots are not guaranteed. This paper presents a decentralized state-estimation algorithm guaranteed to work in dynamic robot networks without connectivity requirements. We prove that a robot only needs to consider its own knowledge of network topology in order to produce an estimate equivalent to the centralized state estimate whenever possible while ensuring that the same can be performed by all other robots in the network. We prove certain properties of our technique and then it is validated through simulations. We present a comprehensive set of results, indicating the performance benefit in different network connectivity settings, as well as the scalability of our approach. View full abstract»

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  • Information-Based Compact Pose SLAM

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 78 - 93
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2170 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pose SLAM is the variant of simultaneous localization and map building (SLAM) is the variant of SLAM, in which only the robot trajectory is estimated and where landmarks are only used to produce relative constraints between robot poses. To reduce the computational cost of the information filter form of Pose SLAM and, at the same time, to delay inconsistency as much as possible, we introduce an approach that takes into account only highly informative loop-closure links and nonredundant poses. This approach includes constant time procedures to compute the distance between poses, the expected information gain for each potential link, and the exact marginal covariances while moving in open loop, as well as a procedure to recover the state after a loop closure that, in practical situations, scales linearly in terms of both time and memory. Using these procedures, the robot operates most of the time in open loop, and the cost of the loop closure is amortized over long trajectories. This way, the computational bottleneck shifts to data association, which is the search over the set of previously visited poses to determine good candidates for sensor registration. To speed up data association, we introduce a method to search for neighboring poses whose complexity ranges from logarithmic in the usual case to linear in degenerate situations. The method is based on organizing the pose information in a balanced tree whose internal levels are defined using interval arithmetic. The proposed Pose-SLAM approach is validated through simulations, real mapping sessions, and experiments using standard SLAM data sets. View full abstract»

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  • Online Trajectory Generation: Basic Concepts for Instantaneous Reactions to Unforeseen Events

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 94 - 111
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1009 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a new method for motion-trajectory generation of mechanical systems with multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs). The key feature of this new concept is that motion trajectories are generated online, i.e., within every control cycle, typically every millisecond. This enables systems to react instantaneously to unforeseen and unpredictable (sensor) events at any time instant and in any state of motion. As a consequence, (multi)sensor integration in robotics, in particular the development of control systems enabling sensor-guided and sensor-guarded motions, becomes greatly simplified. We introduce a class of online trajectory-generation algorithms and present the mathematical basics of this new approach. The algorithms presented here consist of three steps: calculation of the minimum synchronization time for all DOFs, synchronization of all DOFs, and calculation of output values. The theory is followed by real-world experimental results indicating new possibilities in robot-motion control. View full abstract»

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  • Robustness of Image-Based Visual Servoing With a Calibrated Camera in the Presence of Uncertainties in the Three-Dimensional Structure

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 112 - 120
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (851 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper concerns the stability analysis of image-based visual servoing control laws with respect to uncertainties on the 3-D parameters needed to compute the interaction matrix for any calibrated central catadioptric camera. In the recent past, research on image-based visual servoing has been concentrated on potential problems of stability and on robustness with respect to camera-calibration errors. Only little attention, if any, has been devoted to the robustness of image-based visual servoing to estimation errors on the 3-D structure. It is generally believed that a rough approximation of the 3-D structure is sufficient to ensure the stability of the control law. In this paper, we prove that this is not always true and that an extreme care must be taken when approximating the depth distribution to ensure stability of the image-based control law. The theoretical results are obtained not only for conventional pinhole cameras but for the entire class of central catadioptric systems as well. View full abstract»

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  • Bioinspired Visuomotor Convergence

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 121 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, wide-field integration methods, which are inspired by the spatial decompositions of wide-field patterns of optic flow in the insect visuomotor system, are explored as an efficient means to extract visual cues for guidance and navigation. A control-theoretic framework is developed and used to quantitatively link weighting functions to behaviorally-relevant interpretations such as relative orientation, position, and speed in a corridor environment. It is shown through analysis and demonstration on a ground vehicle that the proposed sensorimotor architecture gives rise to navigational heuristics, namely, centering and speed regulation, which are observed in natural systems. View full abstract»

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  • Flat Dry Elastomer Adhesives as Attachment Materials for Climbing Robots

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 131 - 141
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1474 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, flat elastomers are proposed as an attachment material for climbing robots on less than a few micrometer-scale rough surfaces due to their energy-efficient, quiet, and residue-free characteristics. The proper elastomer is chosen by the use of the current adhesion, friction, and peeling elastomer-contact-mechanics models. Then, adhesion and friction properties of the chosen dry flat-elastomer thick films (Vytaflex-10) are characterized on acrylic and smooth and rough glass surfaces for variations in preloads, speeds, contact times, and elastomer thicknesses. A climbing robot with four-bar-based legged-body kinematics is designed and fabricated as simple and lightweight as possible to demonstrate the feasibility of the elastomers as attachment materials on relatively smooth surfaces. The robot utilizes a passive alignment system to make the footpads parallel to the surface on light contact, a peeling mechanism to minimize the detachment vibration, and a passive tail to minimize the pitch-back moment. Experimental results showed that the robot can climb stably on vertical, smooth surfaces in any direction and can walk inverted for a limited amount of time. View full abstract»

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  • Control of a Speech Robot via an Optimum Neural-Network-Based Internal Model With Constraints

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 142 - 159
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1850 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An optimum internal model with constraints is proposed and discussed for the control of a speech robot, which is based on the human-like behavior. The main idea of the study is that the robot movements are carried out in such a way that the length of the path traveled in the internal space, under external acoustical and mechanical constraints, is minimized. This optimum strategy defines the designed internal model, which is responsible for the robot task planning. First, an exact analytical way to deal with the problem is proposed. Next, by using some empirical findings, an approximate solution for the designed internal model is developed. Finally, the implementation of this solution, which is applied to the control of a speech robot, yields interesting results in the field of task-planning strategies, task anticipation (namely, speech coarticulation), and the influence of force on the accuracy of executed tasks. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Vibration Modes and Human Operator on the Stability of Haptic Rendering

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 160 - 165
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1270 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Developing stable controllers, which are able to display virtual objects with high stiffness, is a persistent challenge in the field of haptics. This paper addresses the effect of internal vibration modes and the human operator on the maximum achievable virtual stiffness. An 11-parameter mechanical model is used to adequately characterize the overall system dynamics. Experiments that are carried out on LHIfAM and PHANToM haptic interfaces demonstrate the importance of vibration modes to determine the critical stiffness when the user grasps the device. View full abstract»

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  • Kinematic-Sensitivity Indices for Dimensionally Nonhomogeneous Jacobian Matrices

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 166 - 173
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (886 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Numerous performance indices have been proposed to compare robot architectures based on their kinematic properties. However, none of these indices seems to draw a consensus among the robotics community. The most notorious indices, which are manipulability and dexterity, still entail some drawbacks, which are mainly due to the impossibility to define a single invariant metric for the special Euclidean group. The natural consequence is to use two distinct metrics, i.e., one for rotations and one for point displacements, as has already been proposed by other researchers. This is the approach used in this paper, where we define the maximum rotation sensitivity and the maximum point-displacement sensitivity. These two indices provide tight upper bounds to the end-effector rotation and point-displacement sensitivity under a unit-magnitude array of actuated-joint displacements. Therefore, their meaning is thought to be clear and definite to the designer of a robotic manipulator. Furthermore, methods for the computation of the proposed indices are devised, some of their properties are established and interpreted in the context of robotic manipulator design, and an example is provided. View full abstract»

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  • Coordinated Kinematic Control of Compliantly Coupled Multirobot Systems in an Array Format

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 173 - 180
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1509 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents coordinated kinematic control of compliantly coupled multirobot systems for payload transportation. In the robot, unicycle-type axles are connected to a moving platform in an array format using compliant frames. A coordinate system is attached to an ideal center point on the platform to establish robot kinematics. In order to drive the system along a reference trajectory, we coordinate axle velocity commands, while considering frame compliance, nonholonomic constraints, and rigid body kinematics, respectively. These commands are further coordinated to consider configuration stability and physical limitations. Simulation and experimental results evaluate the coordination algorithms for various trajectories. View full abstract»

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  • Revising the Robust-Control Design for Rigid Robot Manipulators

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 180 - 187
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Robust controllers for robot manipulators ensure stability of the closed-loop system, even if only partial knowledge of the dynamic model of the manipulator is available. Existing derivations of robust-control laws, while guaranteeing the stability result, present an undesired dependence of the robust-control term on the gains of the controller for the nominal system. This dependence forces larger robust-control terms when the nominal control gains are large. Based on a structured representation of the model uncertainty, this paper proposes a derivation of the robust-control law, where these limitations are removed. Experimental results on the COMAU SMART 3S industrial robot in a 3-degree-of-freedom (DOF) configuration confirm the advantages of the proposed controller. View full abstract»

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  • A Model of Proximity Control for Information-Presenting Robots

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 187 - 195
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1131 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we report a model that allows a robot to appropriately control its position as it presents information to a user. This capability is indispensable, since in the future, many robots will function in daily situations such as shopkeepers presenting products to customers or museum guides presenting information to visitors. Psychology research suggests that people adjust their positions to establish a joint view toward a target object. Similarly, when a robot presents an object, it should stand at an appropriate position that considers the positions of both the listener and the object to optimize the listener's field of view and establish a joint view. We observed human-human interaction situations, where people presented objects, and developed a model for an information-presenting robot to appropriately adjust its position. Our model consists of four constraints to establish O-space: 1) proximity to listener; 2) proximity to object; 3) listener's field of view; and 4) presenter's field of view. We also experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of our model. View full abstract»

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  • Path Planning for Improved Visibility Using a Probabilistic Road Map

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 195 - 200
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (655 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on the challenges of vision-based motion planning for industrial manipulators. Our approach is aimed at planning paths that are within the sensing and actuation limits of industrial hardware and software. Building on recent advances in path planning, our planner augments probabilistic road maps with vision-based constraints. The resulting planner finds collision-free paths that simultaneously avoid occlusions of an image target and keep the target within the field of view of the camera. The planner can be applied to eye-in-hand visual-target-tracking tasks for manipulators that use point-to-point commands with interpolated joint motion. View full abstract»

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  • Autonomous Robotic Pick-and-Place of Microobjects

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 200 - 207
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
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    This paper presents a robotic system that is capable of both picking up and releasing microobjects with high accuracy, reliability, and speed. Due to force-scaling laws, large adhesion forces at the microscale make rapid, accurate release of microobjects a long-standing challenge in micromanipulation, thus representing a hurdle toward automated robotic pick-and-place of micrometer-sized objects. The system employs a novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microgripper with a controllable plunging structure to impact a microobject that gains sufficient momentum to overcome adhesion forces. The performance was experimentally quantified through the manipulation of 7.5-10.9 ??m borosilicate glass spheres in an ambient environment. Experimental results demonstrate that the system, for the first time, achieves a 100% success rate in release (which is based on 700 trials) and a release accuracy of 0.45 ?? 0.24 ??m. High-speed, automated microrobotic pick-and-place was realized by visually recognizing the microgripper and microspheres, by visually detecting the contact of the microgripper with the substrate, and by vision-based control. Example patterns were constructed through automated microrobotic pick-and-place of microspheres, achieving a speed of 6 s/sphere, which is an order of magnitude faster than the highest speed that has been reported in the literature. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Foundation [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 208
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  • IEEE Robotics and Automation Society Information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Robotics Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Robotics covers both theory and applications on topics including: kinematics, dynamics, control, and simulation of robots and intelligent machines and systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Frank Park
Seoul National University