By Topic

Robotics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 2009

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (35 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Robotics publication information

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (38 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • On \Delta -Transforms

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1225 - 1236
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (959 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Any set of two legs in a Gough-Stewart platform sharing an attachment is defined as a Delta component. This component links a point in the platform (base) to a line in the base (platform). Thus, if the two legs, which are involved in a Delta component, are rearranged without altering the location of the line and the point in their base and platform local reference frames, the singularity locus of the Gough-Stewart platform remains the same, provided that no architectural singularities are introduced. Such leg rearrangements are defined as Delta-transforms, and they can be applied sequentially and simultaneously. Although it may seem counterintuitive at first glance, the rearrangement of legs using simultaneous Delta-transforms does not necessarily lead to leg configurations containing a Delta component. As a consequence, the application of Delta-transforms reveals itself as a simple, yet powerful, technique for the kinematic analysis of large families of Gough-Stewart platforms. It is also shown that these transforms shed new light on the characterization of architectural singularities and their associated self-motions. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Novel Concept for Building a Hyper-Redundant Chain Robot

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1237 - 1248
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper puts forward a novel design concept for building a 3-D hyper-redundant chain robot (HRCR) system, consisting of linked, identical modules and one base module. All the joints of this HRCR are passive and state controllable and share common inputs introduced by wire-driven control. The original prototype developed here, named 3D-Trunk, is used as a proof of concept. We will present its whole mechanical design and controller architecture. The key components of 3D-Trunk, its operational principles, and all implementation issues are exhibited and described in detail. Basic robotics analyses, dynamics simulations, and some experiments are also shown. This novel design concept is highly modular and scalable, no matter how many degrees of freedom are implemented and, thus, provides an affordable solution for constructing an HRCR. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Scalable Variational Integrators for Constrained Mechanical Systems in Generalized Coordinates

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1249 - 1261
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (545 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a technique to implement scalable variational integrators for generic mechanical systems in generalized coordinates. Systems are represented by a tree-based structure that provides efficient means to algorithmically calculate values (position, velocities, and derivatives) needed for variational integration without the need to resort to explicit equations of motion. The variational integrator handles closed kinematic chains, holonomic constraints, dissipation, and external forcing without modification. To avoid the full equations of motion, this method uses recursive equations, and caches calculated values, to scale to large systems by the use of generalized coordinates. An example of a closed-kinematic-chain system is included along with a comparison with the open-dynamics engine (ODE) to illustrate the scalability and desirable energetic properties of the technique. A second example demonstrates an application to an actuated mechanical system. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Reducing Base Reactions With Gyroscopic Actuation of Space-Robotic Systems

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1262 - 1270
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (398 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, control-moment gyroscopes (CMGs) are proposed as actuators for a spacecraft-mounted robotic arm to reduce reaction forces and torques on the spacecraft base. With the established kinematics and dynamics for a CMG robotic system, numerical simulations are performed for a general CMG system with an added payload. The analysis of an added payload's effects on otherwise reactionless CMG systems motivates the examination of possible operations concepts to reduce base reactions and power consumption. Simulation results for an example closed-loop maneuver show that base reactions can be significantly reduced, or even eliminated, with CMG actuation while using the same amount of power as a robotic system driven by conventional joint motors. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Rapid Computation of Optimally Safe Tension Distributions for Parallel Cable-Driven Robots

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1271 - 1281
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (510 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a novel linear-program formulation that yields "optimally safe" (OS) tension distributions in parallel cable-driven robots by the introduction of a slack variable. The slack variable also enables explicit computation of a near-optimal, feasible starting point. This, in turn, enables rapid computation of the OS tension distributions. The formulation also contains a parameter that can be used to steer cable tensions toward desired regions of operation. We present static results from two simulated robotic systems that demonstrate the ability of our formulation to avoid tension limits. Simulated execution of highly dynamic trajectories on both systems demonstrates rapid-computation abilities. Furthermore, we present experimental results from a real robotic system that further validate the importance of safe tension distributions. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analytical Modeling and Experimental Validation of the Braided Pneumatic Muscle

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1282 - 1291
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (894 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Static models of braided pneumatic muscles (BPMs) reported in the research literature fairly accurately predict the muscle-force-carrying capacity. These models, however, rely on experimentally determined parameters that are valid only for the specific muscle configuration under consideration. This paper presents a fully analytical BPM static model that does not depend on experimentally determined parameters. The proposed approach is based on Newtonian mechanics that considers the mechanical and the geometrical properties of the muscle. Distinctively, this paper includes the muscle end-fixture-diameter effect. Results from the developed model are compared with the experimental ones that have been obtained from prototype BPMs. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Control Approach for Actuated Dynamic Walking in Biped Robots

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1292 - 1303
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1195 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an approach for the closed-loop control of a fully actuated biped robot that leverages its natural dynamics when walking. Rather than prescribing kinematic trajectories, the approach proposes a set of state-dependent torques, each of which can be constructed from a combination of low-gain spring-damper couples. Accordingly, the limb motion is determined by interaction of the passive control elements and the natural dynamics of the biped, rather than being dictated by a reference trajectory. In order to implement the proposed approach, the authors develop a model-based transformation from the control torques that are defined in a mixed reference frame to the actuator joint torques. The proposed approach is implemented in simulation on an anthropomorphic biped. The simulated biped is shown to converge to a stable, natural-looking walk from a variety of initial configurations. Based on these simulations, the mechanical cost of transport is computed and shown to be significantly lower than that of trajectory-tracking approaches to biped control, thus validating the ability of the proposed idea to provide efficient dynamic walking. Simulations further demonstrate walking at varying speeds and on varying ground slopes. Finally, controller robustness is demonstrated with respect to forward and backward push-type disturbances and with respect to uncertainty in model parameters. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Experimental Comparison Study of Control Architectures for Bilateral Teleoperators

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1304 - 1318
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A detailed experimental comparison study of several published algorithms for motion and force control of bilateral teleoperators, with emphasis on Internet-based teleoperation, is presented. The study investigates the effects of data losses, communication delays, and environmental constraints on a teleoperation system for different control techniques, which are based on wave variables, Smith predictors, and recent algorithms on synchronization. The controllers are compared on stability, transparency, and complexity using two identical nonlinear robots coupled via a stochastic network model that allowed transmission round-trip delays and data-loss rates to range from 8 to 1088 ms and 0% to 50%, respectively. A total of 18 subjects, which were distributed among 26 experiments with the aims of regulating the effects of the operators learning process and dynamic properties, participated in this study. Overall, the comparison study reports a deteriorating effect in the performance (i.e., larger position errors and lower fidelity of contact information) from delays and data losses. Yet, the effect of data losses is less critical when compared with time delays. In addition, the preference for a particular control framework is shown to strongly depend on the operational conditions of the system, such as the characteristics of the coupling channel, the specifics of the remote task, and the computational capabilities of the manipulators. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Exoskeletal Force-Sensing End-Effectors With Embedded Optical Fiber-Bragg-Grating Sensors

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1319 - 1331
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1645 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Force sensing is an essential requirement for dexterous robot manipulation. We describe composite robot end-effectors that incorporate optical fibers for accurate force sensing and estimation of contact locations. The design is inspired by the sensors in arthropod exoskeletons that allow them to detect contacts and loads on their limbs. In this paper, we present a fabrication process that allows us to create hollow multimaterial structures with embedded fibers and the results of experiments to characterize the sensors and controlling contact forces in a system involving an industrial robot and a two-fingered dexterous hand. We also briefly describe the optical-interrogation method used to measure multiple sensors along a single fiber at kilohertz rates for closed-loop force control. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Two-Dimensional Contact and Noncontact Micromanipulation in Liquid Using an Untethered Mobile Magnetic Microrobot

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1332 - 1342
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (769 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the manipulation of microspheres under water by use of an untethered electromagnetically actuated magnetic microrobot (Mag-muBot), with dimensions 250 times 130 times 100 mum<sup>3</sup>. Manipulation is achieved by two means: contact and noncontact pushing modes. In contact manipulation, the Mag-muBot is used to physically push the microspheres. In noncontact manipulation, the fluid flow generated by the translation of the Mag-muBot is used to push the microspheres. Modeling of the system is performed, taking into account micrometer-scale surface forces and fluid drag effects to determine the motion of a sphere within a robot-generated fluid flow. Fluid drag models for free-stream flow and formulations for near-wall flow are both analyzed and compared with the experiments, in which pushing of two sphere sizes, i.e., 50 and 230 mum diameters, is characterized in a controlled, robot-generated flow. Dynamic simulations are provided using the developed physical models to capture this behavior. We find that the near-wall physical models are, in general, in agreement with the experiment, and free-stream models overestimate microsphere motion. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Stereo Viewing and Virtual Reality Technologies in Mobile Robot Teleguide

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1343 - 1355
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1341 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of 3-D stereoscopic visualization may provide a user with higher comprehension of remote environments in teleoperation when compared with 2-D viewing, in particular, a higher perception of environment depth characteristics, spatial localization, remote ambient layout, faster system learning, and decision performance. Works in the paper have demonstrated how stereo vision contributes to the improvement of the perception of some depth cues, often for abstract tasks, while it is hard to find works addressing stereoscopic visualization in mobile robot teleguide applications. This paper intends to contribute to this aspect by investigating the stereoscopic robot teleguide under different conditions, including typical navigation scenarios and the use of synthetic and real images. This paper also investigates how user performance may vary when employing different display technologies. Results from a set of test trials run on seven virtual reality systems, from laptop to large panorama and from head-mounted display to Cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE), emphasized few aspects that represent a base for further investigations as well as a guide when designing specific systems for telepresence. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Estimation of Fingertip Force Direction With Computer Vision

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1356 - 1369
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1671 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method of imaging the coloration pattern in the fingernail and surrounding skin to infer fingertip force direction (which includes four major shear-force directions plus normal force) during planar contact. Nail images from 15 subjects were registered to reference images with random sample consensus (RANSAC) and then warped to an atlas with elastic registration. With linear discriminant analysis, common linear features corresponding to force directions, but irrelevant to subjects, are automatically extracted. The common feature regions in the fingernail and surrounding skin are consistent with observation and previous studies. Without any individual calibration, the overall recognition accuracy on test images of 15 subjects was 90%. With individual training, the overall recognition accuracy on test images of 15 subjects was 94%. The lowest imaging resolution, without sacrificing classification accuracy, was found to be between 10-by-10 and 20-by-20 pixels. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Temporal-Logic-Based Reactive Mission and Motion Planning

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1370 - 1381
    Cited by:  Papers (67)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper provides a framework to automatically generate a hybrid controller that guarantees that the robot can achieve its task when a robot model, a class of admissible environments, and a high-level task or behavior for the robot are provided. The desired task specifications, which are expressed in a fragment of linear temporal logic (LTL), can capture complex robot behaviors such as search and rescue, coverage, and collision avoidance. In addition, our framework explicitly captures sensor specifications that depend on the environment with which the robot is interacting, which results in a novel paradigm for sensor-based temporal-logic-motion planning. As one robot is part of the environment of another robot, our sensor-based framework very naturally captures multirobot specifications in a decentralized manner. Our computational approach is based on first creating discrete controllers satisfying specific LTL formulas. If feasible, the discrete controller is then used to guide the sensor-based composition of continuous controllers, which results in a hybrid controller satisfying the high-level specification but only if the environment is admissible. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Abstracting People's Trajectories for Social Robots to Proactively Approach Customers

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1382 - 1396
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1355 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For a robot providing services to people in a public space such as a shopping mall, it is important to distinguish potential customers, such as window shoppers, from other people, such as busy commuters. In this paper, we present a series of abstraction techniques for people's trajectories and a service framework for using these techniques in a social robot, which enables a designer to make the robot proactively approach customers by only providing information about target local behavior. We placed a ubiquitous sensor network consisting of six laser range finders in a shopping arcade. The system tracks people's positions as well as their local behaviors, such as fast walking, idle walking, wandering, or stopping. We accumulated people's trajectories for a week, applying a clustering technique to the accumulated trajectories to extract information about the use of space and people's typical global behaviors. This information enables the robot to target its services to people who are walking idly or stopping. The robot anticipates both the areas in which people are likely to perform these behaviors as well as the probable local behaviors of individuals a few seconds in the future. In a field experiment, we demonstrate that this service framework enables the robot to serve people efficiently. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Distance Between a Point and a Convex Cone in n -Dimensional Space: Computation and Applications

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1397 - 1412
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1191 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an algorithm to compute the minimum distance from a point to a convex cone in n-dimensional space. The convex cone is represented as the set of all nonnegative combinations of a given set. The algorithm generates a sequence of simplicial cones in the convex cone, such that their distances to the single point converge to the desired distance. In many cases, the generated sequence is finite, and therefore, the algorithm has finite-convergence property. Recursive formulas are derived to speed up the computation of distances between the single point and the simplicial cones. The superior efficiency and effectiveness of this algorithm are demonstrated by applications to force-closure test, system equilibrium test, and contact force distribution, which are fundamental problems in the research of multicontact robotic systems. Theoretical and numerical comparisons with previous work are provided. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Connection Mechanism for Autonomous Self-Assembly in Mobile Robots

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1413 - 1419
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (433 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a connection mechanism for autonomous self-assembly in mobile robots. Using this connection mechanism, mobile robots can be autonomously connected and disconnected. The purpose of self-assembly in mobile robotics is to add a new capability to mobile robots, thus, improving their performance to best fit the terrain conditions. Construction of a reconnectable joint is of primary concern in such systems. In this paper, first the geometric conditions and force equations of a general docking mechanism are studied. Then, we discuss the design details of our connection mechanism and present some experimental results that show that the proposed mechanism overcomes significant alignment errors and is considerably power efficient. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Drive Train Optimization for Industrial Robots

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1419 - 1424
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an optimization strategy for finding the trade-offs between cost, lifetime, and performance when designing the drive train, i.e., gearboxes and electric motors, for new robot concepts. The method is illustrated with an example in which the drive trains of two principal axes on a six-axis serial manipulator are designed. Drive train design for industrial robots is a complex task that requires a concurrent design approach. For instance, the mass properties of one motor affect the torque requirements for another, and the method needs to consider several drive trains simultaneously. Since the trajectory has a large impact on the load on the actuators when running a robot, the method also includes the trajectory generation itself in the design loop. It is shown how the design problem can be formalized as an optimization problem. A non-gradient-based optimization algorithm that can handle mixed variable problems is used to solve the highly nonlinear problem. The outcome from an industrial point of view is minimization of cost and the simulataneous balancing of the trade-off between lifetime and performance. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Simultaneously Estimating the Fundamental Matrix and Homographies

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1425 - 1431
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The estimation of the fundamental matrix (FM) and/or one or more homographies between two views is of great interest for a number of computer vision and robotics tasks. We consider the joint estimation of the FM and one or more homographies. Given point matches between two views (and assuming rigid geometry of the camera-scene displacement), it is well known that all of the matched points satisfy the epipolar constraint that is usually characterized by the FM. Subsets of these point matches may also obey a constraint characterized by a homography (all matches in the subset coming from three-dimensional (3-D) points lying on a 3-D plane). The estimations of homographies and the FM are well-studied problems, and therefore, the (separate) estimation of the FM, or the homography matrices, can be considered as effectively solved problems with mature algorithms. However, the homographies and FM are not independent of each other: therefore, separate estimation of each is likely to be suboptimal. In this paper, we propose to simultaneously estimate the FM and homographies by employing the compatibility constraint between them. This is done by first concentrating on a set of parameters that (jointly) parameterize the entire set of homographies and FM (simultaneously) and that also implicitly enforce the compatibility between the estimates of each set. We then derive a reduced form with the purpose of improving the speed. We propose a solution method in which the Sampson error for the FM and homographies is minimized by the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. Experiments show that the gains can be compared with separate estimates (the FM and/or the homographies). View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Vision-Based Localization for Leader–Follower Formation Control

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1431 - 1438
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (455 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with vision-based localization for leader-follower formation control. Each unicycle robot is equipped with a panoramic camera that only provides the view angle to the other robots. The localization problem is studied using a new observability condition valid for general nonlinear systems and based on the extended output Jacobian. This allows us to identify those robot motions that preserve the system observability and those that render it nonobservable. The state of the leader-follower system is estimated via the extended Kalman filter, and an input-state feedback control law is designed to stabilize the formation. Simulations and real-data experiments confirm the theoretical results and show the effectiveness of the proposed formation control. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Defining Conditions for Nonsingular Transitions Between Assembly Modes

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1438 - 1447
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (978 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is known that there are parallel manipulators that can perform nonsingular transitions between different assembly modes. In particular, 3-degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulators have received primary attention related to this phenomenon. In this paper, the conditions for the existence of special points in the projection of the direct-kinematic-problem-singularity locus onto the joint space for one constant input are obtained. From these conditions, the coordinates of all cusp points can be obtained analytically. Encircling one of these cusp points, it is possible to make a nonsingular transition between two assembly modes of a parallel manipulator. Utilizing these conditions, the range for the existence of cusp points of each input value can be also determined. An extension of the concept of cusp points to the complete joint space is also performed. The procedure is applied to an RPR-2-PRR parallel manipulator that can be solved analytically. Its dimensional variables are parametrized as a 1-D function, and all results are obtained in closed form, which is a benchmark example for other procedures. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Failure Recovery Planning for an Arm Mounted on an Exploratory Rover

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1448 - 1453
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a strategy for recovery from joint failures in a robot arm mounted on a mobile platform. We use the ability to reposition the base of the arm by relocating the platform and to change the position of the wrist by regrasping the scientific-tool package to provide design degrees of freedom (DOFs). The velocity and acceleration specifications of the task combine with the constraints imposed by the joint failure to yield values for these DOFs that ensure that the task can be achieved despite the joint failure. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • List of reviewers

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1454 - 1457
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (44 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2009 Index IEEE Transactions on Robotics Vol. 25

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1458 - 1476
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Robotics covers both theory and applications on topics including: kinematics, dynamics, control, and simulation of robots and intelligent machines and systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Frank Park
Seoul National University