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Display Technology, Journal of

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C1
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  • Journal of Display Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 427 - 428
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  • Guest Editorial Special Issue on Transparent Electronics

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 429 - 430
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  • Modeling Multiple Rare Earth-Doped System for White Light Generation

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 431 - 437
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (719 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A numerical model of Tm3+-Tb3+-Eu3+ -co-doped system for white light generation is presented in this paper. The energy level, electron transition process and rate and power propagating equations are proposed to calculate fluorescence intensity of the system pumped by 359 nm laser. The numerical results reveal that our theoretical result is in good agreement with experimental result in literature. Optimal active ion concentrations are proposed for the system to emit red, blue and green lights which are mixed to generate white light for display and lighting system. View full abstract»

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  • An Amorphous Indium–Gallium–Zinc–Oxide Active Matrix Electroluminescent Pixel

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 438 - 445
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1236 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, an active matrix pixel was fabricated and characterized using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors and a novel electroluminescent (EL) Eu:IGZO thin-film phosphor. The results show that even large and unoptimized IGZO devices are capable of modulating at the frequencies necessary for modern display technology. Furthermore, we demonstrate a rare-earth doped amorphous-oxide semiconductor (AOS) EL phosphor that can be modulated via a TFT. View full abstract»

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  • Intrinsic Polarization of Self-Assembled Guanosine Supramolecules in GaN-Based Metal–Semiconductor–Metal Nano-Structures

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 446 - 451
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (649 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The transport properties of self-assembled guanosine supramolecules (SAGS) confined within nanoscale metal electrodes on transparent GaN semiconductor substrates have been studied. The modified guanosine molecules have been used as self-assembled nanowires to realize nanoscale UV-Visible photodetectors with self-assembly length ranging from 30 to 450 nm. The ribbon-like guanosine supramolecules exhibit semiconductor properties and have polarization along its axis due to the strong intrinsic dipole moment of guanosine molecules. The charge transport through the SAGS wire with nanoscale metal-semiconductor-metal structure on passivated Ga-terminated GaN surface can be explained by Schottky type conductivity and near-surface-states. The intrinsic polarization in SAGS nano-wires changes the band-offset at the metal-semiconductor interface similar to semiconductor photodiodes. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Instability of RF Sputter Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O Thin-Film Transistors

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 452 - 461
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (791 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Bias-temperature-stress (BTS) induced electrical instability of the RF sputter amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) was investigated. Both positive and negative BTS were applied and found to primarily cause a positive and negative voltage shift in transfer (I DS-V GS) characteristics, respectively. The time evolution of bulk-state density (N BS) and characteristic temperature of the conduction-band-tail-states (TG) are extracted. Since both values showed only minor changes after BTS, the results imply that observed shift in TFT I DS-V GS curves were primarily due to channel charge injection/trapping rather than defect states creation. We also demonstrated the validity of using stretch-exponential equation to model both positive and negative BTS induced threshold voltage shift (DeltaV th) of the a-IGZO TFTs. Stress voltage and temperature dependence of DeltaV th evolution are described. View full abstract»

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  • Electronic Structures Above Mobility Edges in Crystalline and Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O: Percolation Conduction Examined by Analytical Model

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 462 - 467
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (317 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electronic structures and carrier transport mechanisms in disordered oxide semiconductors, crystalline InGaO3(ZnO)m (m = 1, 5) (c-IGZO) and amorphous InGaZnO4 (a-IGZO), are examined based on a percolation conduction model. Donor levels (E d) and densities (N D) are estimated by numerical calculations of free electron densities (n e) obtained by Hall measurements. It shows that the donor levels are rather deep, ~0.15 eV for c-IGZO and ~0.11 eV for a-IGZO. This analysis indicates that use of a simple analytical relation of ne prop exp(-Ed/2kT) can not always be used to estimate E d and N D even for a low n e film because the film can be in the saturation regime at room temperature if E d and N D are small, which is actually the case for a-IGZO. The temperature dependences of electron mobilities are analyzed using an analytical equation of the percolation conduction model, which reveals that distributed potential barriers exist above mobility edges in IGZO with average heights 30-100 meV and distribution widths 5-20 meV, which depend on atomic structure and deposition condition of IGZO films. High-quality a-IGZO films have the lowest potential barriers among the IGZO films examined, in spite that a-IGZO has a more disordered amorphous structure than c-IGZO have. It is explained by the partly disordered structure of c-IGZO. View full abstract»

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  • Origins of High Mobility and Low Operation Voltage of Amorphous Oxide TFTs: Electronic Structure, Electron Transport, Defects and Doping*

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 468 - 483
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2329 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) are expected as new channel materials in thin-film transistors (TFTs) for large-area and/or flexible flat-panel displays and other giant-microelectronics devices. So far, many prototype displays have been demonstrated in these four years since the first report of AOS TFT. The most prominent feature of AOS TFTs is that they operate with good performances even if they are fabricated at low temperatures without a defect passivation treatment. The TFT mobilities exceed 10 cm2/(Vmiddots), which are more than ten times larger than those of conventional amorphous semiconductor devices. In addition, they operate at low voltages, e.g., < 5 V owing to their small subthreshold voltage swings. These features indicate that electron transport in oxide semiconductors are insensitive to random structures and these oxides do not form high-density defects that affect electron transport and TFT operation. In this paper, we discuss the origins of the prominent features of AOS devices from the viewpoint of materials science of AOS. View full abstract»

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  • Oxide Electronics by Spatial Atomic Layer Deposition

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 484 - 494
    Cited by:  Papers (27)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1326 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on zinc oxide (ZnO)-based devices produced by a fast, open-air atomic layer deposition (ALD) process relying upon the spatial isolation of reactive gases. At deposition rates of greater than 100 Aring per minute, ZnO-based thin-film transistors by spatial atomic layer deposition (S-ALD) show mobility above 15 cm2/Vs and excellent stability. Measurement and modeling of the gas isolation in the deposition head is discussed. Saturation curves obtained for aluminum oxide (Al2O3) growth using trimethylaluminum and water are shown to be consistent with chamber ALD systems. Finally, the ability of this new ALD process to leverage patterning by using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a growth inhibitor for selective area deposition is discussed. Relatively thin films of PMMA (~ 40 Aring) are shown to be capable of inhibiting the growth of ZnO for at least 1200 ALD cycles. View full abstract»

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  • MOSFET-Like Behavior of a-InGaZnO Thin-Film Transistors With Plasma-Exposed Source–Drain Bulk Region

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 495 - 500
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (961 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we analyzed electrical characteristics of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) with plasma-exposed source-drain (S/D) bulk region. The parasitic resistance and effective channel length characteristics exhibit similar behavior with that of crystalline silicon metal oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (c-Si MOSFET) that has doped S/D bulk region. The transfer curves little changed with gate overlap variation, and the width-normalized parasitic resistance obtained from transmission line method was as low as 3 to 6 Omegamiddotcm. The effective channel length was shorter than the mask channel length and showed gate-to-source (VGS) voltage dependency that is frequently observed for lightly doped drain (LDD) MOSFET. Experimental and simulation results showed that the plasma exposure caused an LDD-like doping effect in the S/D bulk region by inducing oxygen vacancy in the a-IGZO layer. View full abstract»

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  • Transparent Electronics for See-Through AMOLED Displays

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 501 - 508
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (420 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transparent thin-film-transistors (TFTs) with a channel semiconductor based on the zinc-tin-oxide (ZTO) system are presented. Specifically, the technological and material aspects of the plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition of these materials are discussed. The supply of additional radical oxygen species will be evidenced to significantly reduce defects in the material and as a consequence allows for well-behaved n-channel TFTs with mobilities higher than 10 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a threshold voltage in the range of 0 V. In addition the devices are extremely stable versus bias/current stress, which is especially important for active matrix OLED applications. Based on a detailed understanding of the interaction of the TFT channels with oxygen a strategy for the thin-film encapsulation of the TFTs will be presented, which leaves their device characteristics unaffected. View full abstract»

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  • The Influence of Channel Compositions on the Electrical Properties of Solution-Processed Indium-Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 509 - 514
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (865 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electrical properties of indium-zinc oxide (IZO) thin-film-transistors (TFTs) based on solution processes with various channel compositions are investigated in this paper. Amorphous IZO thin films with high transparency and smooth/uniform surfaces are deposited by spin-coating. The In:Zn ratio is varied by adjusting the precursor compositions, and its influences on the electrical properties, such as resistivity, mobility, and threshold voltage, etc., of IZO films and TFTs are studied. The devices showed field effect mobility ranging from 0.07 to 2.13 cm2/Vmiddots with the In component (In/(In + Zn)) varying from 0.2 to 0.5. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Aligned Top-Gate Coplanar In-Ga-Zn-O Thin-Film Transistors

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 515 - 519
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (731 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Self-aligned techniques are often used in conventional CMOS and Si-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) technologies due to various merits. In this paper, we report self-aligned coplanar top-gate InGaZnO TFTs using PECVD a-SiNinfin:H patterned to have low hydrogen content in the channel region and high hydrogen content in the source/drain region. After annealing to induce hydrogen diffusion from a-SiNinfin:H into the oxide semiconductor, the source-drain regions become more conductive and yet the channel region remains suitable for TFT operation, yielding a working self-aligned TFT structure. Such fabrication involves neither back-side exposure nor ion implantation, and thus may be compatible with the typical and cost-effective TFT manufacturing. View full abstract»

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  • Inkjet-Printed High Mobility Transparent–Oxide Semiconductors

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 520 - 524
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (493 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we report a general and low-cost process to fabricate high mobility metal-oxide semiconductors that is suitable for thin-film electronics. This process use simple metal halide precursors dissolved in an organic solvent and is capable of forming uniform and continuous thin films via inkjet-printing or spin-coating process. This process has been demonstrated to deposit a variety of semiconducting metal oxides include binary oxides (ZnO, In2O3 , SnO2 , Ga2O3 ), ternary oxides (ZIO, ITO, ZTO, IGO) and quaternary compounds (IZTO, IGZO). Functional thin film transistors with high field-effect mobility were fabricated successfully using channel layers deposited from this process. This synthetic pathway opens an avenue to form patterned metal oxide semiconductors through a simple and low-cost process and to fabricate high performance transparent thin film electronics via digital fabrication processes on large substrates. View full abstract»

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  • Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Transistors for Low-Cost Electronics Applications

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 525 - 530
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (876 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transparent conductive oxides are promising candidates for realization of transparent electronics for display applications. The use of solution-processing techniques allows for a dramatic reduction in cost per unit area of electronic functionality. As a result, there is tremendous interest in the use of solution-processed transparent conductive oxides for realization of low-cost transparent electronic systems. Zinc oxide is processable out of solution using a variety of routes, including the use of nanoparticles, nanowires, and chemical bath deposition. By optimizing the deposition processes, it is possible to realize solution-processed transparent semiconductor films offering performance that is comparable to or better than amorphous silicon, while offering the advantages of transparency. Here, techniques for fabrication of solution-processed ZnO-based transistors are reviewed, and the outlook for such technologies is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Materials, Devices, and Circuits of Transparent Amorphous-Oxide Semiconductor

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 531 - 540
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2309 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the following recent investigations of transparent amorphous-oxide semiconductors (TAOS) from materials to devices and circuits. 1) Composition of metals in TAOS are widely explored with the aim of seeking semiconductors suitable for the channel layers of thin-film transistors (TFTs) composing backplanes for flat-panel displays. It is found in combinatorial approaches to the materials exploration that indium-based ternary TAOS (In-X-O) and their TFTs show the properties and the performance as good as those of the most popular material of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (alpha-IGZO) when X = Zn or Ge. 2) Defects and impurities in TAOS are investigated by theoretical approaches. The first-principle calculation of the electron states reveals that charge-neutral oxygen vacancy or interstitial forms the density of states around mid-gap level and does not generate carriers directly, while hydrogen impurity raises the Fermi level beyond the conduction-band minimum and acts as a donor in TAOS. 3) Device structures of TAOS-TFTs are also investigated extensively for better performance and stability. It is found in channel-etch type TFTs with bottom-gate inverse-stagger structures that the TFT characteristics and stability are significantly improved by chemically removing the back-channel layer in a wet-etching process. Coplanar homojunction (CH) structure is proposed as a novel device structure where conductive alpha-IGZO regions work as the source and drain electrodes to the channel region of semiconductor alpha-IGZO. The CH TFTs show excellent characteristics and stability, with low series resistance without any difficulty in making good electrical contact between metals and TAOS. 4) Circuits using TAOS-TFTs are demonstrated. A ring oscillator composed of fifteen-stage inverters with a buffer circuit operates as designed by circuit simulation with a TFT model for hydrogenated amorphous Si TFTs. Pixel circuits composed of three TFTs and one transparent capacitor suc- cessfully drive organic light-emission diode cells without a planarization layer on a 2-in diagonal panel having 176 times144 times 3 pixels. View full abstract»

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  • Dual-Plate OLED Display (DOD) Embedded With White OLED

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 541 - 545
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    White organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) with color filter adopting dual-plate OLED display (DOD) structure is proposed. In order to prevent outgassing from color filter and overcoat, the SiNx passivation film was deposited on the overcoat film. This structure does not show any defects after it has been kept over 500 hours of storage tests at 90 degC . By fabricating 1 stacked WOLED consisting of fluorescent blue layer/ phosphorescent red:green layer, luminance efficiency of 20 cd/A with CIEx = 0.29, CIEy = 0.37 was achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of 2-Stack WOLED Structure With Consideration on Color Gamut and Power Consumption

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 546 - 551
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (823 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We fabricated 2-stack white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) structure with luminance efficiency of 27.4 cd/A and color point of (0.32, 0.29) where one unit device emitted blue color and the other emitted red and green colors. Comparing with other configurations possible for 2-stack WOLED, it was found that our structure had merits of higher color gamut and lower power consumption, in spite of low luminance efficiency. In our 2-stack structure, we found that the blue efficiency which determines the power consumption of panel was strongly dependent on the position of the blue emitting layer. Based on an optical simulation and a viewing-angle analysis, we proved that the change of the luminance of blue color came from the microcavity effect depending on the distances between anode and cathode and between blue emitting layer and cathode. View full abstract»

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  • 2009 Reviewers List

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 552
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  • 2009 Index Journal of Display Technology Vol. 5

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 553 - 564
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Journal of Display Technology information for authors

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C3
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Aims & Scope

This publication covers the theory, design, fabrication, manufacturing and application of information displays and aspects of display technology.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Arokia Nathan
University of Cambridge
Cambridge, U.K.