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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C1 - 1877
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial Special Issue for Selected Papers From the 17th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1878
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Characteristic Observation of Intense Pulsed Aluminum Ion Beam in Magnetically Insulated Ion Diode With Vacuum Arc Ion Source

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1879 - 1884
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (557 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Intense pulsed heavy ion beam has been developed for a range of applications, including materials processing, particle accelerator injection for fundamental nuclear physics research, and other fundamental and applied purposes. For those applications, it is very important to generate high-purity ion beams with various ion species. We have developed a magnetically insulated ion diode for the generation of intense pulsed metallic ion beams in which the vacuum arc plasma gun is used as the metal ion source. The ion diode was operated at a diode voltage of about 200 kV, a diode current of about 15 kA, and a pulse duration of about 100 ns, and an ion beam with an ion current density of >200 A/cm2 and a pulse duration of 40 ns was obtained at 50 mm downstream from the anode. By evaluating the ion species and the energy spectrum of the ion beam via a Thomson parabola spectrometer, it was confirmed that the ion beam consists of aluminum ions (Al+, Al2+, and Al3+) of energy 60-740 keV and proton impurities of energy 90-150 keV. The purity of the beam was estimated to be 89%, which is much higher than that of the pulsed ion beam produced in the conventional ion diode. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous Generation and Transport of Two Microsecond Sheet REBs in Application to Multichannel FEM

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1885 - 1889
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (422 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Experimental and theoretical investigations on simultaneous generation and transport of two microsecond E-beams with an electron energy of 0.8 MeV and beam currents of up to 3 kA at a high current density of ~1-1.5 kA/cm2 are described in this paper. Peculiarities of using such beams for a generation of millimeter and submillimeter radiation in a free-electron maser are discussed. Parameters of the beams that are suitable for these applications are experimentally demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Intensified Emission During the Generation of a Submillisecond Low-Energy Electron Beam in a Plasma-Cathode Diode

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1890 - 1896
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effect of the intensification of electron emission in a plasma-cathode diode with a grid-stabilized plasma boundary has been investigated. For a pulsed (100-mus) electron beam of 15-20-keV energy that passes through the plasma formed as a result of gas ionization by an electron beam, it has been revealed that an increase in pressure increases the emission current at a fixed plasma-cathode discharge current, and the emission current can become greater in magnitude than the discharge current. It has been shown that a significant increase in electron-beam current is provided by the secondary ion-electron emission that results from the bombardment of the emission electrode surface by the accelerated ions coming from the boundary of the anode plasma. View full abstract»

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  • On the Current of the Low-Energy High-Current Electron Beam Formed in a Plasma-Filled Diode

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1897 - 1900
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The reasons for the limitation of the current of a high-current electron beam formed in a plasma-filled diode have been investigated. It has been revealed that the beam current is largely limited, on the one hand, by the transmission capacity of the double layer between the cathode and anode plasmas and, on the other hand, by the rate of charge neutralization of the beam in the drift channel. Experiments and estimates have shown that, even with these limitations, the beam current can be considerably greater than the critical currents for the buildup of aperiodic instabilities which result in the formation of a virtual cathode. View full abstract»

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  • Research of Cathode Plasma Speed in Planar Diode With Explosive Emission Cathode

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1901 - 1907
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1023 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The research results of the speed dynamics of explosive emission plasma expansion in the planar diode with cathodes made of graphite, carbon fiber, and copper (solid and multiedged) and with the multiedged tungsten cathode are presented. The plasma speed was determined by the volt-ampere characteristics of the diode with a time resolution of 0.2 ns. The experiments have been performed at the electron accelerator TEU-500 (350-450 kV, 100 ns, and 10 kA). It was found out when the plasma formation at the cathode is completed, and until the pulse ends, the plasma speed is constant and equal to 2 plusmn 0.5 cm / mus for graphite and carbon fiber cathode, 3 plusmn 0.5 cm /mus for tungsten cathode, and 4 plusmn 0.5 cm / mus for cathode made of copper. The analysis of various mechanisms of anode plasma action on the deviation of electron current from the value described by the correlation of Child-Langmuir-reduction of anode-cathode gap, compensation of volumetric electron charge, and additional input of electrons and ions of anode plasma to the total diode current-has been performed. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a \hbox {TM}_{01}{-}\hbox {TE}_{01} Transmission Line for High-Power Microwave Applications

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1908 - 1915
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (458 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we report the design methods and numerical results for a kind of high-power microwave (HPM) circular-waveguide transmission line, which has a 90deg bend to change the wave propagating direction for certain purposes and, meanwhile, also acts as a TM01-TE01 converter, transforming the HPM sources generating TM01 mode into the TE01 mode. Two types of mode-conversion sequences, i.e., TM01-TM11-TE01 and TM01-TE11-TM11-TE01 , are proposed. In both sequences, a 90deg-bend TM11-TE01 mode converter with sinusoidal curvature is adopted. Besides, in the first sequence, a new configuration of serpentine TM01-TM11 converter is proposed, which provides high conversion efficiency with short length; in the second one, compact linear TM01-TE11 and TE11-TM11 converters are designed. These two types of transmission lines have similar transmission efficiencies of 98.2% and 98.6% (ohmic attenuation in Cu waveguides is included), respectively, at 3.5 GHz, with bandwidths (for mode-conversion efficiency >90%) of 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Bifrequency HPM Generation in a MILO With Azimuthal Partition

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1916 - 1920
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel idea of azimuthal partition to generate high-power microwave (HPM) with two frequencies [named bifrequency (BF)] in a single device is put forward. According to this idea, a C-band BF magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is designed by tuning the cavity-depth of a conventional MILO in azimuthal direction. The analysis of BFMILO reveals that its characteristics such as self-insulated current, total anode current, and total impedance of BFMILO are nearly the same as those of a conventional one. The oscillation of each microwave is restricted in its corresponding partition. Simulation results show that a C-band BFMILO stably yields an HPM output power of about 1.43 GW when the electron beam voltage is 490 kV and the current is about 45 kA. The power efficiency is about 6.5%, and the two frequencies are 3.4 and 3.65 GHz, respectively. The amplitude difference between the two microwaves in the spectrum is about 0.4 dB. Each frequency is mainly distributed in its corresponding partition. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation Investigation of L-Band Ladder Cathode MILO

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1921 - 1924
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (374 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the sake of higher power conversion efficiency, optimization for L-band ladder cathode magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO) based on an existing model by numerical simulation is carried out. First, the efficiency is improved by changing the parameters of choke and slow-wave structure vanes. The resonant frequency and Q factor are obtained through numerical calculation of open cavity high-frequency characteristics. Then, a 2.5-D electromagnetic PIC code is used for optimizing simulation. Employing an electron beam of 568 kV, 53.3 kA, a TEM mode high-power microwave with output power of 5.5 GW, frequency of 1.2 GHz is obtained. The power conversion efficiency is 18.2%. A novel four-cavity ladder cathode MILO is also presented which is more compact and also has high-power conversion efficiency. The typical simulation result is as follows: Employing an electron beam of 578 kV, 46.5 kA, a TEM mode high-power microwave with output power of 5.1 GW, frequency of 1.2 GHz is obtained. The power conversion efficiency is 18.9%. View full abstract»

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  • An Inward-Emitting Magnetically Insulated Line Oscillator

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1925 - 1929
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (963 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO) can generate microwave of GW-class without an external magnetic field. The main disadvantage of the device is that part of the input power is used to maintain the insulating magnetic field, which limits the power conversion efficiency significantly. In order to increase the power conversion efficiency, a MILO with an inward-emitting cathode is presented. Compared with the typical outward-emitting MILO where the magnetic field is provided by the load current, the electron beam in the inward-emitting MILO is collected at a specially designed inner conductor, and the returning spoke current contributes substantially to the insulating magnetic field. The inward-emitting MILO is investigated in detail by particle-in-cell simulation, and an efficiency of 19% has been obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Plasma Opening Switch Operation Scenario

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1930 - 1935
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (294 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The regularities of current conduction and opening in microsecond megaampere plasma opening switches are considered. Switch conduction current scaling is determined by plasma pushing by magnetic field pressure and is compared with experimental results. Current channel structure is conditioned by diffusion and convective magnetic field transport into the accelerated plasma flow. An analytical solution for the magnetic field profile in the current channel is presented. Based on experimental results, the dependence of switch voltage on switch parameters is presented. Switch reclosure limits the energy output efficiency from an inductive storage into load. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a Repetitive Wave Erection Marx Generator

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1936 - 1942
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (708 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A repetitive ten-stage wave erection Marx generator is developed to investigate the electrical characteristics of such compact devices and potentially provide an economical approach to realize the miniaturization of intense electron beam accelerators. Compact design has been made for the generator in order to achieve a proper stray capacitance of the spark gap electrode with respect to the ground in each stage because these proper grounded stray capacitances are critical for obtaining a good wave erection process. This generator is initially resistively isolated for single-shot tests and then changed to inductively isolated for repetitive operation. In single-shot experiments, the generator is tested to be able to deliver a high-voltage pulse of 210 kV and a rise time of about 5 ns on a 90-Omega dummy load at a charging voltage of 40 kV. This result agrees basically with that of the PSpice circuit simulation, which adopts a self-breakdown spark gap model. The preliminary experimental results of repetitive operation show that at a charging voltage of 30 kV, the generator can operate at 8.5 Hz without gas blow-off from the internal spark gaps, producing an output pulse of 150 kV and a rise time of less than 20 ns. Differences in the output pulse waveforms between resistively and inductively isolated configurations are analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Study on Synchronous Discharge of Ten Multigap Multichannel Gas Switches

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1943 - 1947
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The synchronous characteristics of ten multigap multichannel gas switches have been investigated on one stage of linear transformer driver. An equivalent circuit has been used to simulate the closures of ten switches with different delay times and jitters. The simulated result indicates that the synchronous closing of ten switches can be well performed when the switch jitter is less than 10 ns. The influence of the switch jitter on the rise time is much greater than that on the amplitude of the output current when the switch jitter is about 20-30 ns. The experimental result indicates that a 100-ns 100-kA output current can be achieved with about six switches closing synchronously at plusmn 65-kV charge voltage. To improve the performance of the switches, two methods have been proposed for future work. View full abstract»

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  • Compact Pulsed-Power Generators for Z -Pinch Applications—The STARFISH Series

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1948 - 1953
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (617 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design and construction of STARFISH, a series of compact pulsed-power generators to drive advanced Z-pinch experiments, for applications such as soft X-ray generation and as a high-density plasma diagnostic, is being developed in Oxford. The design for these machines is based on the use of many very low impedance distributed pulse-forming lines (PFLs) or discrete pulse-forming networks, which are connected in parallel, dc charged, and switched simultaneously on to a load which may be a wire or laser-preionized channel. This generator avoids the use of very high voltage Marx generators, liquid-insulated PFLs, and magnetically insulated transmission lines that are usually used in machines driving large Z-pinch experiments. Consequently, the generator is far more compact than conventional designs and should be operable at much higher repetition rates if laser preionization is used. The idea is to build a series of generators that can be operated routinely on a day-to-day basis, with pulse characteristics that can be ldquotailor-maderdquo for specific loads, and be both efficient and reliable. View full abstract»

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  • A Long-Pulse Generator Based on Tesla Transformer and Pulse-Forming Network

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1954 - 1958
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An approach for producing a long pulse up to 100 ns is presented. The generator based on this approach consists of a Tesla transformer and a set of pulse-forming networks (PFNs). The Tesla transformer is used to charge pulse-forming lines (PFLs) and PFNs which are in parallel. When the voltage increases to a certain value, the main switch will close, and the PFLs and PFNs will discharge rapidly to the load. Therefore, a high-voltage long pulse is formed on the load. The amplitude of this pulse is dependent only on the charging voltage and the matching state between the load and the PFL (PFN). The pulsewidth is determined by the transmission time of the PFL and PFN. The rise time is determined by the working state of the main switch and the impedance of the PFL and is independent of the parameters of the PFN. The PFN is multistage and assembled in series. The single-stage PFN is formed with ceramic capacitors placed between two unclosed annular plates. The total series impedance is equal to the sum of every single-stage PFN's impedance. A nine-stage PFN is used in the generator, and the total impedance is 40 Omega. Experimental results show that a high voltage of an amplitude of 300 kV, current of 6.9 kA, and duration of 110 ns is obtained at a repetition rate of 10 Hz, with a rise time of approximately 7 ns. View full abstract»

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  • High-Power Semi-Insulating GaAs Photoconductive Semiconductor Switch Employing Extrinsic Photoconductivity

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1959 - 1963
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (175 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) with a gap of 0.018 m was fabricated from semi-insulating GaAs. Illuminated by a laser pulse with varying optical energies at a wavelength of 1064 nm, the photoconductivity tests of the PCSS were performed at different bias voltages. In nonlinear mode, by comparing the charge initially stored in the capacitors and the charge through the switch, it is found that the end of lock-on phase is not always due to the fact that the energy has been dumped from the charging system. The threshold of incident optical energy and the ON-state resistance are analyzed and calculated. The PCSS failed at a bias voltage of 32 kV because of surface flashover. View full abstract»

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  • A Resistive BPM for Mini-LIA

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1964 - 1967
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A prototype of resistive beam position monitor was designed and built for Mini-LIA. The design parameters and bench test results are presented. A beam displacement nearly 1 mm off-axis can be observed. The relationship between the signal amplitude and decay time constant to current rising time was studied. View full abstract»

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  • Monte Carlo Study of the Single-Surface Multipactor Electron Discharge on a Dielectric

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1968 - 1974
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (617 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a Monte Carlo model to investigate the single-surface multipactor discharge on a dielectric surface in the presence of RF and dc electric fields. By employing a novel method in the numerical implementation of the secondary-electron emission, the susceptibility diagram is constructed, and beam loading and its power absorption by the multipactor discharge are examined. Meanwhile, the temporal evolution of the multipactor is also studied. The simulation results show clearly that a steady-state multipactor discharge can be built up from a very low density initial electron distribution, and an oscillatory steady state can be achieved when the positive charge, which is left by the emission of secondary electrons, is capable to build a large-enough dc electric field. During the saturation state, the normal electric field and the number of electrons in flight oscillate at twice the RF frequency. The average power absorbed by the multipactor, strongly depending on material parameters, is on the order of 1% incident power or less. Based on this model, several useful guidelines to prevent or extinguish the multipactor are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Hydrodynamic Loading of Ceramic Components Due to Pulsed Discharge in Water

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1975 - 1980
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pulsed discharge in water produces transient pressure waves. For one kind of high-current electron accelerators composed of a water pulse-forming line and a ceramic-insulated vacuum diode, the mechanical stability of the water-vacuum interface should be taken into account during operations. In this paper, by combining empirical formulas of a plasma-driven water-shock theory with a self-consistent underwater explosive approach, a finite element model was introduced to investigate the shock-wave behaviors. The pressure-time history and ceramic mechanical response to pressure waves were presented. In order to get the pressure profile and verify the calculation models, the arc pressure test, including ldquopoint-planerdquo electrode system, was carried out based on a ten-stage Marx generator. Peak pressures of shock waves were measured by the piezoelectric sensor, and related results have a close approximation to the predictions. The relationship between peak pressure and shock-wave energy under nanosecond time-scale pulsed-discharge condition was also obtained in the experiment. These results may be helpful for the estimation of a water shock when designing structural components of pulsed-power machines. View full abstract»

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  • X-ray Emission of Multiwire Z -Pinches in Energy Range Over 20 keV

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1981 - 1986
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (678 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The results concerning the emission of hard X-rays (HXRs) with an energy over 20 keV from the plasma of dense radiating Z-pinches are considered. The work aims at identifying the nature of the fast-electron (electron-beam) generation at the implosion of cylindrical and conical multiwire arrays (liners) at a current up to 3 MA on the Angara-5-1 installation. An effect of zippering on a time profile of HXRs at the implosion of conical arrays that is caused by an inclination of wires was revealed. It was shown that the generation of HXRs always correlates with the disruption of a plasma column near the cathode in the final phase of pinch compression. The pinch images in HXRs are attributed to the emission of bremsstrahlung of fast electrons generated at the plasma column disruption on the plasma ions and in the anode target. It was also found that using conical arrays makes it possible to control the plasma zippering direction, to regulate the space-temporal and power characteristics of X-ray emission, and, in particular, to change the HXR yield. For 12 mm-diameter multiwire arrays with a linear mass 200-400 mug/ cm the current and energy of the fast electrons is estimated to be ~ 20 kA and ~ 60 J, respectively, which make ~ 0.002 of the energy of the soft-X-ray pulse. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Output Peaking Capacitor on Underwater-Streamer Propagation

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1987 - 1992
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (386 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the effects of an output peaking capacitor on the propagation of an underwater streamer. A pulsed-power modulator using a magnetic-pulse-compression circuit was employed to generate 20-30-kV pulses with 2-mus pulsewidth. A point-to-plane electrode setup with 2-cm gap in tap water was used. A copper line with 0.43-mm tip diameter was used as the discharge electrode, and an aluminum plate was set in water and connected to ground. Underwater-streamer propagation was visualized by an intensified-charge-coupled-device camera with a high-speed gate. An optional output peaking capacitor was connected in parallel to the electrodes to get pulses with different rise time and higher peak voltage and current. Thin and well-distributed channels were observed when the peaking capacitor was used. In contrast, the number of streamer channels was small, and each of them was thick and bright when the peaking capacitor was removed from the circuit. It is concluded that the peaking capacitor has a favorable effect on the generation and propagation of the underwater streamer. View full abstract»

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  • Acceleration of Macroscopic Particle to Hypervelocity by High-Intensity Beams

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1993 - 1997
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hypervelocity (~1000-km/s) impact of a macroscopic particle (macron) has profound influences in high energy density physics and inertial fusion energy researches. As the charge-mass ratio of macrons is too low, the length of an electrostatic accelerator can reach hundreds to thousands of kilometers, rendering macron acceleration impractical. To reduce the accelerator length, a much higher electric field than what the most powerful klystrons can provide is desired. One practical choice may be the high-intensity charged particle beam ldquoblowing-piperdquo approach. In this approach, a high-intensity (~10-kA) medium-energy (0.5-2-MeV) long-pulse (10-1000-mus) positively charged ion beam shots to a heavily charged millimeter-size macron to create a local high-strength electric field (~1010 V/m), accelerating the macron efficiently. We will discuss the physics and challenges involved in this concept and give an illustrative simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Surface Modification of TiC–NiCrAl Hard Alloy by Pulsed Electron Beam

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1998 - 2001
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The mechanisms by which nanostructural states are realized in e-beam-irradiated TiC-NiCrAl cermet depending on the irradiation mode have been revealed. Mechanical testing and tribotesting have yielded criteria for a substantial (a factor of 1.5-3) increase in performance characteristics of the cermet alloy (micro- and nanohardness, cutting resistance, coefficient of friction, and bending resistance). View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
1428 Miracerros Loop South
Santa Fe, NM  87505  87505  USA
tps-editor@ieee.org
Phone:505-988-5751
Fax:505-988-5751 (call first)