Early Access ArticlesEarly Access articles are made available in advance of the final electronic or print versions. Early Access articles are peer reviewed but may not be fully edited. They are fully citable from the moment they appear in IEEE Xplore.
This article looks at the case of transgender Britons who tried to correct the gender listed on their government-issued ID cards, but ran up against the British government's increasing-ly computerized methods for tracking, identify-ing, and defining citizens. These newly-computerizing systems show some of the earli-est examples of transphobic algorithmic bias: explicit attempts to program trans pe... View full abstract»
The theory and practice of search results ranking, as currently offered by most web search engines, is older than one might think. The first proposal for a system of ranking was in a JACM paper in 1960. Through the remainder of the twentieth century, extensive research was done on ranking systems - on devising methods of ranking, on the use of learning methods in association with ranking, and on t... View full abstract»
The Rockefeller Foundation shipped two Apple II computers with VisiCalc to the Tunisian Ministry of Agriculture to address a grain shortage in the early 1980s. The foundation believed that VisiCalc would enable the speedy and complex analytical modeling necessary to improve the management and, consequently, the production of grain resources. The foundation also argued that VisiCalc would empower i... View full abstract»
The Role of Governments in the Spread of Novel Computing Devices in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century United States
Nineteenth and early twentieth century American governments - local, state, and national - profoundly shaped diffusion of novel mathematical instruments. The federal government ran an office that judged what inventions were patentable and a legal system for those who defended or challenged patent rights. Governments at all levels employed inventors. Sometimes new laws required extensive calculatio... View full abstract»
The Development of Consent to Computing: Submission for IEEE Annals of the History of Computing Governance & Computing Special Issue
The origins and transformation of digital consent are recounted in comparative fashion, focusing on political constructions of computing in Western countries, regional bodies, and global negotiations. When data protection regimes emerged to govern computing technologies in the 1970s, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, and Sweden all ignored consent but for very different reason... View full abstract»
Technical Fixes for Legal Uncertainty in the 1980s Software Cracking Scene: Towards a Forensic Materialist History
During the 1980s, many software developers and enthusiasts reacted to software's unclear status within U.S. copyright law by pursuing technical, rather than legislative fixes. This paper applies forensic methods to recover records of conflict between commercial software developers and the enthusiasts who sought to "crack" commercial programs' copy protection. View full abstract»
The Polish economic transformation of the 1990s created an appetite for software that was only partially satisfied by piracy. This market was yet to be taken seriously by Western companies, so local developers stepped up to fill the void. They translated obscure foreign applications, created weird character encoding standards and built complex business software from scratch, shaping the local IT m... View full abstract»
Aims & Scope
The IEEE Annals of the History of Computing serves as a record of vital contributions which recount, preserve, and analyze the history of computing and the impact of computing on society.
Meet Our Editors
Gerardo Con Diaz
University of California, Davis