Early Access ArticlesEarly Access articles are made available in advance of the final electronic or print versions. Early Access articles are peer reviewed but may not be fully edited. They are fully citable from the moment they appear in IEEE Xplore.
The Experimental Computer Programme: the first computing initiative for the National Health Service in England.
The Experimental Computer Programme (1967 to 1979) was the first central government intervention for hospital computing in the English National Health Service (NHS). Influenced by developments in the USA, the Department of Health envisioned integrated medical and management information systems, operating in real-time. The approach to implementation was experimental and piecemeal. The programme was... View full abstract»
In the mid-1960s, the Laboratory at Los Alamos, a center of scientific computing since the Manhattan Project, embarked on a search for a new supercomputer intended to fulfill the growing need for computing power in nuclear weapons development. Although depicted at Los Alamos in later years as a smooth transition between vendors, the selection process was a contentious negotiation among computing e... View full abstract»
“The Spitting Image of a Woman Programmer:” Changing Portrayals of Women in the American Computing Industry, 1958-1985
This paper examines portrayals of women in the American computer industry in the 1960s, '70s, and early '80s, a period in which the percentage of the industry workforce that was female almost tripled. Drawing on a comprehensive study of the trade journal Datamation, sources from IBM, Control Data, and the Burroughs Corporation, and the records of the user group SHARE, it argues that these portraya... View full abstract»
Useful Instruction for Practical People - Early Printed Discussions of the Slide Rule in the United States
Although logarithms were discovered in 1614, and the slide rule was introduced soon thereafter, use of the instrument spread slowly. Late eighteenth and early nineteenth century publications allow us to trace the diffusion of calculating rules in the early United States View full abstract»
This paper explores a twenty-year series of ARPANET maps produced by the firm Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN). These BBN maps signify the earliest efforts to represent an early and central piece of the modern Internet, and they wind up as illustrations in contemporary discussions of ARPANET history and the early Internet. Once a functional tool for engineers, they now serve as an aesthetic backdrop ... View full abstract»
The Soviet microcomputer hobby movement began in the early 1980s. It passed through two main developmental stages before it melted away a decade later, leaving behind a country enchanted with microcomputing. This article traces the development of the movement and assesses its significance and place in the USSR's history of computing. View full abstract»
The history of computing in India is inextricably intertwined with two interacting forces: the political climate (determined by the political party in power) and the government policies mainly driven by the technocrats and the bureaucrats who acted within the boundaries drawn by the political party in power. There were four break points which occurred in 1970, 1978, 1991 and 1998 that changed the ... View full abstract»
The author was both a student and an instructor in IBM's training program for newly hired salesmen in the 1970s and 1980s. He describes the training these new hires received, focusing on Sales School, IBM's longest running training program. View full abstract»
This article explores the origins (in mid-1970s) and early history of the access control software products industry with IBM's RACF and startup SKK's ACF2. Both in part grew out of and were aided (at the start for ACF2, and on a continuing basis for RACF) IBM computer user group SHARE, Inc. It emphasizes the role of organizational mainframe computer users in shaping key attributes of these first p... View full abstract»
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The IEEE Annals of the History of Computing serves as a record of vital contributions which recount, preserve, and analyze the history of computing and the impact of computing on society.
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Indiana University, School of Informatics & Computing