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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 9  Part 1 • Date Sept. 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C1 - 1661
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial Special Issue on Advances on Plasma Processing for Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1662 - 1664
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  • The Mobility of Negative Ions in \hbox {CF}_{3} \hbox {I} , \hbox {CF}_{3}\hbox {I}{-}\hbox {N}_{2} , \hbox {CF}_{3}\hbox {I}{-}\hbox {Ar} , \hbox {CF}_{3}\hbox {I}{-}\hbox {Xe} , \hbox {C}_{2}\hbox {F}_{6} , and \hbox {CHF}_{3} , and of Positive Ions in \hbox {C}_{2} \hbox {F}_{4} and \hbox {c-C}_{4}\hbox {F}_{8}

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1665 - 1669
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (370 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Using a pulsed Townsend technique, the drift velocity and the mobility of positive ions in C2F4 and C4F8 and those of negative ions in C2F6, CHF3, and CF3I and its mixtures with N2, Ar, and Xe are reported. The overall range of the density-normalized electric field is 4-600 times10-17 - Vldrcm2. Ion identification is provided by means of previous studies on partial ionization and electron attachment. Thus, it is suggested that the predominant drifting ion in the discharge is C2F4 + for C2F4 and c-C4F8, F- for C2F6 and CHF3, and I- for CF3I. The use of more comprehensive theories of ion motion considering the influence of a permanent dipole moment (CHF3 and CF3I) has provided reasonable agreement between low-field measured and calculated mobilities. The mobility of negative ions in CF3I-N2, CF3I-Ar, and CF3I-Xe mixtures agrees reasonably well with the predicted values by Blanc's law. View full abstract»

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  • Charge and Potential Distributions for Particles Approaching Substrates With Regular Structures

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1670 - 1674
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (745 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The charge and potential distributions for insulating particles approaching a substrate with regular insulating structures are studied by particle-in-cell numerical simulations. An elongated particle and a substrate with elongated structures are considered for flowing plasmas. The plasma flow leads to enhanced ion density and potential regions in the particle wake. The role of the relative position of the particle and the substrate in their interactions is investigated. It is also demonstrated that the interactions are modified by photoemission due to directed UV light. The simulations are in 2-D, with ions and electrons both treated as individual particles. View full abstract»

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  • Micro- and Mesostructures in Plasma Polymers of Trichloroethylene

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1675 - 1682
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    This paper presents a plasma polymerization of trichloroethylene with the objective to study the formation of micro- and mesostructures in the polymers. Under plasma conditions, these polymers have a great potential of building complex self-assembled structures with electrical characteristics ranging from chlorined polyethylenes to polyacetylenes. The polymerization of trichloroethylene was studied with combinations of resistive, capacitive, and inductive electric configurations. Low-power syntheses used dc- and radio-frequency (RF)-resistive mechanisms and resulted in partially soluble polymers with conductivity in the 10-12-10-5-S/cm interval. On the other hand, polymers synthesized at high power with a combined RF inductive-capacitive configuration were almost insoluble with conductivity in the 10-12-10-11-S/cm interval. The morphology of polychloroethylene varied from smooth surfaces to agglomerates composed with micro- and mesostructures with mushroomlike profiles, which were very sensitive to the conditions of synthesis. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Radical Production in RF CCP Discharge at 81-MHz Frequency in \hbox {Ar/CF}_{4} and \hbox {Ar/CHF}_{3} Mixtures

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1683 - 1696
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (610 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the experimental and theoretical studies of RF capacitive-coupled-plasma (CCP) discharge at frequency of 81 MHz in Ar/CF4 and Ar/CHF3 mixtures were carried out. The density distributions of CF2, F, and H radicals in the interelectrode gap were measured by the spatially resolved emission and absorption spectroscopies. In the CHF3/Ar discharge, the measurements of plasma density and electron temperature were also carried out by using the probe technique. The experimental data were analyzed on the base of the self-consistent simulation of RF CCP discharge. The multipurpose hybrid approach was used in which the self-consistent particle-in-cell MC method is applied to describe the behavior of electrons and ions, whereas the behavior of neutral species is treated by the fluid model, taking into account the complicated plasma chemistry in the Ar/CF4 and Ar/CHF3 mixtures. The comparative analysis of the experimental and simulation results has shown that, in the Ar/CF4 plasma, the main source of CF2 radicals is the electron-impact dissociation of CF4, whereas the chain reactions with H and F atoms play a crucial role in CFx radical production in Ar/CHF3 with the chain branching being caused by electron-impact dissociation of HF. The good agreement between the calculated and experimental densities of CF2, H, and F radicals shows that the present model correctly describes the chain mechanism. The results of probe measurements in the CHF3/Ar discharge also agree well with the calculated plasma density and mean electron energy in the bulk. At the same time, the simulation revealed the rather lower electronegativity as compared with the known literature data. The simulation has shown that the electron attachment to CF2 radicals may strongly increase the negative-ion density. The direct measurements of negative ion- - s together with CFx densities are necessary to make clear the question. The results of this paper directly indicate that the kinetics of electron attachment and detachment to polymeric neutral products and radicals is of great importance for the correct description of fluorocarbon-plasma electronegativity. View full abstract»

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  • Recombination of O and H Atoms on the Surface of Nanoporous Dielectrics

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1697 - 1704
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The interaction of O and H atoms with SiOCH nanoporous low-dielectric-constant (low-k) films is studied in the far plasma afterglow in the absence of ion and photon fluxes on the surface. The loss probabilities of O and H atoms are directly measured by plasma-induced actinometry. Modification of low-k films during the experimental scans was studied by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique. The model of O- and H-atom recombination in nanoporous materials was developed to analyze the experimental data. It is shown that the main mechanism of the O and H loss is their surface recombination. The consumption of these atoms in the reactions with the carbon-containing hydrophobic groups has a minimal contribution. Thus, the surface recombination defines a damage depth in low-k films. It was shown that the oxygen atoms lead to the noticeable removal of CH3 groups. On the contrary, hydrogen atoms do not break Si-CH3 bonds, allowing the avoidance of plasma damage in the case of the hydrogen-plasma-based resist strip in appropriate conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Nanoscale Roughness Effects at the Interface of Lithography and Plasma Etching: Modeling of Line-Edge-Roughness Transfer During Plasma Etching

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1705 - 1714
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (952 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present 3-D modeling results on resist line-edge-roughness (LER) transfer to underlying films during plasma etching. After generating random fractal resist sidewalls with controlled roughness parameters, we model and contrast the nanoscale roughness phenomena for both resist and underlayer sidewalls in a two-layer stack using two different plasma processes in three scenarios: (1) pattern transfer; (2) resist trimming; and (3) resist trimming followed by pattern transfer. In the pattern transfer process, etching is considered ion driven and anisotropic. The protrusions of the rough, trimmed or nontrimmed, resist sidewall act as a shadowing mask for the incident ions. It is found that shadowing of ions is enough to induce the, well known by experiments, striations at the sidewalls of both the underlayer and the resist. Pattern transfer induces a decrease of rms roughness but has no important effects on the correlation length. In the trimming process, the evolution of the resist sidewall is modeled with an isotropic etching process not affecting the underlayer. The trimming process causes a decrease of the rms value of the resist sidewall and an increase of its correlation length and roughness exponent. For sufficiently long trimming times, the change of LER parameters becomes less intense. In the case of trimming followed by pattern transfer, the striations of the underlayer widen with trimming time, and pattern transfer further reduces all LER parameters. The effect of trimming on the rms roughness of the underlayer is important in the case of initially anisotropic resist sidewall. For both trimming and pattern transfer, a stronger relative reduction on rms roughness of both the resist and the underlayer sidewalls is obtained for smaller correlation length and larger rms roughness of the initial resist. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Positive-Ion Temperature in the Sheaths Surrounding Cylindrical and Spherical Probes in Electronegative Plasmas

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1715 - 1722
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper analyzes the effect of positive-ion temperature on the sheath that surrounds a cylindrical or spherical probe in an electronegative plasma. We developed a theoretical model that considers a hydrodynamic approach for positive-ion motion. In order to introduce the positive-ion temperature into the model, we consider that positive ions flow adiabatically toward the probe. This model allows us to obtain the electrical potential profile surrounding the probe and the current-to-voltage characteristic curves. These I-V curves were fitted as functions of the probe radius, the probe biasing potential, and the positive-ion temperature. Finally, these expressions allow us to obtain the floating potential of the probe for different electronegativities and positive-ion temperatures. View full abstract»

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  • Evolution of Surface Morphology With Hydrogen Dilution During Silicon Epitaxy by Mesoplasma CVD

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1723 - 1729
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (665 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The influence of hydrogen in high-rate and low-temperature silicon epitaxy under mesoplasma conditions has been investigated from growth precursors and film structural evolution points of view. In situ small-angle X-ray scattering measurement has confirmed that silicon nanoclusters that are around 2 nm in size and having a loosely bound structure were formed as growth precursors, independent of the amount of hydrogen. Surface morphological analysis, on the other hand, has revealed that the deposition mechanism changes from surface diffusion to primarily step flow with hydrogen addition due potentially to the anisotropic etching of the silicon surface. Atomically smooth epitaxial films with Hall mobilities of up to 300 cm2/(V middots) were deposited accordingly at high partial pressures of hydrogen (> 220 mtorr), while polycrystalline films were produced at lower hydrogen amounts and still retaining relatively high electric properties. View full abstract»

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  • Inductively Coupled Pulsed Plasmas in the Presence of Synchronous Pulsed Substrate Bias for Robust, Reliable, and Fine Conductor Etching

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1730 - 1746
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2669 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Inductively coupled pulsed plasmas in the presence of synchronous pulsed substrate bias are characterized in a commercial plasma etching reactor for conductor etching. The synchronous pulsed plasma characteristics are evaluated through the following: 1) Ar-based Langmuir probe diagnostics; 2) Ar/Cl2 plasma modeling utilizing the hybrid plasma equipment model and the Monte Carlo feature model for the investigation of feature profile evolutions; 3) basic etching characteristics such as average etch rate and uniformity; 4) sub-50-nm Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) basic etching performance and profile control; and 5) charge damage evaluation. It is demonstrated that one can control the etching uniformity and profile in advanced gate etching, and reduce the leakage current by varying the synchronous pulsed plasma parameters. Moreover, it is shown that synchronous pulsing has the promise of significantly reducing the electron shading effects compared with source pulsing mode and continuous-wave mode. The synchronous pulsed plasma paves the way to a wider window of operating conditions, which allows new plasma etching processes to address the large number of challenges emerging in the 45-nm and below technologies. View full abstract»

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  • A Stochastic Spray Model for the Radio-Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1747 - 1753
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    A stochastic spray model has been implemented into a time-dependent 2-D radio-frequency inductively coupled plasma model. The model was used to predict the height of complete evaporation of liquid sprays in a 20.0-kW argon plasma torch. The heights that the spray can reach in the torch were predicted for a variety of spray parameters and hydrocarbon liquids. The effects of the spraying parameters on the local cooling and the evaporation and transportation of liquid spays were also studied. The local cooling effect of the spray on the plasma is evident. The results suggest that increasing the spray cone angle and injection velocity within a certain range can decrease the complete evaporation height of liquid sprays. Increasing liquid mass flow rate and droplet size leads to an increase of the complete evaporation height of the spray. In general, droplet collisions produce bigger droplet and delay the evaporation of the spray. View full abstract»

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  • Study of Low-Energy Doping Processes Using Continuous Anodic Oxidation Technique/Differential Hall Effect Measurements

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1754 - 1759
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (719 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Comparing with conventional spreading resistance profiling and differential Hall effect (DHE) methods, the continuous anodic oxidation technique/DHE (CAOT/DHE) technique may achieve more reasonable profiles of carrier concentration nh(x), mobility muh(x), and resistivity rho(x) and more reasonable carrier dose and xj in Si substrate. It has been successfully used to study ultralow energy doping techniques including B beam-line implant and B2H6 plasma doping (PLAD). CAOT/DHE data support the fact that the devices fabricated by PLAD achieve improvement to those fabricated by beam-line implant because PLAD offered higher surface carrier concentration and carrier dose. CAOT/DHE data quantitatively verify the so-called solid solubility limit activation theory - the carrier profiles and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) B impurity profiles under BSS are very well consistent on both beam-line and PLAD implants. As a cheaper and standard metrology, the SIMS/ARXPS method with the solid solubility limit activation theory may be used to quantitatively or semiquantitatively study the doping and activation processes. View full abstract»

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  • Comparative Study of Self-Sputtering Effects of Different Boron-Based Low-Energy Doping Techniques

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1760 - 1766
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method was used to study self-sputtering effects of different p-type (boron-based) low-energy doping techniques, including conventional monoatomic 11B beam-line ion implant, molecular beam-line ion implants, cluster B beam-line ion implant, and plasma doping (PLAD). It has been found that the self-sputtering effects of the beam-line implants correlate with the mass of ion species except for BF2 implant. Cluster B implant shows severe self-sputtering effect and surface roughness due to its very heavy and very large cluster ions. BF2 implant shows severe sputtering/etching effect but comparable roughness due to a combination of the physical sputtering and reactive ion etching. PLAD processes using B2H6 and BF3 gas species have no sputtering effects but have deposition under certain process conditions. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE 2009 Membership Application

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1767 - 1768
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science information for authors

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C3
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  • Affiliate Plan of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C4
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IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
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