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Military Electronics, IRE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1962

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): c1
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  • IRE Professional Group on Military Electronics

    Publication Year: 1962
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  • [Breaker page]

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): nil1
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  • PGMIL Past Chairmen

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • George B. Wareham [Biography]

    Publication Year: 1962
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  • Direct Energy Conversion

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 4
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    First Page of the Article
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  • The Present Status of Silicon Solar Cells

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 5 - 14
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    The present state of the art of silicon solar cells is described. The physical properties, circuit performance, and current lines of research are summarized. Silicon is seen to be competitive in several of the newer approaches to solar cell improvement. View full abstract»

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  • Estimate of Space-Radiation Effects on Satellite Solar-Cell Power Supplies

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 14 - 20
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    The charged-particle intensity and energy distribution at the heart of the inner and outer Van Allen belts is compared with the experimentally determined radiation sensitivity of silicon solar cells. Energy dependence of the radiation damage and solar-cell characteristics is included in the lifetime estimate of spacecraft solar cells. Use of charged-particle range-energy relations and the differential intensity of the Van Allen radiation results in an estimated effectiveness of thin protective shields. Comparative advantages of thin shields, advanced cell designs, solar efficiency, and solar-cell system over-design are discussed with respect to radiation resistance of spacecraft power supplies. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of High-Conversion-Efficiency Gallium-Arsenide Solar Cells

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 20 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Gallium-arsenide solar cells having conversion-efficiency values greater than 11 per cent are described. Crystalline properties of gallium arsenide are discussed, and cell design considerations are given. Gallium arsenide provides several advantages over silicon in the fabrication of high-efficiency cells having improved temperature characteristics and higher radiation-resistance properties. Typical cell characteristics are presented and compared with those of silicon cells. In addition, data are given to show the effects on gallium arsenide cells of incident solar energy, temperature, radiation, and life. View full abstract»

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  • Progress in Thermoelectricity

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 27 - 34
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    Of the several processes by which heat is directly transformed to useful electric power thermoelectricity offers unique advantages for several areas of application. The absence of moving parts and the simplicity promise high reliability, silence, and long-lived, maintenance-free operation both as a power source and as a heat pump for refrigeration and temperature control. A substantial effort devoted to materials development has produced new semiconductors with an integrated theoretical efficiency of about 20 per cent. Further progress in materials development is needed to achieve major goals in both military and commercial applications, but important uses can already be visualized. Small power plants for remote areas and auxiliary power supplies for space vehicles are awaiting engineering improvements, some of which again require improved materials for use as electrical contacts and electrical and thermal insulators. Similarly in refrigeration, important military applications and special commercial devices can be produced with existing thermoelectric materials when engineering problems and the auxiliary materials problems are solved. View full abstract»

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  • Thermoelectric Generator Design, Performance, and Application

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 34 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Many of the practical problems that are encountered in building present-day generators are illustrated. A design procedure for free convection air-cooled generators is described. The performance of power thermocouples as a function of junction temperature is discussed and curves illustrating couple efficiency, power output, heat flux and voltage as a function of hot junction temperature are shown. The effects of varying thermocouple length on generator efficiency and generator specific power are shown graphically and methods of predicting generator performance are illustrated for thermoelectric materials of equal figures of merit but different values of thermal conductivity. The paper also discusses free convection heat exchangers and fossil-fuel burners. The thermoelectric generator preformance on a watts-per-pound basis is compared with battery-and gasoline-engine-driven generator performance for specific missions. View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 40
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  • Thermionic conversion-state of the art

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 41 - 45
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    After a brief discussion of fundamental principles, a family tree of the different types of thermionic converters is presented. The status of individual conversion techniques is then reviewed. A description of the materials problems is given. The paper concludes with projections of development and performance trends of the most important types of thermionic converters. View full abstract»

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  • Fuel Cells

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 46 - 57
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    A comparison is drawn between the theoretical efficiencies of heat engines and fuel cells in the conversion of chemical to electrical energy. The electrochemical principles governing the operation of fuel cells are discussed. Short descriptions, including performance curves, are given of a few selected fuel-cell types including low-, intermediate-, and high-temperature cells, and redox and regenerative cells. An example is given of a rough calculation of battery and fuel weight and volume for a given power level and total energy demand. View full abstract»

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  • Radioisotope-Activated Fuel-Cell Electrodes

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 58 - 62
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    It has been shown that a catalytic effect can be produced on oxygen fuel-cell electrodes by the incorporation of radioactive isotopes into the electrode structure. Experiments with ß emitters have resulted in low temperature and pressure silver electrodes capable of high current drains at favorable polarization values. Analysis of the data indicates support for the hypothesis that radiations exert a significant effect on diffusion control within the pores of the electrode. View full abstract»

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  • Regenerative Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 63 - 67
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The regenerative hydrogen-oxygen ion-exchange membrane fuel cell is especially suitable for use in space power systems. During discharge, the anode reaction is H2+20H-¿2H2O+2e. The electrons pass out of the fuel cell at the anode to the load, then re-enter at the cathode. The cathode reaction is ¿02+H2O+2e ¿20H-. The hydroxyl ions pass through the membrane to the anode; the electrical circuit is thus completed. The cell reaction is H2+¿02¿H2O. During charge, electrical energy is furnished to the fuel cell and water is electrolyzed into hydrogen and oxygen. Single cells have been cycled continuously for several months without significant decreases in performance. The electrochemical efficiencies ampere-minutes out/ampere-minutes in are 95 to 100 per cent and the energy efficiencies watt-minutes out/watt-minutes in are as high as 50 per cent. Cells have been operated initially at current densities of 38 and 100 a per square foot at 0.8 and 0.6 v, respectively. Multicell units have been built and tested. Experimental fuel-cell batteries have been tested under zero-gravity conditions in aircraft and have been flown in missile flights. The results have shown that this fuel cell operates satisfactorily in the environment of outer space. View full abstract»

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  • Hermetically-Sealed Nickel-Cadmium and Silver-Cadmium Storage Batteries

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 67 - 71
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    The galvanic battery is the most highly developed means of storing electrical energy today. In satellite and space-vehicle applications where auxiliary electrical power is required for extended periods of time, it has been found that the most feasible power supply currently available consists of silicon solar cells used in conjunction with sealed nickel-cadmium storage batteries. They are capable of thousands of repeated cycles and have an energy output of about 12 watt-hours per pound. Sealed silver-cadmium cells are of interest because of their higher output, 24 watt-hours per pound, but they are not as far developed, nor do they as yet have the cycle life of nickel-cadmium cells. In the development of hermetically-sealed nickel-cadmium batteries, the following areas have received considerable attention: 1) Hermetic seal, 2) Continuous overcharge capability and low internal cell pressure, 3) Separator, and 4) Cycle life. In the development of hermetically-sealed silver-cadmium cells, four technical problems have received considerable attention: 1) Separator, 2) Improved silver electrode capable of delivering energy at the Ag+II potential, 3) Continuous overcharge capability, and 4) Cycle life. Although other direct-energy conversion systems appear to be promising and are being intensively developed, it is expected that the nickel-cadmium and silver-cadmium storage batteries will continue to be of importance for many years to come. View full abstract»

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  • New Materials for Primary Batteries

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 72 - 77
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    The selection of new anode-cathode combinations for primary cells is described on the basis of ampere-hour capacity, theoretical and operating potential, handling properties with respect to the design of primary batteries, and limitations placed on the selection of active components by unusual electrolyte requirements. Theoretically, for the design of dry and reserve primary cells, the most desirable anode materials are magnesium and aluminum; the most desirable cathode materials are the nitro-organic compounds, N-halogen organic compounds, silver (II) oxide, copper (II) oxide, nickel oxide, and mercuric oxide. Such other possible anode materials as titanium, alkali metals, and hydrocarbons, and cathode materials such as oxygen, sulfur, halogens, oxides, and chlorides, are also considered. A magnesium/magnesium perchlorate/m-dinitrobenzene dry cell with an experimental capacity of 90 wh/lb and estimated maximum available capacity of 150 wh/lb is described. The basic relationships between the cathode potential of aromatic nitro compounds and the nature of substitution groups are illustrated. The development of high-capacity dry cells with a perchlorate electrolyte, a magnesium anode, and a cupric oxide or synthetic manganese dioxide cathode is described. The capacity of a magnesium/magnesium perchlorate/mercuric oxide cell on a 30-minute discharge rate with a voltage tolerance of ±5 per cent is 50 wh/lb and 3.0 wh/cubic in. View full abstract»

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  • The magnetohydrodynamic power generator-basic principles, state of the art, and areas of application

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 78 - 83
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    The paper opens with a review and discussion of the basic principles of MHD power generation. It is seen that the MHD generator operates in a manner similar to that of a conventional generator in that the "armature" of the MHD is a hot, high-speed electrically-conducting gas, while the force or torque-required to move a metallic conductor through a field is replaced by a pressure gradient in the gaseous armature. Thus the functions of turbine and generator are combined in a single machine. Because this machine has no moving parts, it can, in principle, accept a working fluid at very high temperature. After a derivation of the basic MHD-generator flow equations a brief synopsis of losses in an MHD generator is given. The nature of these losses is such that the MHD generator is applicable where large amounts of power are involved. In gases, the Hall effect can be very pronounced, and its influence on MHD generator design and performance is pointed out. There follows a brief statement of the state of the art in MHD-generator development at the Avco-Everett Research Laboratory. It is shown that gases produced by conventional heat sources can be made adequate conductors of electricity for use in an MHD if a small amount of easily ionizable impurity called seed is added to the gas. Recent developments in superconducting materials, plus detailed studies of MHD-generator fluid mechanics in a large combustion-driven generator point to early realization of the potential of MHD. View full abstract»

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  • Solar-Cell Power Systems for Space Vehicles

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 84 - 91
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    For operational purposes, solar-cell power systems are being used in the 30 or 40 different spacecraft now planned for flight. The range of power is from 15 to 500 watts. Both nonorientation and orientation of paddles to the sun are being used. An approximate break-even point between excessive weight of solar cells for nonoriented systems and weight of the orientation servomechanism system for solar-oriented systems occurs for a power level of 100 watts. Nickel-cadmium batteries have been used for the storage of electrical energy, whether for providing power during shadow periods encountered by low-altitude spacecraft or providing peak power during telemetry for interplanetary flights. The specific weight of such power systems varies from 750 or 1000 lb/kw to 500 lb/kw for orbits from 300 miles (statute) to 22,000 miles (synchronous orbit). Reduction in weight of batteries as well as solar cells needed for battery charging as altitude increases is responsible for this decrease in specific weight because of the decreasing time of shadow encountered by an orbiting spacecraft. View full abstract»

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  • Solar Direct-Conversion Power Systems

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 91 - 98
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    A survey is made of the present status of technology of solar photovoltaic, photoemissive, thermoelectric and thermionic power systems for spacecraft. The subjects of radiation damage to solar cells, power-system design, and solar simulation are reviewed. Various types of solar power systems are discussed and compared with respect to weight, availability, environmental tolerance, and cost. It is concluded that solar photovoltaic and solar thermionic systems are most desirable for power levels up to 3 kw. However, the life capability of thermionic converters has not yet been established. Solar thermoelectric and photoemissive systems will be less desirable because of their lower efficiency and, therefore, larger area per unit power output, except for missions where radiation resistance or economy are paramount considerations. View full abstract»

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  • The Cesium-137 Thermoelectric Generator

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 98 - 102
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    Designed for the initial application of supplying power for an under-sea seismic station to be supervised by Lamont Geological Observatory researchers, this cesium generator incorporates an external shell that will withstand compressive forces at the greatest of ocean depths and a power-conversion system employing lead telluride thermocouples mounted on a printed circuit board. A combination radiation shield and heat sink surrounded by a special complex of thermal relectors and compacted insulation, utilizes practically all of the decay heat. Avery high degree of safety from radioactivity is assured, due to double encapsulation of fuel increments, an ultrastrong radiation shield for containment of the latter, and an external shell that will withstand 16,000 psi pressure. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors

    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 103 - 108
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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1962
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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased publication in 1962. The new retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems.

Full Aims & Scope