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Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE

Issue 2 • Date March 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • IEEE Signal Processing Magazine - Front cover

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): c1
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1
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  • Quality matters, especially in sharing knowledge [From the Editor]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 2 - 2, 6
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  • Lend an ear--Or was that bend an ear? [President's Message]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 4
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  • Call for nominations [Society News]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 6
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  • Top downloads in IEEE Xplore [Reader's Choice]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 8 - 12
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  • 43rd Annual Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers - Call for Papers

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 11
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  • First IEEE International Workshop on Information Forensics and Security - 2009

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 13
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  • Digital forensics [From the Guest Editors]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 14 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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  • Image forgery detection

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 16 - 25
    Cited by:  Papers (110)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We are undoubtedly living in an age where we are exposed to a remarkable array of visual imagery. While we may have historically had confidence in the integrity of this imagery, today's digital technology has begun to erode this trust. From the tabloid magazines to the fashion industry and in mainstream media outlets, scientific journals, political campaigns, courtrooms, and the photo hoaxes that land in our e-mail in-boxes, doctored photographs are appearing with a growing frequency and sophistication. Over the past five years, the field of digital forensics has emerged to help restore some trust to digital images. The author reviews the state of the art in this new and exciting field. View full abstract»

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  • Digital image forensics

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 26 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1827 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The article explains how photo-response nonuniformity (PRNU) of imaging sensors can be used for a variety of important digital forensic tasks, such as device identification, device linking, recovery of processing history, and detection of digital forgeries. The PRNU is an intrinsic property of all digital imaging sensors due to slight variations among individual pixels in their ability to convert photons to electrons. Consequently, every sensor casts a weak noise-like pattern onto every image it takes. This pattern, which plays the role of a sensor fingerprint, is essentially an unintentional stochastic spread-spectrum watermark that survives processing, such as lossy compression or filtering. This tutorial explains how this fingerprint can be estimated from images taken by the camera and later detected in a given image to establish image origin and integrity. Various forensic tasks are formulated as a two-channel hypothesis testing problem approached using the generalized likelihood ratio test. The performance of the introduced forensic methods is briefly illustrated on examples to give the reader a sense of the performance. View full abstract»

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  • Component forensics

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 38 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Visual sensor technologies have experienced tremendous growth in recent decades, and digital devices are becoming ubiquitous. Digital images taken by various imaging devices have been used in a growing number of applications, from military and reconnaissance to medical diagnosis and consumer photography. Consequently, a series of new forensic issues arise amidst such rapid advancement and widespread adoption of imaging technologies. For example, one can readily ask what kinds of hardware and software components as well as their parameters have been employed inside these devices? Given a digital image, which imaging sensor or which brand of sensor was used to acquire the image? How was the image acquired? Was it captured using a digital camera, cell phone camera, image scanner, or was it created artificially using an imageediting software? Has the image undergone any manipulation after capture? Is it authentic, or has it been tampered in any way? Does it contain any hidden information or steganographic data? Many of these forensic questions are related to tracing the origin of the digital image to its creation process. Evidence obtained from such analysis would provide useful forensic information to law enforcement, security, and intelligence agencies. Knowledge of image acquisition techniques can also help answer further forensic questions regarding the nature of additional processing that the image might have undergone after capture. View full abstract»

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  • Identifying and prefiltering images

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 49 - 58
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2268 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Given the ability of photorealistic computer graphics (photorealistic CG) to emulate photographic images, as seen in movies and the print media today, there is little doubt that uninformed viewers can easily mistake photorealistic computer- generated graphics for photographic images. In fact, there was already evidence 20 years ago that to the naked eye certain computer graphics were visually indistinguishable from photographic images. Such convincing photorealism qualifies computer graphics as a form of image forgery that can be unscrupulously exploited. Some popular Web sites even highlight examples of computer generated photorealism that human eyes find indistinguishable from photographic images. View full abstract»

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  • The evolution of file carving

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 59 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1436 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Presents the evolution of file carving and describes in detail the techniques that are now being used to recover files without using any file system meta-data information. We show the benefits and problems that exist with current techniques. In the future, solid-state devices (SSDs) will become much more prevalent. SSDs will incorporate wear-leveling, which results in files being moved around so as to not allow some clusters to be written to more than others. This is done because after a certain amount of writes a cluster will fail and, therefore, the SSD controller will attempt to spread the write load across all clusters in the disk. As a result, SSDs will be naturally fragmented, and should the disk controller fail the clusters on the disk will require file carving techniques to recover. There is a lot of research yet to be done in this area for data recovery. Finally, while Pal et. al's techniques are useful for recovering text and images, new weighting techniques need to be created for video, audio, executable and other file formats, thus allowing the recovery to extend to those formats. View full abstract»

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  • Printer and scanner forensics

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 72 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1497 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Contrary to popular opinion, the use of paper in our society will not disappear during the foreseeable future. In fact, paper use continues to grow rather than decline. It is certainly true that as individuals, we may be printing less than we used to. And the role of paper has been transformed from the archival record of a document to a convenient and aesthetically appealing graphical user interface. The use of paper is now intimately linked to the electronic systems that capture, process, transmit, generate, and reproduce textual and graphic content. Paper can be thought of as an interface between humans and the digital world. If this interface is not secure, the entire system becomes vulnerable to attack and abuse. Although paper is read by humans in the same way that it has been for millennia and has had the same fundamental form and composition for almost that long, the technologies for printing and scanning documents and capturing their content have evolved tremendously, especially during the last 20 years. This has moved the capability to generate printed documents from the hands of a select few to anyone with access to low-cost scanners, printers, and personal computers. It has greatly broadened the opportunities for abuse of trust through the generation of fallacious documents and the tampering with existing documents, including the embedding of messages in these documents. View full abstract»

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  • Audio forensic examination

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 84 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1436 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The field of audio forensics involves many topics familiar to the general audio digital signal processing (DSP) community, such as speech recognition, talker identification, and signal quality enhancement. There is potentially much to be gained by applying modern DSP theory to problems of interest to the forensics community, and this article is written to give the DSP audience some insight into the types of problems and challenges that face practitioners in audio forensic laboratories. However, this article must also present several of the frustrations and pitfalls encountered by signal processing experts when dealing with typical forensic material due to the standards and practices of the legal system. View full abstract»

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  • Forensic speaker recognition

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 95 - 103
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1708 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Looking at the different points highlighted in this article, we affirm that forensic applications of speaker recognition should still be taken under a necessary need for caution. Disseminating this message remains one of the most important responsibilities of speaker recognition researchers. View full abstract»

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  • Forensic applications of signal processing

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 104 - 111
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1114 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article highlights some problems encountered by forensic signal processing experts in the area of speech and video processing. We have demonstrated that there is a need for speech, video, and other signal processing experts within the IEEE community to work together to provide standardized guidelines to court systems around the world to assist them in dealing with this complex form of evidence. We also need to develop and provide law enforcement agencies with supplemental tools to assist them to improve the quality of speech and video evidence gathered for the court. In particular, quantitative measures need to be developed to allow law enforcement agents to determine during the investigation whether speech and video material is above or below a standard expected of court evidence. View full abstract»

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  • The soft-core discrete-time signal processor peripheral [Applications Corner]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 112 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With SoC systems, there is a growing need for modest performance, low-cost solutions that make minimum use of FPGA resources and make the most effective use of the features in an FPGA. For such systems, it can be undesirable to provide an entire digital signal processing (DSP) core either on the same die or in a separate package. This article contends that for products having such modest signal processing requirements, the FPGA provides an ideal means to customize a peripheral in a system to the given application. To exemplify this point, two examples utilizing a discrete time signal processing (DTSP) toolkit are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Signal processing: A view of the future, Part 1 [Exploratory DSP]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 116, 118 - 118, 120
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (500 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Yogi Berra, the famous baseball catcher, is reported to have said, "It's tough to make predictions, especially about the future." My rejoinder to that is that making predictions isn't hard at all. It's just tough to make ones that turn out to be right. With these ground rules established, we will try to predict the future of signal processing, with the intent of being able to use those predictions to do some intelligent planning. View full abstract»

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  • Optical intensity-based long-period fiber grating biosensors and biomedical applications [Life Sciences]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 121 - 122, 124-127
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (899 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article, we present a novel long-period fiber grating (LPFG) biosensor that can employ the simple and cost-effective optical intensity-based signal process method instead of the complex and expensive optical spectrum-based method. The ionic self-assembled multilayers (ISAM) technique is utilized to immobilize a thin layer of biorecognition film on the surface of a specially designed turnaround-point (TAP) LPFG. The new sensor maintains the optical resonant feature to achieve the desired high sensitivity but can be interrogated using optical intensity-based signal-processing. The new TAP-LPFG biosensor may be used for real-time DNA forensic analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Improved narrowband low-pass IIR filters in fixed-point systems [DSP Tips & Tricks]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 128, 130 - 130, 132
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (228 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to their resistance to quantized-coefficient errors, traditional second-order infinite impulse response (IIR) filters are the fundamental building blocks in computationally efficient high-order IIR digital filter implementations. However, when used in fixed-point number systems, the inherent properties of quantized-coefficient second-order IIR filters do not readily permit their use in narrowband low-pass filtering applications. Narrowband low- pass IIR filters have traditionally had a bad reputation; for example, MATLAB's Signal Processing Toolbox documentation warns: "All classical IIR low-pass filters are ill conditioned for extremely low cutoff frequencies." This article presents a neat trick that can be used to overcome the shortcomings of narrowband second-order low- pass IIR filters, with no increase in filter coefficient bit widths and no increase in the number of filter multiplies per output sample. View full abstract»

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  • CAMSAP 2009 - Call for Papers

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 129
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  • Teach-ware: Signal processing resources at connexions [Best of the Web]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 133 - 134
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  • Leading a start-up in an enterprise: Lessons learned in creating Microsoft Response Point [DSP Education]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 135 - 136, 138-139
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Signal Processing Magazine publishes tutorial-style articles on signal processing research and applications, as well as columns and forums on issues of interest.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Min Wu
University of Maryland, College Park
United States 

http://www/ece.umd.edu/~minwu/