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Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date March 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting publication information

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C2
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  • Distributed Storage-Assisted Data-Driven Overlay Network for P2P VoD Services

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 10
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1228 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Providing VCR-like operations in peer-to-peer (P2P) environments is a significant challenge. This paper proposes a distributed storage-assisted data-driven overlay network (SDNet) to support P2P video-on-demand (VoD) services. It integrates two networks: a data-driven overlay network (DONet) and a multi-way tree. DONet is enhanced and used for the routine video distribution based on the buffer overlapping mechanism and gossip protocol. A novel algorithm which uses a multi-way tree structure and extra pre-fetching buffers at the nodes is proposed to support efficient VoD operations. Videos are divided into uniform segments, pre-fetched and stored in a distributed manner along the tree topology. The cooperation between DONet-based video delivery and the tree-located multimedia components enable multimedia streaming interactive commands to be performed efficiently. This paper presents and discusses the structure of SDNet and the distributed storage scheme and details the cooperation procedure. Simulation-based testing results show how the proposed SDNet is an efficient interactive streaming solution in a P2P environment. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the DVB-T Signal Variation for Indoor Portable Reception

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 11 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1765 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A study of DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial) signal variability for indoor reception environments is stated in this paper. A commercial signal was measured and analyzed in order to obtain C/N threshold values that account time and space fluctuations. In this way, results increase the accuracy of the values provided by the ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) standard and other studies that assume static propagation channels. On the other hand, the fading influence due to people walking near the reception antenna has been proved as critical for correct reception. Characterization of this effect has been made in terms of its depth and duration. The results obtained results improve DVB-T network planning and could be also relevant for other technologies sharing similar frequencies and bandwidths. View full abstract»

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  • Internet Multicasting of IPTV With Essentially-Zero Delay Jitter

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 20 - 30
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A technology for multicasting packetized multimedia streams such as IPTV over the Internet backbone is proposed and explored through extensive simulations. An RSVP or DiffServ algorithm is used to reserve resources (i.e., bandwidth and buffer space) in each packet-switched IP router in an IP multicast tree. Each IP router uses an Input-Queued (IQ) switch architecture with unity speedup. A recently proposed low-jitter scheduling algorithm is used to pre-compute a deterministic transmission schedule for each IP router. The IPTV traffic will be delivered through the multicast tree in a deterministic manner, with bounds on the maximum delay and jitter of each packet (or cell). A playback buffer is used at each destination to filter out residual network jitter and deliver a very low-jitter video stream to each end-user. Detailed simulations of an IPTV distribution network, multicasting 75 high-definition video streams over a fully-saturated IP backbone are presented. The simulations represent the transmission of 129 billion cells of real video data and where performed on a 160-node cluster computing system. In the steady-state, each IP router buffers approx. 2 cells (128 bytes) of video data per multicast output-port. The observed delay jitter is zero when a playback buffer of 15 milliseconds is used. All simulation parameters are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Maximum Likelihood Fine Timing Estimation for Wireless OFDM Systems

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 31 - 41
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1002 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems are more sensitive to timing synchronization than single carrier systems. This paper presents a fine timing synchronization scheme which utilizes the channel impulse response (CIR) estimated from frequency-domain samples at OFDM receivers. A maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of timing offset is derived based on the probability distribution of the estimated CIR under time-varying multipath fading. The ML timing scheme is further developed for both integer precision and real-valued precision implementations. In the real-valued timing precision case, a delay locked loop (DLL) structure is devised as an effective way to implement the MLE. Both analysis and simulations of the proposed MLE showed significant improvement over existing schemes under time-varying multipath fading channels. View full abstract»

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  • A Higher Data-Rate T-DMB System Based on a Hierarchical A-DPSK Modulation

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 42 - 50
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1724 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hierarchical modulation can be effectively used to enhance terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting (T-DMB) or digital audio broadcasting (DAB) systems in response to both the demand for higher data-rate and the need to be backward compatible with legacy receivers. QAM-type modulations are well-liked for hierarchical transmission but require coherent detection based on pilot symbol aided channel estimation. In the T-DMB or the DAB system using DQPSK modulation, however, any available pilot symbols except for the phase reference symbol do not exist. Differential amplitude phase shift keying (DAPSK) modulation is easily applied to the T-DMB system for a hierarchical modulation but may be susceptible to fast fading. As a good candidate for a hierarchical modulation of T-DMB to solve the above problems, we propose an amplitude differential phase shift keying (A-DPSK) modulation which is robust to fast fading by estimating only amplitude coefficients of the channel transfer function with the use of amplitude pilots. To raise the accuracy of channel estimation, we arrange the amplitude pilots in a come-type and introduce a noise-reduction scheme of averaging estimated channel coefficients. Simulation results show that the proposed A-DPSK provides a good choice for achieving a higher data-rate over other possible modulation schemes for advanced T-DMB or DAB systems. View full abstract»

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  • SVC Application in Advanced T-DMB

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 51 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1988 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Commercial terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting (T-DMB) service was launched in the Republic of Korea. Reflecting recent demands of high quality video, Advanced T-DMB(AT-DMB) adopting a hierarchical modulation is being developed as the way to increase the payload data. Based on the AT-DMB system, this paper proposes a method to provide increased video quality with high spatial resolution. By using the emerging H.264/MPEG-4 AVC amendment 3 scalable extension (SVC), the proposed method is able to support high spatial resolution as well as the currently serviced spatial resolution while retaining the backward compatibility to T-DMB. In the experimental results, the benefits in terms of coding efficiency and spatial scalability are proven in comparison with the conventional T-DMB and alternative methods to provide a high spatial resolution video. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical Model for Hierarchical Cache Optimization in IPTV Network

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 62 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (702 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In an IPTV network, video on demand and other video services generate large amount of unicast traffic from video hub office (VHO) to subscribers and, therefore, require additional bandwidth and equipment resources in the network. To reduce this traffic and overall network cost, a portion of the video content (the most popular titles) may be stored in caches closer to subscribers, e.g., in a digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM), a central office (CO), or in an intermediate office (IO). The problem becomes to minimize cost by optimizing cache memory placement and amount. We present an analytical model of hierarchical cache optimization. This model depends on several basic parameters: traffic volume, cache hit rate as a function of memory size, topology (i.e. number of DSLAMs, service routers at CO, service switches at IO locations), and cost parameters. Some reasonable assumptions about a network cost structure and a hit rate function allow us to obtain an analytically optimal solution for the problem. We then analyze the factors that affect this solution. View full abstract»

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  • A Precision, Low-Cost GPS-Based Transmitter Synchronization Scheme for Improved AM Reception

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 71 - 78
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (695 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a highly accurate carrier-frequency synchronization scheme for actively, automatically locking multiple, remotely located AM broadcast transmitters to a common frequency/timing reference source such as GPS. The extremely tight frequency lock (to ~1 part in 109 or better) permits the effective elimination of audible and even sub-audible beats between the local (desired) station's carrier signal and the distant stations' carriers, usually received via skywave propagation during the evening and nighttime hours. These carrier-beat components cause annoying modulations of the desired station's audio at the receiver and concurrent distortion of the audio modulation from the distant station(s) and often cause listeners to ldquotune outrdquo due to the low reception quality. Significant reduction or elimination of the beats and related effects will greatly enlarge the effective (interference-limited) listening area of the desired station (from 4 to 10 times as indicated in our tests) and simultaneously reduce the corresponding interference of the local transmitter to the distant stations as well. In addition, AM stereo (CQUAM) reception will be particularly improved by minimizing the phase shifts induced by co-channel interfering signals; hybrid digital (HD) signals will also benefit via reduction in beats from analog signals. The automatic frequency-control hardware described is inexpensive ($1000-$2000), requires no periodic recalibration, has essentially zero long-term drift, and could employ alternate wide-area frequency references of suitable accuracy, including broadcasts from WWVB, LORAN-C, and equivalent sources. The basic configuration of the GPS-disciplined oscillator which solves this problem is extremely simple. The main oscillator is a conventional high-stability quartz-crystal type. To counter long- term drifts, the oscillator is slightly adjusted to track a high-precision source of standard frequency obtained from a speciali- - zed GPS receiver (or other source), usually at 10.000 MHz. This very stable local reference frequency is then used as a clock for a standard digitally implemented frequency synthesizer, which is programmed to generate the specific carrier frequency desired. The stability of the disciplining source, typically ~1 part in 109 to 1011, is thus transferred to the final AM transmitter carrier output frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Player Information Extraction for Semantic Annotation in Golf Videos

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 79 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (266 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In sports videos, text provides semantic information about the game such as scores and players. This paper provides an accurate extraction method of the player information in golf. First, a new detection method of the key captions containing the player information is presented. Since the location of the key captions containing the player information is not fixed during a game in golf, we use a color pattern of captions and its temporal repetition property instead of the location property to decide the key captions. Second, a dual binarization method is presented to segment texts with different color polarities (i.e. dark and bright texts) easily from the background in the key captions. Finally, the binarization results are recognized by OCR and converted to plain texts. The player is recognized by comparing the plain texts with the pre-reserved player name database. Experiments on a large database show that our method can extract the player information efficiently in golf videos. View full abstract»

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  • RLS-Based Joint Estimation and Tracking of Channel Response, Sampling, and Carrier Frequency Offsets for OFDM

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 84 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1201 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a pilot-aided joint channel estimation and synchronization scheme for burst-mode orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Based on the received signal samples containing pilot tones in the frequency domain, a cost function that includes the carrier frequency offset (CFO), sampling clock frequency offset (SFO) and channel impulse response (CIR) coefficients is formulated and used to develop an accompanying recursive least-squares (RLS) estimation and tracking algorithm. By estimating the channel CIR coefficients instead of the channel frequency response in the frequency domain, the proposed scheme eliminates the need for an IFFT block while reducing the number of parameters to be estimated, leading to lower complexity without sacrificing performance and convergence speed. Furthermore, a simple maximum-likelihood (ML) scheme based on the use of two long training symbols (in the preamble) is developed for the coarse estimation of the initial CFO and SFO to suppress dominant ICI effects introduced by CFO and SFO and to enhance the performance and convergence of the fine RLS estimation and tracking. Simulation results demonstrate that, over large ranges of CFO and SFO values, the proposed pilot-aided joint channel estimation and synchronization scheme provides a receiver performance that is remarkably close to the ideal case of perfect channel estimation and synchronization in both AWGN and Rayleigh multipath fading channels. View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of Integer Carrier Frequency Offset in OFDM Systems Based on the Maximum Likelihood Principle

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 95 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1855 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An algorithm is derived for the estimation of the integer part of the carrier frequency offset in OFDM systems. The algorithm employs correlation of consecutive OFDM symbols in the frequency domain, is formulated for the general case of a system using data subcarriers and/or pilots and approximates the maximum likelihood (ML) correlation-based estimator for the AWGN channel. The cases of pseudo-pilots, boosted pilots and virtual subcarriers are also examined. It is shown that, compared to previous approaches based on symbol correlation, the algorithm makes better use of the information contained in the correlated symbols, leading to a more accurate, approximate ML estimate of the integer carrier frequency offset at operating signal-to-noise ratios. Simulations indicate that, even in the case of multipath channels, the proposed algorithm is very likely to outperform other techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Power Alignment of Digital Predistorters for Power Amplifiers Linearity Optimization

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 109 - 114
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (917 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a study of the power alignment issue in digital predistorters is presented. The proper alignment is achieved by adjusting the normalization gain used to synthesize the predistortion function. The dependencies of the linearity and power efficiency of the linearized amplifier upon the gain normalization factor are investigated, and it is shown that the efficiency of the linearized amplifier is almost unaffected by variation of the normalization gain. Conversely, the linearity performance of the linearized power amplifier is found to be dependent on the gain normalization factor, as a consequence of the average power variation through the predistorter. Indeed, the proper power alignment of the predistorter following an adequate choice of the normalization gain shows a significant improvement in the measured adjacent channel power ratio at the linearized amplifier output. View full abstract»

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  • Robust and Accurate Frequency and Timing Synchronization Using Chirp Signals

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 115 - 123
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a new robust and accurate synchronization procedure using a training sequence composed of chirp signals. We use a new integer frequency estimation algorithm and propose a new combination of a known fractional frequency offset estimation algorithm and timing synchronization algorithm. The training sequence is composed of one up and two down chirp symbols, also known as Newman phases. The integer frequency offset estimation algorithm uses the effect of timing and frequency offsets on the matched filter outputs of the chirp signals. Autocorrelation and reversed autocorrelation are used to acquire the timing instant and the fractional frequency offset. We present the complete timing and frequency synchronization procedure and study the output signals of the autocorrelation and reversed autocorrelation algorithms. Finally, we check the performance of the synchronization procedure via Monte Carlo simulation in several multipath channels. Our algorithms are accurate and more robust compared to previously published state-of-the art algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • A QoS Monitoring System in a Heterogeneous Multi-Domain DVB-H Platform

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 124 - 131
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (674 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The MobileTV, IPTV, and DVB standards (DVB-H/T) have been defined to offer mobile users interactive multimedia services with quality of service (QoS) consistency analogous to TV services. However, the market has yet to provide effective and economical solutions for the real-time delivery of such services to the corresponding transmitters over multi-domain IP networks. The monitoring system proposed in this paper enables the QoS in the IP networks involved in the delivery of real-time multimedia content to the transmitters to be ascertained. The system utilizes the QoS parameters defined in MPEG-2 Transport Streams to detect problems occurring in the heterogeneous multi-domain IP networks. The ability to detect problems having an adverse effect on QoS allows appropriate control actions to be determined to recover the QoS across the composite IP network. The design and implementation of the proposed QoS-Monitoring system (QoS-MS) is presented, followed by analysis of experimental results that demonstrate the feasibility of the system. View full abstract»

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  • Low Complexity Iterative ICI Cancellation and Equalization for OFDM Systems Over Doubly Selective Channels

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 132 - 139
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (542 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a low complexity iterative intercarrier interference (ICI) cancellation and equalization technique is proposed for use in OFDM systems over doubly selective channels. In the iterative parallel interference cancellation/minimum mean square error (PIC/MMSE) detector has a high complexity and a restriction on the structure which can not remove the ICI in the initial stage. Therefore, an error propagation occurs due to the ICI regenerated by the incorrect output of soft-input soft-output (SISO) decoder. In order to reduce the error propagation, an MMSE detector based on the successive interference cancellation (SIC) is used in the initial stage. The low complexity MMSE detector is also derived to minimize the error propagation by quantifying the decision error before SISO decoding. In the first iteration, simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the conventional PIC/MMSE scheme by about 3 dB at bit error rate (BER)=1 times 10-3 while maintaining the equivalent computational complexity. In the subsequent iteration, it is possible to cancel the ICI out in the received signals by the aid of soft log-likelihood ratio (LLR) fed from the SISO decoder. Converting the LLR to the decision error probability, the error covariance matrix is obtained more accurately. As a result, the error propagation can be effectively reduced by dealing with only the dominant components, when considering decision errors. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the conventional PIC/MMSE scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Superimposed Sequence Versus Pilot Aided Channel Estimations for Next Generation DVB-T Systems

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 140 - 144
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (182 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we analyze the performance of a low complexity superimposed channel estimation technique for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). In particular, an analytical model of interference due to channel estimation errors and imperfect superimposed sequence cancellation at receiver is proposed, whose effectiveness is validated by simulations. Indeed, the significative length of OFDM symbols used in new wide area broadcasting applications makes the superimposed technique a viable alternative to the classical pilot aided technique. For the same computational complexity, the comparison between the two techniques is based on the achievable system throughput both for the current terrestrial digital video broadcasting (DVB-T) standard and for the proposed next generation DVB-T (DVB-T2). Our results show that superimposed technique provides higher bit-rates than the pilot aided technique, with a gain in the range of 4% to 10%. View full abstract»

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  • 24-Hour Neural Network Congestion Models for High-Frequency Broadcast Users

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 145 - 154
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the development of Neural Network models to predict the likelihood of interference experienced by Broadcast users in the HF spectrum (3-30 MHz). The models are based upon several years of measurements recorded at Linkoping (Sweden) across the HF band, covering a substantial part of a sunspot cycle. The dataset used for the model development is a result of a long-term project being undertaken jointly by the University of Manchester and by the Swedish Defence Research Establishment, to measure systematically and to analyze the occupancy of the entire HF spectrum. The measure of occupancy used is congestion, which is defined as the fraction of channels within a certain frequency allocation with signals exceeding a given threshold. The procedures for measuring and modeling congestion as a function of solar activity, time of day, day of year and incident field strength threshold are briefly presented. The accuracy of the predictions produced by the developed models demonstrate their ability to successfully capture the 24-hour, seasonal and long-term trend in the variability of congestion. These models can be used to advise operators on typical interference occupancy levels and assist the HF broadcast service in the planning of frequency usage and management by assessing the interference effect to short-wave broadcasting in an effort to alleviate spectral congestion in the HF broadcast bands. View full abstract»

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  • Linear Companding Transform for the Reduction of Peak-to-Average Power Ratio of OFDM Signals

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 155 - 160
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (342 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A major drawback of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals is their high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), which causes serious degradation in performance when a nonlinear power amplifier (PA) is used. Companding transform (CT) is a well-known method to reduce PAPR without restrictions on system parameters such as number of subcarriers, frame format and constellation type. Recently, a linear nonsymmetrical companding transform (LNST) that has better performance than logarithmic-based transforms such as mu-law companding was proposed. In this paper, a new linear companding transform (LCT) with more design flexibility than LNST is proposed. Computer simulations show that the proposed transform has a better PAPR reduction and bit error rate (BER) performance than LNST with better power spectral density (PSD). View full abstract»

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  • IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 161
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (506 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 59th Annual IEEE Broadcast Symposium

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 162
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (428 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Plan to attend NAB2009

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 163
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (437 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Order form for reprints

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 164
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (353 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting information for authors

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C4 - C3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (39 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting covers the field of broadcast technology, including the production, distribution, transmission, and propagation aspects of broadcasting.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yiyan Wu
Communications Research Ctr Canada