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Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2008

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C2
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  • Efficient Inter-Layer Motion Compensation for Spatially Scalable Video Coding

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1325 - 1334
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1369 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an efficient inter-layer motion-compensation technique is proposed for enhancement layer in spatially scalable video coding. The proposed approach exploits the prediction residue correlation between consecutive spatial layers. In enhancement-layer motion compensation, it selects the method with the lowest rate-distortion (RD) cost from three schemes: pyramid motion compensation, subband motion compensation, and encoding the enhancement layer with no base-layer information. To reduce the block artifacts of the enhancement-layer prediction used in the subband method, extended edge prediction is introduced in the proposed approach. Compared with the current scalable H.264/AVC extension (SVC) motion-compensation scheme, our experimental results show that the proposed method exploits the redundancy between the base layer and the enhancement layer more efficiently and hence improves the coding performance. It achieves an improvement up to about 1dB in the enhancement-layer encoding for different coding parameters and video sequences. View full abstract»

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  • Memory Efficient Hierarchical Lookup Tables for Mass Arbitrary-Side Growing Huffman Trees Decoding

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1335 - 1346
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (883 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the optimization problem of minimizing the number of memory access subject to a rate constraint for any Huffman decoding of various standard codecs. We propose a Lagrangian multiplier based penalty-resource metric to be the targeting cost function. To the best of our knowledge, there is few related discussion, in the literature, on providing a criterion to judge the approaches of entropy decoding under resource constraint. The existing approaches which dealt with the decoding of the single-side growing Huffman tree may not be memory-efficient for arbitrary-side growing Huffman trees adopted in current codecs. By grouping the common prefix part of a Huffman tree, in stead of the commonly used single-side growing Huffman tree, we provide a memory efficient hierarchical lookup table to speed up the Huffman decoding. Simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical table outperforms previous methods. A Viterbi-like algorithm is also proposed to efficiently find the optimal hierarchical table. More importantly, the Viterbi-like algorithm obtains the same results as that of the brute-force search algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Systematic Lossy Error Protection of Video Signals

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1347 - 1360
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1722 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a scheme called systematic lossy error protection (SLEP) for robust transmission of video signals over packet erasure channels. The systematic portion of the transmission consists of a conventionally encoded video bit stream which is transmitted without channel coding. An additional bit stream generated by Wyner-Ziv encoding of the video signal is transmitted for error resilience. In the event of packet loss, this supplementary bit stream is decoded and allows the recovery of a coarsely quantized video signal, which is displayed in lieu of the lost portions of the primary video signal. The quantization mismatch results in a small, controlled loss in picture quality, but a drastic reduction in picture quality is avoided. An implementation of the SLEP system using the state-of-the-art H.264/AVC standard codec is described. Specifically, H.264/AVC redundant slices are used in conjunction with Reed-Solomon coding to generate the Wyner-Ziv bit stream. The received video quality is modeled as a function of the bit rates of the primary and redundant descriptions and the error resilience bit rate. The model is used to optimize the video quality delivered by SLEP. Via theoretical analysis and experimental simulation, it is shown that SLEP provides a flexible tradeoff between error resilience and decoded picture quality. By allowing the quality to degrade gracefully over a wider range of packet loss rates, SLEP mitigates the precipitous drop in picture quality suffered by traditional FEC-based systems. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple Description Wavelet Video Coding Employing a New Tree Structure

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1361 - 1368
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1629 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a multiple description (MD) video coding technique using 3D-set partitioning in hierarchical tree algorithm (3D-SPIHT). Multiple description coding (MDC) is a way of coding video information into multiple bitstreams and is useful in a number of scenarios including peer-to-peer video streaming and video transmission over error-prone networks. We propose a modified tree structure for 3D-SPIHT that is more efficient for MD coding. We also propose a branch-pruning technique to generate multiple descriptions. We then show how rate-distortion optimization can be incorporated into the MDC framework to develop an efficient MD video coding system. Experimental results show that the proposed MD system achieves significant improvement in performance compared to existing methods. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Multipattern Fast Block-Matching Algorithm Based on Motion Classification Techniques

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1369 - 1382
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1972 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In most video coding standards, motion estimation becomes the most time-consuming subsystem. Consequently, in the last few years, a great deal of effort has been devoted to the research of novel algorithms capable of saving computations with minimal effects on the coding quality. Adaptive algorithms and particularly multipattern solutions, have evolved as the most robust general-purpose solutions owing to two main reasons: 1) real video sequences usually exhibit a wide-range of motion content, from uniform to random, and 2) a vast amount of coding applications have appeared demanding different degrees of coding quality. In this study, we propose an adaptive algorithm, called motion classification-based search (MCS), which makes use of an especially tailored classifier that detects some motion cues and chooses the search pattern that best fits them. The MCS has been experimentally assessed for a comprehensive set of selected video sequences and qualities. Our experimental results show that MCS notably reduces the computational cost up to 55% and 84% in search points, with respect to two state-of-the-art methods, while maintaining the quality. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Facial Expression Analysis and Synthesis With MPEG-4 Facial Animation Parameters

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1383 - 1396
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2254 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a probabilistic framework for faithful reproduction of dynamic facial expressions on a synthetic face model with MPEG-4 facial animation parameters (FAPs) while achieving very low bitrate in data transmission. The framework consists of a coupled Bayesian network (BN) to unify the facial expression analysis and synthesis into one coherent structure. At the analysis end, we cast the FAPs and facial action coding system (FACS) into a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) to account for uncertainties in FAP extraction and to model the dynamic evolution of facial expressions. At the synthesizer, a static BN reconstructs the FAPs and their intensity. The two BNs are connected statically through a data stream link. Using the coupled BN to analyze and synthesize the dynamic facial expressions is the major novelty of this work. The novelty brings about several benefits. First, very low bitrate (9 bytes per frame) in data transmission can be achieved. Second, a facial expression is inferred through both spatial and temporal inference so that the perceptual quality of animation is less affected by the misdetected FAPs. Third, more realistic looking facial expressions can be reproduced by modelling the dynamics of human expressions. View full abstract»

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  • Bayesian Tensor Approach for 3-D Face Modeling

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1397 - 1410
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1369 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Effectively modeling a collection of three-dimensional (3-D) faces is an important task in various applications, especially facial expression-driven ones, e.g., expression generation, retargeting, and synthesis. These 3-D faces naturally form a set of second-order tensors-one modality for identity and the other for expression. The number of these second-order tensors is three times of that of the vertices for 3-D face modeling. As for algorithms, Bayesian data modeling, which is a natural data analysis tool, has been widely applied with great success; however, it works only for vector data. Therefore, there is a gap between tensor-based representation and vector-based data analysis tools. Aiming at bridging this gap and generalizing conventional statistical tools over tensors, this paper proposes a decoupled probabilistic algorithm, which is named Bayesian tensor analysis (BTA). Theoretically, BTA can automatically and suitably determine dimensionality for different modalities of tensor data. With BTA, a collection of 3-D faces can be well modeled. Empirical studies on expression retargeting also justify the advantages of BTA. View full abstract»

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  • A Robust Passage Retrieval Algorithm for Video Question Answering

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1411 - 1421
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (667 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a robust passage retrieval algorithm to extend the conventional text question answering (Q/A) to videos. Users interact with our videoQ/A system through natural language queries, while the top-ranked passage fragments with associated video clips are returned as answers. We compare our method with five of the high-performance ranking algorithms that are portable to different languages and domains. The experiments were evaluated with 75.3 h of Chinese videos and 253 questions. The experimental results showed that our method outperformed the second best retrieval model (language models) in relatively 1.43% in mean reciprocal rank (MRR) score and 11.36% when employing a Chinese word segmentation tool. By adopting the initial retrieval results from the retrieval models, our method yields an improvement of at least 5.94% improvement in MRR score. This makes it very attractive for the Asia-like languages since the use of a well-developed word tokenizer is unnecessary. View full abstract»

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  • Parallel and Pipelined Architectures for Cyclic Convolution by Block Circulant Formulation Using Low-Complexity Short-Length Algorithms

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1422 - 1431
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (489 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fully pipelined parallel architectures are derived for high-throughput and reduced-hardware realization of prime-factor cyclic convolution using hardware-efficient modules for short-length rectangular transform (RT). Moreover, a new approach is proposed for the computation of block pseudocyclic convolution using a block cyclic convolution of equal length along with some correction terms, so that the block pseudocyclic representation of cyclic convolution for non-prime-factor-length (N=rP , when r and P are not mutually prime) could be computed efficiently using the algorithms and architectures of short-length cyclic convolutions. Low-complexity algorithms are derived for efficient computation of those error terms, and overall complexities of the proposed technique are estimated for r=2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 9. The proposed algorithms are used further to design high-throughput and reduced-hardware structures for cyclic convolution where the cofactors are not relatively prime. The proposed structures for high-throughput implementation are found to offer a reduction of nearly 50%-75% of area-delay product over the existing structures for several convolution-lengths. Low-complexity structures for input/output addition units of short length convolutions are derived and used them along with high-throughput modules for hardware-efficient realization of multifactor convolution, which offers nearly 25%-75% reduction of area-delay complexity over the existing structures for various non-prime-factor length convolutions. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced MC-EZBC Scalable Video Coder

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1432 - 1436
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (301 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we provide some recent extension to the scalable subband/wavelet video coder MC-EZBC. The enhanced MC-EZBC employs an adaptive motion-compensated temporal filter (MCTF) framework. Directional I-BLOCKs and overlapped block motion compensation (OBMC) further improve MCTF efficiency. A scalable motion vector coder based on CABAC is shown to improve the overall performance at low bitrates/resolution. Frequency rolloff is incorporated to reduce spatial aliasing at low resolution without PSNR loss at full resolution. Experimental results show that the new features significantly improve the performance of MC-EZBC. We provide several comparisons to other recent coders. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive De-Interlacing With Robust Overlapped Block Motion Compensation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1437 - 1440
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (724 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper proposes a new method for de-interlacing video. It combines simple techniques such as field insertion and edge-adaptive line averaging as well as motion-compensated (MC) methods by a robust motion detector. The simpler techniques are preferred, and the MC method is limited to places where it is really advantageous to limit processing power without sacrificing too much quality. The final experimental results show that the proposed method needs lower complexity but achieves 2 dB PSNR gain when compared to the previous method. View full abstract»

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  • A New Multiplication-Free Block Matching Criterion

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1441 - 1446
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (257 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In block matching, the matching criterion plays a pivotal role in both matching accuracy and computational complexity. Mean squared error (MSE) is one most widely accepted benchmark for matching accuracy. To avoid multiplication operations for simpler implementation, the sum of absolute difference (SAD) is normally taken as a substitute to approximate MSE. In this paper, we first examine statistically the quantitative deviation of SAD from MSE in terms of maximum and average deviations. To minimize the average deviation, a new measure, namely, weighted sum of absolute difference (WSAD), is proposed in a two-element case first, for which an optimal weight is obtained theoretically. The weight is approximately adapted to 1/2 so that the weighting operation can be simplified to a shift operation, and the resulting multiplication-free WSAD also shows better matching accuracy with a smaller deviation from MSE than SAD. The two-element WSAD is further extended to a multi-element case in a multilevel pyramid structure. The proposed WSAD is experimentally validated by applying it in block motion estimation for video coding, showing better rate-distortion performance than SAD. View full abstract»

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  • Block Adaptive Inter-Color Compensation Algorithm for RGB 4:4:4 Video Coding

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1447 - 1451
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (491 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    RGB color space has not been regarded as a proper space from a coding point of a view. However, due to the limited visual quality of YCbCr-domain video coding for high-quality applications, RGB-domain video coding is being newly raised. Recently, several methods have been developed to reduce significant redundancy existing between RGB color planes in an RGB video coder. This paper presents a new algorithm to remove inter-color redundancy, which is based on a linear model having two parameters, i.e., offset and slope information. Those parameters of one color component block are derived from the other color component block. A common coding mode and model parameters optimized for three color components in a macroblock are obtained simultaneously by minimizing a given cost. Then, a residue for each color component block is produced using its predictor based on the linear model, and is encoded. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm noticeably improves the coding efficiency up to over 20% in comparison with H.264 new amendment. View full abstract»

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  • Frame Buffer Access Reduction for MPEG Video Decoder

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1452 - 1456
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (407 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Frame buffer power consumption and bandwidth requirement are two critical design issues in MPEG video decoders due to the overwhelming amount of frame data accesses. This paper proposes a reusable macroblock detector (RMD) which exploits the characteristic of a stationary macroblock (MB) to identify the reusable MBs in the frame buffer and avoid unnecessary data transfers. The RMD on average reduces about one quarter of the frame buffer accesses for 18 video sequences. View full abstract»

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  • Deblocking Filtering for Illumination Compensation in Multiview Video Coding

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1457 - 1461
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1403 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A deblocking filtering method that reduces the blocking artifacts that result from the use of the illumination change-adaptive motion compensation method, which was already adopted in the current multiview video coding (MVC) standard, is introduced. When the macroblock (MB)-based illumination compensation method is used to compensate local illumination changes in multiview video sequences, the neighboring MBs could have different illumination values that represent the average values of the luminance MBs, horizontally and vertically. This phenomenon causes horizontal/vertical blocking artifacts on the MB boundaries due to the difference in illumination between the neighboring MBs. The proposed deblocking filtering method is designed to reduce this phenomenon by using the adequately modified boundary strength derivation process of the current H.264/AVC deblocking filtering mechanism. The proposed deblocking filtering method improves the subjective video quality and provides slightly better objective video quality in multiview video sequences. View full abstract»

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  • Collusion-Traceable Secure Multimedia Distribution Based on Controllable Modulation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1462 - 1467
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (377 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a secure multimedia distribution scheme resistant to collusion attacks is proposed. In this scheme, the multimedia content is modulated by n pseudorandom sequences at the server side, which generates the unintelligible multimedia content, and then demodulated under the control of the fingerprint code at the customer side, which produces the multimedia content contains a unique code. The demodulation process adopts collusion-resistant fingerprint codes to determine which sequences will be removed from the received multimedia content. Since the collusion-resistant fingerprint code is used, the colluders who combine different copies together can be detected. Compared with existing schemes, the collusion-resistant code is used in the proposed scheme, which confirms the robustness against collusion attacks. This scheme provides a good choice for secure multimedia content distribution. View full abstract»

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  • ISCAS 2009

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1468
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (641 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Circuits and Systems Society Information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology information for authors

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C4
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The emphasis is focused on, but not limited to:
1. Video A/D and D/ A
2. Video Compression Techniques and Signal Processing
3. Multi-Dimensional Filters and Transforms
4. High Speed Real-Tune Circuits
5. Multi-Processors Systems—Hardware and Software
6. VLSI Architecture and Implementation for Video Technology 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dan Schonfeld
Multimedia Communications Laboratory
ECE Dept. (M/C 154)
University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)
Chicago, IL 60607-7053
tcsvt-eic@tcad.polito.it

Managing Editor
Jaqueline Zelkowitz
tcsvt@tcad.polito.it