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Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Sept. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology publication information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Information Acquisition at the Nanoscale: Fundamental Considerations

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 521 - 526
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reliable extraction of information from a physical system requires some combination of redundancy, state distinguishable, and access time. This has obvious implications for any prospective nanoelectronic technology that would require rapid extraction of information from small numbers of electrons through nanoscale access volumes. In this paper, we explore this issue through consideration of fundamental physical limits on information acquisition from electronic systems. We outline our general approach, obtain the required accessible information bounds for multipartitie information-bearing systems, and present model calculations that illustrate loss of accessible information at nanoscale access volumes and low particle densities in a simple tight-binding molecular wire. This approach, fully developed, could provide both useful physical insight and practical tools for the assessment of emerging electronic information processing technologies. View full abstract»

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  • Large-Area Subwavelength Aperture Arrays Fabricated Using Nanoimprint Lithography

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 527 - 531
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (730 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of large-area 2-D square arrays of subwavelength holes in Ag and Al films. Fabrication is based on thermal nanoimprint lithography and metal evaporation, without the need for etching, and is compatible with low-cost, large-scale production. Reflectance spectra for these arrays display an intensity minimum whose amplitude, center wavelength, and line width depend on the geometry of the array and the reflectivity of the metal film. By placing various fluids in contact with the subwavelength aperture arrays, we observe that the center wavelength of the reflectance minimum varies linearly with the refractive index of the fluid with a sensitivity of over 500 nm per refractive index unit. The surface plasmon theory is used to predict sensitivities to refractive index change with accuracies better than 0.5%. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in Nanoalumina Ceramic Particle Fabrication Using Sonofragmentation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 532 - 537
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6342 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The present study is focused on fabrication of high-purity submicrometer alumina ceramic particles (predominantly in sub-100 nm range) from micrometer-sized feed (e.g., 70-80 mum) using sonofragmentation. The effects of various parameters such as ultrasonic frequency, feed concentration, sonication time, surfactant, and applied ultrasonic power on sonofragmentation were investigated. Sub-100 nm particle production by sonofragmentation was validated via three metrics, i.e., laser particle size analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and turbidimetry. There is a significant change in color and shape of alumina ceramic particles as a result of sonofragmentation. Higher size reduction ratios are obtained at lower frequencies and at higher input power. Submicrometer particle generation increases as concentration of the feed particles increases, indicating that attrition by interparticle collision is a significant mechanism. The shape of the particles changes from angular to spherical as sonofragmentation time increases. Probe-type sonication produces fragmentation effects that are less uniform than those induced by tank-type ultrasonics. Surfactant plays a significant role in preventing agglomeration, especially as finer fragments are produced with prolonged sonication. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of Coulomb Mobility in Nanoscale Strained PMOSFETs

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 538 - 543
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1158 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper provides an experimental assessment of Coulomb scattering mobility for advanced strained devices. By accurate short-channel mobility extraction, we examine the impact of process-induced uniaxial strain on Coulomb mobility in short-channel pMOSFETs. Our extracted Coulomb mobility shows very weak stress dependency at room temperature. This finding has also been verified in both long- and short-channel devices by the four-point wafer bending measurement. Therefore, in order to maximize the process-induced strain efficiency on nanoscale pMOSFETs, lower surface impurity concentration is suggested to avoid the Coulomb mobility domination in carrier transport. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication and Characterization of Sidewall Defined Silicon-on-Insulator Single-Electron Transistor

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 544 - 550
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We reported the fabrication and characterization of a new type of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) single-electron transistor utilizing usual CMOS sidewall gate structures. We used oxide sidewall spacer layers as well as two poly-Si finger gates on an SOI wire mesa as implantation masks, to form tunnel barriers and thus a quantum dot (QD) that is smaller than the spacing between polygates. Characterization results exhibited clear Coulomb oscillations persisting up to 30 K. The Coulomb energy and the size of the QD extracted from three devices were consistent with the spacing between two poly-Si gates of each device. Furthermore, the junction capacitance of each device was almost constant and only the gate capacitance varied. These analyses suggested that the size of the QD was fully controlled by the process. View full abstract»

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  • High-Performance High- K /Metal Planar Self-Aligned Gate-All-Around CMOS Devices

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 551 - 557
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1012 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    By introducing high-K dielectrics and metal gate in our planar self-aligned gate-all-around (GAA) fabrication process, we have successfully fabricated sub-35 nm CMOS devices that exhibit high-performance drive currents (2230/1000 muA/ mum for N/ P at Vd = 1.2 V), low off-state currents (3/5 nA/mum), and excellent subthreshold characteristics. When benchmarked with other published multigate data, the results presented in this paper are proved to be among the best and underline the potential of planar self-aligned GAA devices for the 32 nm technology and below. In particular, it is demonstrated that an optimized supply voltage can bring a significant improvement in circuit time delay and power when using GAA devices. View full abstract»

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  • SiGe/Si Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors With {bm \delta } Doping

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 558 - 564
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (766 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The multicolor absorption of MOS SiGe/Si quantum-dot (QD) infrared photodetectors is demonstrated using the boron delta-doping in Si spacers. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows that the Ge concentration in the wetting layers is much smaller than that in QDs. Most holes stay at the ground state in QDs instead of wetting layers. The energy band structure in QDs is calculated to understand the absorption spectrum. The absorption at 3.7-6 mum is due to the intersubband transition in the SiGe QDs. The other absorption at 6-16 mu m mainly comes from the intraband transition in the boron delta-doping wells. Since the broadband spectrum covers most of the atmospheric transmission windows for infrared, the broadband detection is feasible using this device. View full abstract»

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  • Ultra-Low-Powered Aqueous Shear Stress Sensors Based on Bulk EG-CNTs Integrated in Microfluidic Systems

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 565 - 572
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1487 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Novel aqueous shear stress sensors based on bulk carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were developed by utilizing microelectrical mechanical system (MEMS) compatible fabrication technology. The sensors were fabricated on glass substrates by batch assembling electronics-grade CNTs (EG-CNTs) as sensing elements between microelectrode pairs using dielectrophoretic technique. Then, the CNT sensors were permanently integrated in glass-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels by using standard glass-PDMS bonding process. Upon exposure to deionized (DI) water flow in the microchannel, the characteristics of the CNT sensors were investigated at room temperature under constant current (CC) mode. The specific electrical responses of the CNT sensors at different currents have been measured. It was found that the electrical resistance of the CNT sensors increased noticeably in response to the introduction of fluid shear stress when low activation current (Lt1 mA) was used, and unexpectedly decreased when the current exceeded 5 mA. We have shown that the sensor could be activated using input currents as low as 100 muA to measure the flow shear stress. The experimental results showed that the output resistance change could be plotted as a linear function of the shear stress to the one-third power. This result proved that the EG-CNT sensors can be operated as conventional thermal flow sensors but only require ultra-low activation power ( ~ 1 muW), which is ~ 1000 times lower than the conventional MEMS thermal flow sensors. View full abstract»

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  • Adhesion Study of Escherichia coli Cells on Nano-/Microtextured Surfaces in a Microfluidic System

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 573 - 579
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1245 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Control of cell-to-surface adhesion has significant impacts on various biological and biomedical applications. In this study, nano-/microtextured surfaces produced by a unique surface texturing technique, Al-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon, were utilized to control the adhesion of Escherichia coli cells on glass substrates in the fabrication of an E. coli-based whole-cell chemical sensor. Cell adhesion experiments were conducted in microfluidic systems composed of a micromolded polydimethylsiloxane microchannel bonded to a nano-/microtextured glass surface. Cell adhesion on the textured surfaces was monitored and recorded by a phase-contrast microscope equipped with a cooled charge-coupled device camera. It was determined that nano-/microtextured surfaces significantly enhanced cell-to-surface adhesion over microtextured surfaces and smooth surfaces. The number of cells adhered on the nano-/microtextured surfaces was found to be more than two times higher than that on the smooth surfaces for multiple injections of cell culture into the microchannel. Study of the cell-to-surface adhesion mechanism suggests that the number of adhered cells per unit area can be controlled by controlling the particle density on the textured surfaces. View full abstract»

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  • Cavity plasmon resonance biosensing

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 580 - 585
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (702 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy has demonstrated unprecedented performance in label-free real-time probing of various biopolymer, ligand, protein, and DNA interactions. Since its inception in the late sixties, the basic physical phenomenon underlying the SPR biosensing remained unchanged, namely, resonant absorption of TM-polarized light incident upon a metallic nanofilm above the critical total internal reflection angle. Since the SPR field is strictly confined to the metal-analyte interface, the measurements are usually limited to molecular adsorbates located in an immediate vicinity of this surface. Herein, we propose a novel biosensing method utilizing cavity plasmon resonance (CPR) excitation in nanofilms. As opposed to the classical TM-polarized SPR, the CPR is applicable for both TE and TM polarizations and does not require complicated evanescent field excitation conditions. It holds a promise for highly sensitive real-time probing of scalable amounts of analytes in a variety of frequency bands. View full abstract»

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  • Achieving Subnanometer Precision in a MEMS-Based Storage Device During Self-Servo Write Process

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 586 - 595
    Cited by:  Papers (42)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2662 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In probe-based data storage devices, microelectromechanical system-based microscanners are typically used to position the storage medium relative to the read/write probes. Global position sensors are employed to provide position information across the full scan range of these microscanners. However, to achieve repeatable positioning, it is also necessary to have medium-derived position information. Dedicated storage fields known as servo fields are employed to obtain this medium-derived position information. The servo-patterns on these servo fields have to be written using the global position sensors prior to the regular operation of the storage device by employing a scheme known as ldquoself-servo writerdquo process. During this process, subnanometer positioning resolutions, well below that provided by the global position sensors, are desirable. Such precise positioning at acceptable bandwidth requires the directed design of the closed-loop noise sensitivity transfer function so as to minimize the impact of sensing noise. This paper describes control architectures in which the impact of measurement noise on positioning is minimal while providing satisfactory tracking performance. It is estimated that the positioning error due to sensing noise is a remarkably low 0.25 nm. Experimental results are also presented that show error-free operation of the device at high densities. View full abstract»

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  • Assembly and Electrical Characterization of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Interconnects

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 596 - 600
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate a general method to assemble and contact arrays of individual multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) interconnects between electrodes in one batch. We have also collected about 200 resistance measurements to compare four different contact metals: Al, Au, Ti, and Pd. We have also measured the radio frequency characteristics of the assembled MWCNTs up to 15 GHz. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis has been used to correlate the electrical and physical characteristics of the MWCNTs. View full abstract»

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  • Single-Electron Devices With Input Discretizer

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 601 - 606
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (889 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose an input discretizer for single-electron (SE) devices. The input discretizer is composed of one small tunnel junction and two capacitances. Adjusting the capacitances to be equal discretizes the gate charge with interval of a half of the elementary charge e, which enhances the performance of SE devices. An SE transistor with the input discretizer has abrupt switchings of the Coulomb blockade thresholds, resulting in steep responses to the input signal. An SE turnstile with the input discretizer enhances its operation margins for the application of a digital-to-analog converter element. Both analytical and numerical results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • In Situ Single Cell Mechanics Characterization of Yeast Cells Using Nanoneedles Inside Environmental SEM

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 607 - 616
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1977 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, characterization of cellular mechanics of W303 yeast cells was conducted using nanoneedles inside an environmental SEM (ESEM). This enhanced ESEM system comprises a standard ESEM instrument as a nanoimaging tool, a cooling stage as a humidity controller for cellular biology and 7 degrees of freedom and linear actuators as nanomanipulator/effector. Four types of nanoneedles were used in our experiments, i.e., silicon (Si), titanium (Ti) coated Si, and two types of tungsten (W) nanoneedles. The Si and Ti nanoneedles were fabricated using 2 N/m spring constant cantilevers. While the W nanoneedles were fabricated using 0.09 and 2 N/m spring constant cantilevers (W0.09 and W2 nanoneedles). The Si, silicon-titanium (Si-Ti), W0.09, and W2 nanoneedles are suitable to be used for local stiffness characterization of single cells. This capability can be used in future for fast disease detection since disease cells may show different cell mechanics properties as compared to the normal cells. The Si-Ti and W2 nanoneedles can penetrate the cell without cell bursting, and this could be important in single cell surgery in future to avoid cell damage. View full abstract»

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  • Study of Single-Charge Polarization on a Pair of Charge Qubits Integrated Onto a Silicon Double Single-Electron Transistor Readout

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 617 - 623
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1557 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on integration of two silicon (Si) charge quantum bits (qubits) and series-connected double single-electron transistors (DSETs) as readout for the first time. We design and fabricate the DSETs composed of double quantum dots (DQDs) connected in series with two side gates patterned on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. The individual SETs are sufficiently sensitive to detect single-charge polarization on the adjacent charge qubits. The fabricated DSETs are characterized at a temperature of 4.2 K by changing the gate voltages applied to the two side gates. The measured Coulomb oscillation characteristics exhibit a clearly defined hexagon pattern, manifesting that the patterned DQDs of the DSETs, indeed, act as interacting charging islands. These results agree very well with the results of equivalent circuit simulation combined with 3-D capacitance simulation. Furthermore, we simulate how single-charge configurations on two charge qubits are sensed with the DSETs by using the measured electrical characteristics for the DSET and the equivalent model. Finally, the scaling-up properties of the proposed system to multiple single-electron transistors (MSETs) are discussed by simulating triple single-electron transistors (TSETs) with triple qubits. View full abstract»

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  • On-Chip Electrical Breakdown of Metallic Nanotubes for Mass Fabrication of Carbon-Nanotube-Based Electronic Devices

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 624 - 627
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (733 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A mass fabrication scheme for carbon-nanotube (CNT)-based electronic devices is developed by combining the semiconductor wafer electrical sorting with selective burning of metallic CNT wires. By applying a millisecond electrical pulse to CNTs with the optimized logical scheme of voltage stress, we successfully removed the metallic CNTs but not the high-performance semiconductor CNTs. The fabrication scheme implemented with a probe card achieved a 100 % gross yield of CNT-based sensors with a short process time. View full abstract»

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  • Oxidation of Graphene Nanoribbon by Molecular Oxygen

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 628 - 635
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (939 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Density-functional theory based on first principles is used to investigate oxidation of a semiconducting graphene nanoribbon with armchair edges (9-AGNR) by oxygen. The calculated results demonstrate that the oxygen is favorably physisorbed on the inner of 9-AGNR, while the oxygen is chemisorbed at the edge of 9-AGNR. Compared to the oxygen chemisorbed (cyclo- addition) 9-AGNR, two epoxy groups formed from cyclo-additions at the edge of 9-AGNR is energetically preferred. It is also found that the uniaxial strain generated by the cooperative alignment of two epoxy groups can significantly change the band gaps of 9-AGNR, leading to a change in the band gap for 9-AGNR as the concentration of epoxy groups varies. The pronounced change in the electronic properties, in particular, the band gaps, of 9-AGNR, as oxygen is adsorbed on 9-AGNR, may indicate that a semiconducting AGNR could have a potential application as a chemical (oxygen) sensor. View full abstract»

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  • Monolithic Integration of CMOS VLSI and Carbon Nanotubes for Hybrid Nanotechnology Applications

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 636 - 639
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2346 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We integrate carbon nanotube (CNT) fabrication with standard commercial CMOS very large scale integration on a single substrate suitable for emerging hybrid nanotechnology applications. This cointegration combines the inherent advantages of CMOS and CNTs. These emerging applications include CNT optical, biological, chemical, and gas sensors that require complex CMOS electronics for sensor control, calibration, and signal processing. We demonstrate the successful cointegration on a single chip with a vehicle circuit, a two-transistor cascode megahertz amplifier utilizing both silicon n-channel MOSFET and CNT transistors with a total power consumption of 62.5 muW. View full abstract»

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    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 640
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Blank page [back cover]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C4
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology is devoted to the publication of manuscripts of archival value in the general area of nanotechnology, which is rapidly emerging as one of the fastest growing and most promising new technological developments for the next generation and beyond.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Fabrizio Lombardi
Dept. of ECE
Northeastern Univ.