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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 2008

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering publication information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1781 - 1782
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  • Visuomotor Optimality and its Utility in Parametrization of Response

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1783 - 1791
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5646 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a method of characterizing visuomotor response by inferring subject-specific physiologically meaningful parameters within the framework of optimal control theory. The characterization of visuomotor response is of interest in the assessment of impairment and rehabilitation, the analysis of man--machine systems, and sensorimotor research. We model the visuomotor response as a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller, a Bayesian optimal state estimator in series with a linear quadratic regulator. Subjects used a modified computer mouse to attempt to keep a displayed cursor at a fixed desired location despite a Gaussian random disturbance and simple cursor dynamics. Nearly all subjects' behavior was consistent with the hypothesized optimality. Experimental data were used to fit an LQG model whose assumptions are simple and consistent with other sensorimotor work. The parametrization is parsimonious and yields quantities of clear physiological meaning: noise intensity, level of exertion, delay, and noise bandwidth. Significant variations in response were observed, consistent with signal-dependent noise and changes in exerted effort. This is a novel example of the role of optimal control theory in explaining variance in human visuomotor response. We also present technical improvements on the use of LQG in human operator modeling. View full abstract»

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  • Study of Transmembrane Potentials on Cellular Inner and Outer Membrane—Frequency Response Model and Its Filter Characteristic Simulation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1792 - 1799
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (367 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on the multilayer dielectric model for a spherical cell, a frequency response model of transmembrane potentials on cellular inner and outer membranes is established with a simulating method. The simulating results indicate that transmembrane potential on the inner membrane shows first-order bandpass filter characteristic, while transmembrane potential on the outer membrane shows first-order low-pass filter characteristic approximately. It could be found that the transmembrane potential on the inner membrane is greater than that on the outer membrane, and can keep a higher value in the range from a center frequency to an upper cutoff frequency, which is desirable to induce intracellular electromanipulation. Both a discussion about an equivalent RC model of the cell and the experimental result are in agreement with the aforementioned conclusion. Therefore, the frequency response model could help to choose reasonable window parameters for the application of a nanosecond pulsed electric field to tumor treatment. View full abstract»

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  • An Improved Quasi-Static Finite-Difference Scheme for Induced Field Evaluation Based on the Biconjugate Gradient Method

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1800 - 1808
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (779 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a biconjugate gradient (BiCG) method that can significantly improve the performance of the quasi-static finite-difference scheme, which has been widely used to model field induction phenomena in voxel phantoms. The proposed BiCG method offers remarkable computational advantages in terms of convergence performance and memory consumption over the conventional iterative, successive overrelaxation algorithm. The scheme has been validated against other known solutions on a lossy, multilayered ellipsoid phantom excited by an ideal coil loop. The wide application capability and computational performance of the BiCG method is demonstrated by modeling the exposure of MRI healthcare workers to fields produced by pulsed field gradients. This is an important topic of research in light of the Physical Agents Directive 2004/40/EC because a variety of realistic operator postures near the bore entrance of an MRI system are modeled. View full abstract»

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  • Noise Reduction in Rhythmic and Multitrial Biosignals With Applications to Event-Related Potentials

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1809 - 1821
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1573 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new noise reduction algorithm is presented for signals displaying repeated patterns or multiple trials. Each pattern is stored in a matrix, forming a set of events, which is termed multievent signal. Each event is considered as an affine transform of a basic template signal that allows for time scaling and shifting. Wavelet transforms, decimated and undecimated, are applied to each event. Noise reduction on the set of coefficients of the transformed events is applied using either wavelet de- noising or principal component analysis (PCA) noise reduction methodologies. The method does not require any manual selection of coefficients. Nonstationary multievent synthetic signals are employed to demonstrate the performance of the method using normalized mean square error against classical wavelet and PCA based algorithms. The new method shows a significant improvement in low SNRs (typically <0 dB). On the experimental side, evoked potentials in a visual oddball paradigm are used. The reduced-noise visual oddball event-related potentials reveal gradual changes in morphology from trial to trial (especially for N1-P2 and N2-P3 waves at Fz), which can be hypothetically linked to attention or decision processes. The new noise reduction method is, thus, shown to be particularly suited for recovering single-event features in non- stationary low SNR multievent contexts. View full abstract»

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  • Texture Analysis of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Lung Tumor CE CT Images

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1822 - 1830
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (885 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the potential for fractal analysis of time sequence contrast-enhanced (CE) computed tomography (CT) images to differentiate between aggressive and nonaggressive malignant lung tumors (i.e., high and low metabolic tumors). The aim is to enhance CT tumor staging prediction accuracy through identifying malignant aggressiveness of lung tumors. As branching of blood vessels can be considered a fractal process, the research examines vascularized tumor regions that exhibit strong fractal characteristics. The analysis is performed after injecting 15 patients with a contrast agent and transforming at least 11 time sequence CE CT images from each patient to the fractal dimension and determining corresponding lacunarity. The fractal texture features were averaged over the tumor region and quantitative classification showed up to 83.3% accuracy in distinction between advanced (aggressive) and early-stage (nonaggressive) malignant tumors. Also, it showed strong correlation with corresponding lung tumor stage and standardized tumor uptake value of fluoro deoxyglucose as determined by positron emission tomography. These results indicate that fractal analysis of time sequence CE CT images of malignant lung tumors could provide additional information about likely tumor aggression that could potentially impact on clinical management decisions in choosing the appropriate treatment procedure. View full abstract»

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  • An Experimental Approach to Measure Mass Diffusion in Rat Tumor Tissue

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1831 - 1839
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (755 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the usefulness of a macroscopic, fluorescent, imaging technique to quantify spatiotemporal mass transport parameters in in vitro solid tumor tissues taken from rat models. Fluorescent images captured during the experiments are digitally analyzed to determine the concentration of a fluorescent marker dye as it diffuses into tissue specimens taken from rat tumors. The collected concentration data are used to estimate local diffusion coefficients. An analysis of the distribution of the local diffusion data indicates that the local diffusion coefficient is spatially dependent within the tumor tissue. When mass transfer is restricted to one dimension, the current technique can be used to determine the concentration distribution of fluorescent molecules on the tissue surface and to estimate the mass transfer parameters within the heterogeneous tumor tissue. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1840 - 1848
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (645 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Surgery to correct severe heart arrhythmias usually requires detailed maps of the cardiac activation wave prior to ablation. The pinpoint electrical mapping procedure is laborious and limited by its spatial resolution (5-10 mm). We propose ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI), a direct 3-D imaging technique that potentially facilitates existing mapping procedures with superior spatial resolution. The technique is based on a pressure-induced change in resistivity known as the acoustoelectric (AE) effect, which is spatially confined to the ultrasound focus. AE-modulated voltage recordings are used to map and reconstruct current densities. In this preliminary study, we tested UCSDI under controlled conditions and compared it with conventional electrical mapping techniques. A 2-D dipole field was produced by a pair of electrodes in a bath of 0.9% NaCl solution. Boundary electrodes detected the AE signal while a 7.5-MHz focused ultrasound transducer was scanned across the bath. UCSDI located the current source and sink to within 1 mm of their actual positions. A future UCSDI system potentially provides real-time 3-D images of the cardiac activation wave coregistered with anatomical ultrasound and would greatly facilitate corrective procedures for heart abnormalities. View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of SPM in Perfusion Brain SPECT Studies. A Numerical Simulation Study Using Bootstrap Resampling Methods

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1849 - 1853
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (165 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) has become the technique of choice to statistically evaluate positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain studies. Nevertheless, only a few methodological studies have been carried out to assess the performance of SPM in SPECT. The aim of this paper was to study the performance of SPM in detecting changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in hypo- and hyperperfused areas in brain SPECT studies. The paper seeks to determine the relationship between the group size and the rCBF changes, and the influence of the correction for degradations. The assessment was carried out using simulated brain SPECT studies. Projections were obtained with Monte Carlo techniques, and a fan-beam collimator was considered in the simulation process. Reconstruction was performed by using the ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with and without compensation for attenuation, scattering, and spatial variant collimator response. Significance probability maps were obtained with SPM2 by using a one-tailed two-sample f-test. A bootstrap resampling approach was used to determine the sample size for SPM to detect the between-group differences. Our findings show that the correction for degradations results in a diminution of the sample size, which is more significant for small regions and low-activation factors. Differences in sample size were found between hypo- and hyperperfusion. These differences were larger for small regions and low-activation factors, and when no corrections were included in the reconstruction algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time MRI-Based Control of a Ferromagnetic Core for Endovascular Navigation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1854 - 1863
    Cited by:  Papers (49)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper shows that even a simple proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller can be used in a clinical MRI system for real-time navigation of a ferromagnetic bead along a predefined trajectory. Although the PID controller has been validated in vivo in the artery of a living animal using a conventional clinical MRI platform, here the rectilinear navigation of a ferromagnetic bead is assessed experimentally along a two-dimensional (2D) path as well as the control of the bead in a pulsatile flow. The experimental results suggest the likelihood of controlling untethered microdevices or robots equipped with a ferromagnetic core inside complex pathways in the human body. View full abstract»

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  • Energy Transmission Transformer for a Wireless Capsule Endoscope: Analysis of Specific Absorption Rate and Current Density in Biological Tissue

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1864 - 1871
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (545 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on the electromagnetic influences on the analysis of biological tissue surrounding a prototype energy transmission system for a wireless capsule endoscope. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by electromagnetic simulator in a model consisting of primary coil and a human trunk including the skin, fat, muscle, small intestine, backbone, and blood. First, electric and magnetic strength in the same conditions as the analytical model were measured and compared to the analytical values to confirm the validity of the analysis. Then, SAR and current density as a function of frequency and output power were analyzed. The validity of the analysis was confirmed by comparing the analytical values with the measured ones. The SAR was below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). At the same time, the results for current density show that the influence on biological tissue was lowest in the 300-400 kHz range, indicating that it was possible to transmit energy safely up to 160 mW. In addition, we confirmed that the current density has decreased by reducing the primary coil's current. View full abstract»

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  • A New Approach for Creating Defined Geometries by Navigated Laser Ablation Based on Volumetric 3-D Data

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1872 - 1880
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1768 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a new approach for laser bone treatment according to a preoperative plan. The advantages of using laser systems are the free choice of the cutting geometry and the possibility of bone treatment without any severe thermal damage. On the other hand, the control of bone removal depth is difficult. Due to the lack of haptical feedback, it is only possible to control the bone removal visually. In addition, by selecting wrong laser parameters and incorrect handling,the tissue can sustain thermal damage. To solve this problem, an approach of navigated and model-based calculation of depth ablation has been investigated. The focus of this paper was to verify the feasibility of precise and safe laser bone removal by combining navigation information with mathematical and volumetric modeling. For the mathematical modeling, known approaches are used. On the basis of CT data, cavities in a bovine bone were planned with a navigation system. With an optical measurement system, the position of the laser handpiece was calculated relative to the bone. Using a mathematical model, the theoretical cavity depth was calculated for each laser pulse and displayed on the navigation screen. Thereby, the material removal was determined in a volume model. With this information, five cavities were created by the laser using constant energy settings. A final measurement of the cavitiespsila depths showed an error of less than 1 mm. View full abstract»

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  • Sequential Activation of a Segmented Ground Pad Reduces Skin Heating During Radiofrequency Tumor Ablation: Optimization via Computational Models

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1881 - 1889
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (494 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has become an accepted treatment modality for unresectable tumors. The need for larger ablation zones has resulted in increased RF generator power. Skin burns due to ground pad heating are increasingly limiting further increases in generator power, and thus, ablation zone size. We investigated a method for reducing ground pad heating in which a commercial ground pad is segmented into multiple ground electrodes, with sequential activation of ground electrode subsets. We created finite-element method computer models of a commercial ground pad (14 times 23 cm) and compared normal operation of a standard pad to sequential activation of a segmented pad (two to five separate ground electrode segments). A constant current of 1 A was applied for 12 min in all simulations. Time periods during sequential activation simulations were adjusted to keep the leading edge temperatures at each ground electrode equal. The maximum temperature using standard activation of the commercial pad was 41.7degC. For sequential activation of a segmented pad, the maximum temperature ranged from 39.3degC (five segments) to 40.9degC (two segments). Sequential activation of a segmented ground pad resulted in lower tissue temperatures. This method may reduce the incidence of ground pad burns and enable the use of higher power generators during RF tumor ablation. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of Elevated T-Waves of an ECG Inside a Static Magnetic Field (MRI)

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1890 - 1896
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (771 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In MRI, the flow of blood in the patient is subjected to a strong static magnetic field (B0). The movement of charge carriers in a magnetic field causes a magnetofluid dynamic (MFD) effect that induces a voltage across the artery. This induced voltage distorts the ECG signal of the patient and appears as an elevation of the T-wave of the ECG signal. Flow of blood through the aortic arch is perpendicular to the magnetic field and coincides with the occurrence of the T-wave of the ECG. Based on these facts, it is proposed that the elevation in the T-wave occurs because of the voltage induced across the aortic arch. In this paper, the elevation is computed mathematically using the equations of MFD. A method is developed to measure this induced voltage based on discretization of the aortic arch and measuring the blood flow profile in the aorta. The results are compared to the ECG signals measured in humans in the bore of 1.5 T imaging magnet. The computed ECG signals at the 12 leads are very similar to the measured values. View full abstract»

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  • Method for Determining Kinematic Parameters of the In Vivo Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1897 - 1906
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (458 KB)  

    The mobility of the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint is critical for functional grasping and manipulation tasks. We present an optimization technique for determining from surface marker measurements a subject-specific kinematic model of the in vivo CMC joint that is suitable for measuring mobility. Our anatomy-based cost metric scores a candidate joint model by the plausibility of the corresponding joint angle values and kinematic parameters rather than only the marker trajectory reconstruction error. The proposed method repeatably determines CMC joint models with anatomically-plausible directions for the two dominant rotational axes and a lesser range of motion (RoM) for the third rotational axis. We formulate a low-dimensional parameterization of the optimization domain by first solving for joint axis orientation variables that then constrain the search for the joint axis location variables. Individual CMC joint models were determined for 24 subjects. The directions of the flexion-extension (FE) axis and adduction-abduction (AA) axis deviated on average by 9deg and 22deg, respectively, from the mean axis direction. The average RoM for FE, AA, and pronation-supination (PS) joint angles were 76deg, 43deg, and 23deg for active CMC movement. The mean separation distance between the FE and AA axes was 4.6 mm, and the mean skew angle was 87deg from the positive flexion axis to the positive abduction axis. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous Intracochlear Stimulation Based on Channel Interaction Compensation: Analysis and First Results

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1907 - 1916
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simultaneous paradigm for electric stimulation of the acoustic nerve based on a monopolar electrode configuration and sign-correlated pulses is presented. Simultaneous pulse amplitudes are determined by taking into account parameters of spatial channel interaction. The computation of simultaneous amplitudes requires the solution of linear systems of equations in an iterative procedure. The computation amount can be reduced significantly, if the spatial impulse responses in individual electrodes can be approximated by two exponentially decaying branches with decay constants alpha toward apex and beta toward base. Generally, the associated inverse of the channel interaction matrix is tridiagonal. Preliminary vowel and consonant identification tests with four cochlear implant patients have been conducted for sequential and simultaneous processor settings. For equal overall pulse repetition rates, comparable speech perception scores were obtained, when the decay constants alpha and beta were set accordingly. Theoretically, the pulse rate of an N-channel system can be increased up to a factor of N as compared to the standard sequential paradigm, and pulses with technically reasonable phase durations can be utilized. View full abstract»

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  • Noise Estimation in Infrared Image Sequences: A Tool for the Quantitative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Registration Algorithms

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1917 - 1920
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (203 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dynamic infrared imaging has been proposed in literature as an adjunctive technique to mammography in breast cancer diagnosis. It is based on the acquisition of hundreds of consecutive thermal images with a frame rate ranging from 50 to 200 frames/s, followed by the harmonic analysis of temperature time series at each image pixel. However, the temperature fluctuation due to blood perfusion, which is the signal of interest, is small compared to the signal fluctuation due to subject movements. Hence, before extracting the time series describing temperature fluctuations, it is fundamental to realign the thermal images to attenuate motion artifacts. In this paper, we describe a method for the quantitative evaluation of any kind of feature-based registration algorithm on thermal image sequences, provided that an estimation of local velocities of reference points on the skin is available. As an example of evaluation of a registration algorithm, we report the evaluation of the SNR improvement obtained by applying a nonrigid piecewise linear algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • On EMG Signal Compression With Recurrent Patterns

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1920 - 1923
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (120 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the multidimensional multiscale parser (MMP) is employed for encoding electromyographic signals. The experiments were carried out with real signals acquired in laboratory and show that the proposed scheme is effective, outperforming even wavelet-based state-of- the-art schemes present in the literature in terms of percent root mean square difference times compression ratio. View full abstract»

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  • ECG Signal Compression Based on Dc Equalization and Complexity Sorting

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1923 - 1926
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (209 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this brief, we present new preprocessing techniques for electrocardiogram signals, namely, DC equalization and complexity sorting, which when applied can improve current 2-D compression algorithms. The experimental results with signals from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Beth Israel Hospital (MIT-BIH) database outperform the ones from many state-of-the-art schemes described in the literature. View full abstract»

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  • A Numerical Model of Permeabilized Skin With Local Transport Regions

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1927 - 1930
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (183 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The protective function of skin and hence its low permeability presents a formidable obstacle in therapeutical applications such as transdermal drug delivery and gene delivery in skin. One of the methods to temporarily increase skin permeability is electroporation, creating aqueous pathways across lipid-based structures by means of electric pulses. Also, the application of electric pulses to biological cells causes increased permeability of cell membrane, thus enabling the uptake of larger molecules that otherwise cannot cross the membrane, such as drug molecules or DNA, into the cell. The creation of localized sites of increased molecular transport termed local transport regions (LTRs) can be observed during electroporation, as well as changes in the bulk electric properties of skin layers. We modeled these phenomena with a numerical model and compared the output of the model with our own in vivo experiments and previously published results of skin electroporation and a good agreement was obtained. With the model presented, we used the available data to describe the nonlinear process of skin electropermeabilization from the aspect of tissue conductivity changes and the presence of local transport regions in the permeabilized stratum corneum. The observations derived from various in vivo experiments by different authors were thus confirmed theoretically. View full abstract»

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  • The 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC'08)

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1931 - 1932
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  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering information for authors

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C3
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  • Blank page [back cover]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering contains basic and applied papers dealing with biomedical engineering. Papers range from engineering development in methods and techniques with biomedical applications to experimental and clinical investigations with engineering contributions.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Bin He
Department of Biomedical Engineering