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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C1 - 125
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C2
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  • Conical DC Discharge in Ambient Air Using Water as an Electrode

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 126 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Conical dc discharge is generated between a copper cathode with a hemispherical head (2-7 mm in diameter) and a static water anode in ambient air. The discharge is hollow and is just like an umbrella if the electrical conductivity of the water electrode is higher than 17.31 musldrcm-1. The profile is composed of three zones with different luminosities. The effects of the discharge current, air gap length, cathode dimension, and electrical conductivity of the water electrode on the discharge are studied. Volt-ampere characteristics and images of the discharge under different experimental conditions are shown to characterize the discharge. A mechanism for stabilizing the discharge is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Theory of Pulsed Breakdown of Dense Gases and Optimization of the Voltage Waveform

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 131 - 139
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (523 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An analytical model of a Townsend breakdown of dense gases under pulsed voltage was developed based on the dynamics of the cathode sheath. Scaling parameters for impulse breakdown were derived and these scalings agreed with experiment and elaborate numerical simulations. The model is applied to optimization of the voltage waveform for obtaining maximum plasma density. We show that the optimal conditions from the standpoint of maximal plasma production at the lowest applied voltage correspond to gas breakdown during the end of the risetime of the applied voltage pulse. View full abstract»

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  • Plasma in a Rotating Magnetic Field

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 140 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the interaction between plasma and a magnetic field rotating with uniform an angular velocity and amplitude. For our analysis, we assume a plasma with infinite conductivity and constant viscosity coefficients. Starting from the basic equations, we search for exact solutions with respect to velocity and magnetic field. Then, we study the stability of the exact solution and the behavior of these fields with respect to infinitesimal perturbations, presenting the results and discussing the influence of the Reynolds and magnetic numbers on the perturbed fields. We show that there is a change of normal mode of the perturbation fields via a linear relation between the Reynolds and magnetic numbers. In addition, we show the existence of undamped mode. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Dynamics of a Plasma-Filled Diode in the Presence of a Magnetic Field

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 146 - 155
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The nonlinear interaction process between the electrons and the immobile ions in a plasma-filled diode has been studied via two different approaches: (1) solving the coupled analytical integral equations and (2) simulating the system by running a particle-in-cell code PDP1 (plasma devices planar 1D). The investigations have extended the analysis to the case where the effect of a magnetic field is considered in the diode. The plasma-filled diode can still operate in four distinct dynamical regimes - steady, oscillatory, chaotic, and unstable - if the magnetic field is relatively weak below the diode cutoff threshold. View full abstract»

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  • Computer Optimized Design of Electron Guns

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 156 - 168
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (962 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper considers the problem of designing electron guns using computer optimization techniques. Several different design parameters are manipulated while considering multiple design criteria, including beam and gun properties. The optimization routines are described. Examples of guns designed using these techniques are presented. Future research is also described. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum Extraction From a CHORDIS by Pressure Variation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 169 - 173
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (447 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The influence of the working gas pressure on the extraction behavior of ion beams out of a cold or hot reflex discharge ion source was investigated using xenon ions in the energy range from 17 to 30 keV. Optimal extraction conditions were achieved by transmission measurements through a 90 doubly focusing dipole magnet. The measured currents obtained at the optimized transmission reproduce the Child-Langmuir equation. The results are compared with IGUN simulations of the extraction system. View full abstract»

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  • UV Laser Probing of Imploding Wire-Array Plasmas on the Angara-5-1 Facility

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 174 - 180
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (647 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dynamics of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch implosions driven by a current of 3 MA has been studied on the Angara-5-1 facility by using a UV laser probe developed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry. The single-wire-array results including implosion trajectory, an implosion velocity of 3.7 X 107 cm/s, and a minimum pinch size of no more than 0.9 mm were obtained. The numerical analysis indicates that the measured trajectory, velocity, and minimum pinch size were of the plasma with electron density of the order of 2 times 1020 cm-3. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of the Electrode Material and Structure on the Performance of a XeCl ^{\ast } Laser

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 181 - 184
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    The XeCl* excimer laser is a well-established system tool for many applications. During operation, highly volatile chlorides are often formed, which leads to enhanced electrode erosion and reduced lifetime. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the rate of erosion of all electrode materials that are used in chlorine based excimer lasers. In our work, we came to the result that the chemical behavior of the electrode material is much more important than the classical electrode parameters erosion rate and work function. To separate the erosion rate into a chemical and physical part, we used a nickel electrode as anode (almost no wear) and cathode (low wear compared to tungsten). We concluded that nickel as an electrode material is still the best material in our laser design. View full abstract»

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  • Instrumentation for Pulsed Corona Discharge Generation Applied to Water

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 185 - 191
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (253 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a model (which is structured as an equivalent electric circuit whose elements are identified and deducted from the nature of the medium, the ionization and expansion process of the streamers that convey the prebreakdown current, and the energy associated to the electric breakdown in water) and a simulation of a pulsed corona discharge (PCD). Considering this, a coaxial reactor and an inexpensive and compact high-voltage pulsed-power supply (PPS) system were designed and constructed with the purpose of carrying out the PCD experimentally. The simulation results enable the prediction of the behavior of the discharge. The coaxial reactor is constituted by a cylindrical chamber and a straight central rod. The PPS operates within the 100-2000-Hz repetition rate and 0-30-kV amplitude ranges. All the system has been tested, and the first electrical results, voltage, and current waveforms, are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Study on Wall-Charge Behavior of Single-Sustain Waveform Based on V_{t} Close-Curve Analysis in AC Plasma Display Panel

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 192 - 199
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1107 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The wall-charge behaviors of the conventional and two types of single-sustain waveforms during address and sustain periods are investigated based on a simulated result and a Vt close-curve analysis. The single-sustain waveform means that the sustain pulse having both positive and negative voltage levels is applied only to the single-side electrode, i.e., the scan (Y) electrode in this paper, where the common (X) electrode remains grounded. In the single-sustain waveform, the address discharge characteristics were observed to be improved by applying a higher voltage level without causing a misfiring discharge during an address period. An asymmetric IR emission was observed for both positive and negative sustain pulses during a sustain period, which was caused by the simultaneous discharge, including the plate gap discharge between the scan (Y) and the address (A) electrodes only when applying the negative sustain pulse to the scan (Y) electrode. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of Vacuum Arc Behaviors Between Axial-Magnetic-Field Contacts

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 200 - 207
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1051 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We compared vacuum arc behaviors of three slot-type axial-magnetic-field (AMF) contacts at two fixed contact gaps using high-speed digital photography and arc-voltage measurements. Solid angle is subtended by anode at the center of cathode or the ratio of the anode diameter to the gap length (D/g). With coupled influence of the AMF, we observed that with the D/g ratio 48 mm/14 mm, the arc kept in low current modes until higher current compared with the D/g ratio 48 mm/8 mm case. With the D/g ratio 58 mm/14 mm, the arc-mode transitions with the increase of current were similar as the D/g ratio 58 mm/8 mm case. However, with the D/g ratio 66 mm/14 mm, the arc became high current modes at lower current compared with the D/g ratio 66 mm/8 mm case. Correspondingly, with the D/g ratio 48 mm/14 mm, arc voltages at current peaks were close to the D/g ratio 48 mm/8 mm case, whereas arc voltages at current peaks with the D/g ratio 58 mm/14 mm were close to that of the 58 mm/8 mm case. However, with a contact diameter of 66 mm, the arc voltages with the D/g ratio 66 mm/14 mm were higher than the 66 mm/8 mm case. The arcs with the D/g ratio 66 mm/8 mm were more diffuse than the 48 mm/8 mm case. Moreover, the arcs with the D/g ratio 66 mm/14 mm were also more diffuse than the 48 mm/14 mm case when the current peak was 17.8 kA and above. The relationship between interrupting capacity of vacuum interrupters with the slot-type AMF contacts could be expressed as I=ktimes(D/g)+b, where k and b are constants. View full abstract»

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  • Vacuum-Arc Behaviors of a Coil-Type Axial-Magnetic-Field Contact at Contact Gap of 60 mm

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 208 - 214
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Contact gap is usually high in high-voltage vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs). We experimentally investigated vacuum-arc behaviors of a coil-type axial-magnetic-fleld (AMF) contact with a contact diameter of 100 mm and a contact gap of 60 mm, which included vacuum-arc appearance observation and LC discharging current interrupting test. The vacuum arc was ignited by a trigger needle in a demountable vacuum chamber, and the vacuum-arc appearance was recorded by a high-speed charge-coupled-device camera. The LC discharging current interrupting tests were done by using a VCB with the coil-type AMF contacts in the vacuum interrupters. Vacuum-arc appearance with current peak values of 11.3, 17.0, and 22.7 kA (current frequency of 50 Hz) was shown in diffuse mode, although there was an unstable period at the beginning of arcing period. The LC discharging current interrupting test showed that there was no second half-wave until a 50-kA rms current. When the contact gap increases from 40 to 60 mm, arc-voltage noise oscillation increases, and arc voltage at current peak almost doubled in the range of arc current from 10 to 50 kA. When the peak arc-current value increases from 11.3 to 17.0 and 22.7 kA, both the arc-voltage noise amplitude and the arc-voltage noise duration increase. View full abstract»

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  • Inactivation of Aquatic Microorganisms by Low-Frequency AC Discharges

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 215 - 219
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge has been investigated in recent years as an innovative technology for contaminated water treatment. A high-voltage pulsed-power supply is commonly needed for the generation of electrical discharges. This paper aims, in lieu of cost effectiveness, to evaluate the degradation efficiency of electrical discharges with an alternating-current (ac) power since it is generally cheaper than a pulsed one. An ac power supply with a fixed voltage of 13 kV and a fixed frequency of 60 Hz is therefore adopted in this paper for the inactivation of aquatic microorganism. The energies required for one log order of reduction of E. coli, S. aureus, and Yeast were 23, 34, and 31 J/ml, respectively. The energy efficiencies achieved with an ac power in this paper are comparable with other studies that achieved with a pulsed-power. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement of Discharge Delay Time With a New Pulse-Scan Driving Method for AC Plasma Display Panels

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 220 - 229
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1665 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new pulse-scan-based driving method that can significantly reduce total address time delay of discharge ignition during the address period in a plasma display panel (PDP) is proposed. By applying lower negative scan-pulse voltage to the Y electrode for a short interval, the proposed scheme accelerates the ignition of the gas discharge between addressing electrode (A) and scanning electrode (Y), and then, it reduces the ignition time delay which is closely related to the addressing time. Consequently, the high-speed addressing method can be achieved by it because the width of each scan pulse or each address pulse can be reduced. Therefore, this earned addressing time can directly contribute to the implementation of a single-scan (SS) driving scheme or the improvements in brightness with more sustain pulses. Experimental results with a prototype 50-in full-high-definition SS PDP module show that the total address time delay (Td = Tf +Ts) of discharge ignition with the proposed pulse-scan driving method is reduced by about 10% compared with the conventional driving method. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Surface Sterilization and Properties of Medical Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) in Remote Argon Plasma

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 230 - 236
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have used a remote-argon-plasma reactor in which the active species can be separated at a special plasma field. Argon gas is used as the work gas. In this remote argon plasma, the distribution of electrons, ions, and radicals and germicidal effect (GE) of Escherichia coli on the surface of medical poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) film are studied. Then surface properties of sterilized PTFE are investigated by water-contact- angle and mass-loss measurements, as well as scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that the concentration of electrons and ions decrease rapidly with increasing the sample position, which approximate to 0 at 30 cm, whereas the concentration of radicals change little within 40 cm. Relatively high-purity radicals are obtained in afterglow zone. GE values reach 4.633 in the active discharge zone (0 cm) and exceed 3.769 within 40 cm under the conditions of plasma RF-power of 100 W, exposure time of 120 s, and argon flux of 20 cm3/min. But remote-argon-plasma sterilization (40 cm) makes the PTFE surface higher hydrophilicity than the direct-argon-plasma sterilization (0 cm) and does not give remarkable degradation and damages in terms of mass-loss and surface morphology. Moreover, the remote argon plasma contributes more effectively to the defluorination (F/C = 2.24) from the PTFE than the direct argon plasma (F/C = 2.48), and thus, more oxygen functionalities (e.g., C = O) are formed on remote-plasma-sterilized PTFE surface. The essential reason is that remote argon plasma can enhance interactions between radicals and PTFE surface, which are inhibited in the active discharge zone. These experimental results show that the remote argon plasma is more appropriate to surface sterilization of medical PTFE in obtaining superior surface properties. View full abstract»

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  • A New Method for the Generation of Large Volume Discharges in Water

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 237 - 242
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The production of large volume streamer discharges is essential to the industrial application of such discharge in water. The use of dielectric-coated electrode was found to have a great influence on the initiation of the streamer discharge as well as the formation of streamer channels. In this paper, a sphere-ring electrode configuration, in which the sphere was coated with a kind of silicon rubber, was put forward to generate multiple radial streamer discharges in tap water by applying a pulse voltage. Different from the previous methods which need very high electric strength and short pulse duration, this kind of electrode configuration can generate large volume streamer discharges in water easily at lower voltage amplitude. The effect of the pulse parameters, such as pulse amplitude and pulsewidth, on the streamer-channel length has been investigated. The influence mechanism of the coated dielectric on the streamer initiation and propagation is discussed in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Matching a Pulsed-Power Modulator to a Streamer Plasma Reactor

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 243 - 252
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (823 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the matching between a pulsed-power modulator and a streamer plasma reactor is discussed. The total process of energizing the reactor is divided into three different steps: before, during, and after plasma generation. Equivalent circuit models are used to obtain insight in the relevant mechanisms. Experiments are used to validate the results of the modeling. Based upon the results, design criteria are derived that can be used to design energy efficient streamer plasma systems. View full abstract»

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  • A Disruption Predictor Based on Fuzzy Logic Applied to JET Database

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 253 - 262
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (446 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Disruptions remain a serious issue for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the commercial reactor. In the past years, significant efforts have been devoted to the development of reliable disruption predictors. In this paper, the potential of fuzzy logic in this field is explored. A new disruption predictor for Joint European Torus (JET), which is based on fuzzy logic, was tested off-line using data collected during several JET campaigns, covering a very wide range of scenarios and plasma parameters. In the standard configuration, it was able to predict 92% of disruptions with about 18% of false alarms (FAs). The flexibility of the approach, which is to provide a different tradeoff between missed and FAs, depending on the desired results in terms of safety, is demonstrated. The potential of the technique to help quantifying the risks that are associated with the operation outside the already explored parameter space is also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • On the Use of Sweeping Langmuir Probes in Cutting Arc Plasmas—Part I: Experimental Results

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 263 - 270
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (345 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The first study of Langmuir probes applied to cutting arcs using a sweeping-probe system is presented. It is found that, under a relatively broad range of experimental conditions (changes in the probe material, in the probe radii, or in the sweeping frequency of the probes), no probe damage is registered, notwithstanding the large value of the power flux present with these arcs. In practice, probes with radii down to 63 mum and with sweeping rotation frequencies down to 8.7 s-1 (probe transit time of ap140 mus through the arc) were used without noticeable alterations. In the measurements of the ion current collected by negatively biased probes, the following two unexpected features are found: the lack of a current plateau in the ion branch of the I-V probe characteristic and the independence of the signal amplitude on the probe radius. According to the experimental evidence, as well as several estimations, we have neglected electron emission of the probe surface as a relevant mechanism in modifying the ion branch of the characteristic. On the contrary, some arguments on which a collection model will be based are presented. View full abstract»

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  • On the Use of Sweeping Langmuir Probes in Cutting-Arc Plasmas—Part II: Interpretation of the Results

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 271 - 277
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (230 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A semiempirical Langmuir probe model is introduced that is particularly adapted to high-energy-density cutting arcs, for which, as we have shown in part I, the ion current collected by negatively biased probes shows no plateau in the ion branch of the current-voltage (I-V) probe characteristic, and the signal amplitude is independent of the probe radius. According to the model, the ion drag due to the high-velocity plasma flow around the probe limits the effectively collecting area to a small fraction of the probe surface. If, according to the experimental evidence, this fraction is made independent of the probe radius, then its value results proportional to the probe bias, and so no plateau is found, at least as long as the collecting area is less than (half) the probe surface, which happens only at rather high probe bias. The model requires the determination of the function relating the electric field (in the region between the unperturbed plasma and the space-charge sheath close to the probe) to the parameters of the problem. Dimensional analysis together with empirical information allow to restrict the form of this function to leave only an auxiliary dimensionless function, which can be argued to be practically constant and whose value can be determined between rather tight bounds. As an example, radial profiles of plasma temperature and density are obtained by applying the proposed model to the experimental values of a I-V probe characteristic obtained in part I. The derived temperature profile is in good agreement with a previous published numerical simulation for a similar cutting torch. View full abstract»

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  • X-Ray Absorption Imaging of High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Using an X-Ray Tube Source

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 278 - 286
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A table-top system for implementing X-ray absorption imaging measurements of the Hg vapor in high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps is described. The system is based on a commercial X-ray tube source and an optical charge-coupled device array detector, with conversion of X-rays to optical photons by a phosphor. The sensitivity of the system is measured and found to exceed what has been obtained previously with synchrotron-produced X-rays. Hg column densities are measured in an HID lamp with a precision of 7 times 1016 cm-2. View full abstract»

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  • ON-State Characteristics of a High-Power Photoconductive Switch Fabricated From Compensated 6-H Silicon Carbide

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 287 - 292
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (243 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ON-state characteristics of a 6-H silicon carbide (SiC) photoconductive switch with vertical geometry, transverse illumination, and linear-mode operation are presented. The switch is triggered by an optical source with a photon energy that is less than the bandgap energy of SiC. Following low-power matching characteristics, the analysis of a design incorporating and layers next to the cathode shows higher hold-off voltage with an improved ON-state response mechanism. The p-layered photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) can be operated at a maximum field of 875 kV/cm, whereas the n-layered PCSS, which is operating at a slightly lower field, shows higher current carrying capabilities. Higher current for the n-layer PCSS can be attributed to the nature of the region adjacent to the cathode. In the p-layered PCSS, this region inhibits an initial hole collection, thus decreasing the collected charge. In addition, a kink during the initial collection for the p-layered PCSS could influence the rise time when operating beyond 35-kV bias. View full abstract»

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  • Arc Modeling in a Plasmatron Channel

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 293 - 298
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (230 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The mathematical model of a direct-current arc at atmospheric pressure and low currents has been proposed. This paper presents the results of 2-D simulations for an air arc within the plasmatron channel, as well as the anode, composite cathode, and external regions. The model does not employ any adjustable parameter and therefore enables direct comparison with the experiments. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data of a plasma igniter and indicated good agreement. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
1428 Miracerros Loop South
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