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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SOCIETY - Staff list

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C2
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  • IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications - Front cover

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C1
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  • Guest Editorial - Cognitive Radio: Theory and Application

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB)  

    The 17 papers in this special issue focus on the theory and applications of cognitive radio. View full abstract»

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  • Spatiotemporal Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 5 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (49)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1820 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cognitive radio networks need to continuously monitor spectrum to detect the presence of the licensed users. In this paper, we have exploited spatial diversity in multiuser networks to improve the spectrum sensing capabilities of centralized cognitive radio (CR) networks. We develop a fixed and a variable relay sensing scheme. The fixed relay scheme employs a relay that has a fixed location to help the cognitive network base station detect the presence of the primary user. The variable relay sensing scheme employs cognitive users distributed at various locations as relays to sense data and to improve the detection capabilities. This effectively reduces the average detection time by exploiting spatial diversity inherent in multiuser networks. Finally, we study the network outage probabilities to compare the performances of the fixed and variable relay schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Cyclostationary Signatures in Practical Cognitive Radio Applications

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 13 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (137)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We define a cyclostationary signature as a feature which may be intentionally embedded in a digital communications signal, detected through cyclostationary analysis and used as a unique identifier. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how cyclostationary signatures can be exploited to overcome a number of the challenges associated with network coordination in emerging cognitive radio applications and spectrum sharing regimes. In particular we show their uses for signal detection, network identification and rendezvous and discuss these in the context of dynamic spectrum access. We present a theoretical discussion followed by application-oriented examples of the cyclostationary signatures used in practical cognitive radio and dynamic spectrum usage scenarios. We focus on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based systems and present an analysis of a transceiver implementation employing these techniques developed on a cognitive radio test platform. View full abstract»

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  • Defense against Primary User Emulation Attacks in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 25 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (123)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2738 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising technology that can alleviate the spectrum shortage problem by enabling unlicensed users equipped with CRs to coexist with incumbent users in licensed spectrum bands while causing no interference to incumbent communications. Spectrum sensing is one of the essential mechanisms of CRs and its operational aspects are being investigated actively. However, the security aspects of spectrum sensing have garnered little attention. In this paper, we identify a threat to spectrum sensing, which we call the primary user emulation (PUE) attack. In this attack, an adversary's CR transmits signals whose characteristics emulate those of incumbent signals. The highly flexible, software-based air interface of CRs makes such an attack possible. Our investigation shows that a PUE attack can severely interfere with the spectrum sensing process and significantly reduce the channel resources available to legitimate unlicensed users. To counter this threat, we propose a transmitter verification scheme, called LocDef (localization-based defense), which verifies whether a given signal is that of an incumbent transmitter by estimating its location and observing its signal characteristics. To estimate the location of the signal transmitter, LocDef employs a non-interactive localization scheme. Our security analysis and simulation results suggest that LocDef is effective in identifying PUE attacks under certain conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Joint Beamforming and Power Allocation for Multiple Access Channels in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 38 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (138)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (418 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A cognitive radio (CR) network refers to a secondary network operating in a frequency band originally licensed/allocated to a primary network consisting of one or multiple primary users (PUs). A fundamental challenge for realizing such a system is to ensure the quality of service (QoS) of the PUs as well as to maximize the throughput or ensure the QoS, such as signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs), of the secondary users (SUs). In this paper, we study single-input multiple output multiple access channels (SIMO-MAC) for the CR network. Subject to interference constraints for the PUs as well as peak power constraints for the SUs, two optimization problems involving a joint beamforming and power allocation for the CR network are considered: the sum-rate maximization problem and the SINR balancing problem. For the sum-rate maximization problem, zero-forcing based decision feedback equalizers are used to decouple the SIMO-MAC, and a capped multi-level (CML) water-filling algorithm is proposed to maximize the achievable sum-rate of the SUs for the single PU case. When multiple PUs exist, a recursive decoupled power allocation algorithm is proposed to derive the optimal power allocation solution. For the SINR balancing problem, it is shown that, using linear minimum mean-square-error receivers, each of the interference constraints and peak power constraints can be completely decoupled, and thus the multi-constraint optimization problem can be solved through multiple single-constraint sub-problems. Theoretical analysis for the proposed algorithms is presented, together with numerical simulations which compare the performances of different power allocation schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Frame Synchronization for Variable-Length Packets

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 52 - 69
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1200 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A cognitive radio can sense its environment and adapt some of its features, such as carrier frequency, transmission bandwidth, transmission power, and modulation, thus allowing dynamic reuse of the available spectrum. Due to their high degree of adaptability to environmental variations, cognitive radios are expected to utilize packet-based transmission with variable-length frames. Packet-based transmission requires the receiver to perform frame synchronization, an important enabling step that allows adaptation in cognitive radios. However, proper metrics to characterize the performance of frame synchronization for transmission of variable-length frames are currently unavailable. To address this issue, we put forth two performance metrics, namely the expected duration to complete frame synchronization and the probability of correct acquisition within a given duration. We then develop analytical expressions for these important metrics. This paper advances our understanding of frame synchronization for the continuous transmission of variable-length frames and for bursty transmission. View full abstract»

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  • Cognitive Radio Based Multi-User Resource Allocation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Multi-Carrier CDMA Modulation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 70 - 82
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1437 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a cognitive radio based multi-user resource allocation framework for mobile ad hoc networks using multi-carrier DS CDMA modulation over a frequency-selective fading channel. In particular, given preexisting communications in the spectrum where the system is operating, in addition to potential narrow-band interference, a channel sensing and estimation mechanism is provided to obtain information such as subcarrier availability, noise power and channel gain. Given this information, both frequency spectrum and power are allocated to emerging new users (i.e., cognitive radio users), based on a distributed multi-user resource allocation framework, in order to satisfy a target data rate and a power constraint of each cognitive radio user, while attempting to avoid interference to the existing communications as well as to minimize total power consumption of the cognitive radio users. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Complexity Adaptive Transmission for Cognitive Radios in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 83 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1269 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cognitive radios that are employed in a network with dynamic frequency assignments must operate efficiently in the presence of uncertainties and variations in the propagation characteristics of the network's communication links. A low-complexity adaptive transmission protocol is described and evaluated for use in cognitive radio networks whose links have unknown and possibly time-varying propagation losses as a result of such phenomena as slow fading or variations in shadowing. The cognitive radios are required to derive only simple statistics in the receivers in order to provide the information that is needed by our protocol; no estimates or measurements of received power or channel gain are used. The protocol's primary mechanism for responding to changes in propagation loss is to adjust the modulation and coding. Because of disruptions that can be caused by higher levels of interference to other radios in the network, the transmitter power is increased only if the most powerful combination of coding and modulation is inadequate. We employ finite-state Markov models for slowly varying channels, and we demonstrate that for such channels our protocol performs nearly as well as an ideal protocol that is told the exact value of the propagation loss for each packet transmission. Thus, the additional complexity that is required to enable cognitive radios to obtain precise channel-gain estimates is not justified and would lead to only negligible improvement in throughput. The throughput of our adaptive transmission protocol is compared with an upper bound that is derived from information theory for a hypothetical ideal protocol that is given perfect channel-state information, and some preliminary results on learning the adaptation decision intervals are included. View full abstract»

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  • Cognitive Medium Access: Constraining Interference Based on Experimental Models

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 95 - 105
    Cited by:  Papers (68)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1575 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we design a cognitive radio that can coexist with multiple parallel WLAN channels while abiding by an interference constraint. The interaction between both systems is characterized by measurement and coexistence is enhanced by predicting the WLAN's behavior based on a continuous-time Markov chain model. Cognitive medium access (CMA) is derived from this model by recasting the problem as one of constrained Markov decision processes. Solutions are obtained by linear programming. Furthermore, we show that optimal CMA admits structured solutions, simplifying practical implementations. Preliminary results for the partially observable case are presented. The performance of the proposed schemes is evaluated for a typical WLAN coexistence setup and shows a significant performance improvement. View full abstract»

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  • HC-MAC: A Hardware-Constrained Cognitive MAC for Efficient Spectrum Management

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 106 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (165)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2841 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radio spectrum resource is of fundamental importance for wireless communication. Recent reports show that most available spectrum has been allocated. While some of the spectrum bands (e.g., unlicensed band, GSM band) have seen increasingly crowded usage, most of the other spectrum resources are underutilized. This drives the emergence of open spectrum and dynamic spectrum access concepts, which allow unlicensed users equipped with cognitive radios to opportunistically access the spectrum not used by primary users. Cognitive radio has many advanced features, such as agilely sensing the existence of primary users and utilizing multiple spectrum bands simultaneously. However, in practice such capabilities are constrained by hardware cost. In this paper, we discuss how to conduct efficient spectrum management in ad hoc cognitive radio networks while taking the hardware constraints (e.g., single radio, partial spectrum sensing and spectrum aggregation limit) into consideration. A hardware-constrained cognitive MAC, HC-MAC, is proposed to conduct efficient spectrum sensing and spectrum access decision. We identify the issue of optimal spectrum sensing decision for a single secondary transmission pair, and formulate it as an optimal stopping problem. A decentralized MAC protocol is then proposed for the ad hoc cognitive radio networks. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed protocol. View full abstract»

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  • Cross-Layer Based Opportunistic MAC Protocols for QoS Provisionings Over Cognitive Radio Wireless Networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 118 - 129
    Cited by:  Papers (193)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (615 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose the cross-layer based opportunistic multi-channel medium access control (MAC) protocols, which integrate the spectrum sensing at physical (PHY) layer with the packet scheduling at MAC layer, for the wireless ad hoc networks. Specifically, the MAC protocols enable the secondary users to identify and utilize the leftover frequency spectrum in a way that constrains the level of interference to the primary users. In our proposed protocols, each secondary user is equipped with two transceivers. One transceiver is tuned to the dedicated control channel, while the other is designed specifically as a cognitive radio that can periodically sense and dynamically use the identified un-used channels. To obtain the channel state accurately, we propose two collaborative channel spectrum-sensing policies, namely, the random sensing policy and the negotiation-based sensing policy, to help the MAC protocols detect the availability of leftover channels. Under the random sensing policy, each secondary user just randomly selects one of the channels for sensing. On the other hand, under the negotiation-based sensing policy, different secondary users attempt to select the distinct channels to sense by overhearing the control packets over the control channel. We develop the Markov chain model and the M/GY/1-based queueing model to characterize the performance of our proposed multi-channel MAC protocols under the two types of channel-sensing policies for the saturation network and the non-saturation network scenarios, respectively. In the non-saturation network case, we quantitatively identify the tradeoff between the aggregate traffic throughput and the packet transmission delay, which can provide the insightful guidelines to improve the delay-QoS provisionings over cognitive radio wireless networks. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed Rule-Regulated Spectrum Sharing

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 130 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1180 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dynamic spectrum access is a promising technique to use spectrum efficiently. Without being restricted to any prefixed spectrum bands, nodes choose operating spectrum on-demand. Such flexibility, however, makes efficient and fair spectrum access in large-scale networks a great challenge. Prior work in this area focused on explicit coordination where nodes communicate with peers to modify local spectrum allocation, and may heavily stress the communication resource. In this paper, we introduce a distributed spectrum management architecture where nodes share spectrum resource fairly by making independent actions following spectrum rules. We present five spectrum rules to regulate node behavior and maximize system fairness and spectrum utilization, and analyze the associated complexity and overhead. We show analytically and experimentally that the proposed rule-based approach achieves similar performance with the explicit coordination approach, while significantly reducing communication cost. View full abstract»

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  • Spectrum Sharing for Multi-Hop Networking with Cognitive Radios

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 146 - 155
    Cited by:  Papers (70)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1134 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cognitive radio (CR) capitalizes advances in signal processing and radio technology and is capable of reconfiguring RF and switching to desired frequency bands. It is a frequency-agile data communication device that is vastly more powerful than recently proposed multi-channel multi-radio (MC-MR) technology. In this paper, we investigate the important problem of multi-hop networking with CR nodes. For such a network, each node has a pool of frequency bands (typically of unequal size) that can be used for communication. The potential difference in the bandwidth among the available frequency bands prompts the need to further divide these bands into sub-bands for optimal spectrum sharing. We characterize the behavior and constraints for such a multi-hop CR network from multiple layers, including modeling of spectrum sharing and sub-band division, scheduling and interference constraints, and flow routing. We develop a mathematical formulation with the objective of minimizing the required network-wide radio spectrum resource for a set of user sessions. Since the formulated model is a mixed-integer non-linear program (MINLP), which is NP-hard in general, we develop a lower bound for the objective by relaxing the integer variables and using a linearization technique. Subsequently, we design a near-optimal algorithm to solve this MINLP problem. This algorithm is based on a novel sequential fixing procedure, where the integer variables are determined iteratively via a sequence of linear programs. Simulation results show that solutions obtained by this algorithm are very close to the lower bounds obtained via the proposed relaxation, thus suggesting that the solution produced by the algorithm is near-optimal. View full abstract»

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  • Opportunistic Channel Selection Strategy for Better QoS in Cooperative Networks with Cognitive Radio Capabilities

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 156 - 167
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1771 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mission-oriented MANETs are characterized by implicit common group objectives which make inter-node cooperation both logical and feasible. We propose new techniques to leverage two optimizations for cognitive radio networks that are specific to such contexts: opportunistic channel selection and cooperative mobility. We present a new formal model for MANETs consisting of cognitive radio capable nodes that are willing to be moved (at a cost). We develop an effective decentralized algorithm for mobility planning, and powerful new Altering and fuzzy based techniques for both channel estimation and channel selection. Our experiments are compelling and demonstrate that the communications infrastructure-specifically, connection bit error rates-can be significantly improved by leveraging our proposed techniques. In addition, we find that these cooperative/opportunistic optimization spaces do not trade-off significantly with one another, and thus can be used simultaneously to build superior hybrid schemes. Our results have significant applications in high-performance mission-oriented MANETs, such as battlefield communications and domestic response & rescue missions. View full abstract»

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  • Cognitive Wireless Mesh Networks with Dynamic Spectrum Access

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 168 - 181
    Cited by:  Papers (57)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1992 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are envisaged to extend Internet access and other networking services in personal, local, campus, and metropolitan areas. Mesh routers (MR) form the connectivity backbone while performing the dual tasks of packet forwarding as well as providing network access to the mesh clients. However, the performance of such networks is limited by traffic congestion, as only limited bandwidth is available for supporting the large number of nodes in close proximity. This problem can be alleviated by the cognitive radio paradigm that aims at devising spectrum sensing and management techniques, thereby allowing radios to intelligently locate and use frequencies other than those in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. These promising technologies are integrated in our proposed Cognitive Mesh NETwork (COMNET) algorithmic framework, thus realizing an intelligent frequency-shifting self-managed mesh network. The contribution of this paper is threefold: (1) A new approach for spectrum sensing is devised without any change to the working of existing de facto mesh protocols. (2) An analytical model is proposed that allows MRs to estimate the power in a given channel and location due to neighboring wireless LAN traffic, thus creating a virtual map in space and frequency domains. (3) These models are used to formulate the task of channel assignment within the mesh network as an optimization problem, which is solved in a decentralized manner. Our analytical models are validated through simulation study, and results reveal the benefits of load sharing by adopting unused frequencies for WMN traffic. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-Stage Pricing Game for Collusion-Resistant Dynamic Spectrum Allocation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 182 - 191
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (668 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to fully utilize scarce spectrum resources, dynamic spectrum allocation becomes a promising approach to increase the spectrum efficiency for wireless networks. However, the collusion among selfish network users may seriously deteriorate the efficiency of dynamic spectrum sharing. The network users' behaviors and dynamics need to be taken into consideration for efficient and robust spectrum allocation. In this paper, we model the spectrum allocation in wireless networks with multiple selfish legacy spectrum holders and unlicensed users as multi-stage dynamic games. In order to combat user collusion, we propose a pricing-based collusion-resistant dynamic spectrum allocation approach to optimize overall spectrum efficiency, while not only keeping the participating incentives of the selfish users but also combating possible user collusion. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves high efficiency of spectrum usage even with the presence of severe user collusion. View full abstract»

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  • Competitive Pricing for Spectrum Sharing in Cognitive Radio Networks: Dynamic Game, Inefficiency of Nash Equilibrium, and Collusion

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 192 - 202
    Cited by:  Papers (129)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (426 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We address the problem of spectrum pricing in a cognitive radio network where multiple primary service providers compete with each other to offer spectrum access opportunities to the secondary users. By using an equilibrium pricing scheme, each of the primary service providers aims to maximize its profit under quality of service (QoS) constraint for primary users. We formulate this situation as an oligopoly market consisting of a few firms and a consumer. The QoS degradation of the primary services is considered as the cost in offering spectrum access to the secondary users. For the secondary users, we adopt a utility function to obtain the demand function. With a Bertrand game model, we analyze the impacts of several system parameters such as spectrum substitutability and channel quality on the Nash equilibrium (i.e., equilibrium pricing adopted by the primary services). We present distributed algorithms to obtain the solution for this dynamic game. The stability of the proposed dynamic game algorithms in terms of convergence to the Nash equilibrium is studied. However, the Nash equilibrium is not efficient in the sense that the total profit of the primary service providers is not maximized. An optimal solution to gain the highest total profit can be obtained. A collusion can be established among the primary services so that they gain higher profit than that for the Nash equilibrium. However, since one or more of the primary service providers may deviate from the optimal solution, a punishment mechanism may be applied to the deviating primary service provider. A repeated game among primary service providers is formulated to show that the collusion can be maintained if all of the primary service providers are aware of this punishment mechanism, and therefore, properly weight their profits to be obtained in the future. View full abstract»

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  • Spectrum Leasing to Cooperating Secondary Ad Hoc Networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 203 - 213
    Cited by:  Papers (150)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (931 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The concept of cognitive radio (or secondary spectrum access) is currently under investigation as a promising paradigm to achieve efficient use of the frequency resource by allowing the coexistence of licensed (primary) and unlicensed (secondary) users in the same bandwidth. According to the property-rights model of cognitive radio, the primary terminals own a given bandwidth and may decide to lease it for a fraction of time to secondary nodes in exchange for appropriate remuneration. In this paper, we propose and analyze an implementation of this framework, whereby a primary link has the possibility to lease the owned spectrum to an ad hoc network of secondary nodes in exchange for cooperation in the form of distributed space-time coding. On one hand, the primary link attempts to maximize its quality of service in terms of either rate or probability of outage, accounting for the possible contribution from cooperation. On the other hand, nodes in the secondary ad hoc network compete among themselves for transmission within the leased time-slot following a distributed power control mechanism. The investigated model is conveniently cast in the framework of Stackelberg games. We consider both a baseline scenario with full channel state information and information-theoretic transmission strategies, and a more practical model with long-term channel state information and randomized distributed space-time coding. Analysis and numerical results show that spectrum leasing based on trading secondary spectrum access for cooperation is a promising framework for cognitive radio. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Communications Society - 2008 Board of Governors

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C3
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  • [Contents continued from front cover - Also includes Index to 2007]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT