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Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date July 2007

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  • IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society - List Staff

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • From the Editors - PLAGIARISM DETECTION

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 833
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  • Linear Quadratic Differential Games Guidance Law for Dual Controlled Missiles

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 834 - 842
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1457 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel guidance law designed specifically for a missile having forward and aft control systems is presented. For the derivation a linear quadratic differential games formulation of the end-game interception scenario is used. Conditions for achieving perfect intercept are given and new game spaces are presented. It is also shown that increasing the direct lift associated with the canard control allows intercepting targets with higher maneuvering capability, while for the tail control the effect is opposite. View full abstract»

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  • Network-Enabled Missile Deflection: Games and Correlation Equilibrium

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 843 - 863
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1667 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of deploying countermeasures (CM) against antiship missiles is investigated from a network centric perspective in which multiple ships coordinate to defend against a known missile threat. Using the paradigm of network enabled operations (NEOPS), the problem is formulated as a transient stochastic game with communication where the appropriate strategy takes the form of an optimal stationary correlated equilibrium. Under this strategy, ships cooperate through real-time communication to satisfy both local and collective interests. The use of communication results in a performance improvement over the noncommunicating, Nash equilibrium scenario. This framework allows us to develop a theoretical foundation for NEOPS and captures the trade-off between information exchange and performance, while generalizing the standard Nash equilibrium solution for the missile deflection game given in [1], The NEOPS equilibrium strategy is characterized as the solution to an optimization problem with linear objective and bilinear constraints, which can be solved calculating successive improvements starting from an initial noncooperative (Nash) solution. The communication overhead required to implement this strategy is associated with the mutual information between individual action probability distributions at equilibrium. Numerical results illustrate the trade-off between communication and performance. View full abstract»

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  • Moving Targets Processing in SAR Spatial Domain

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 864 - 874
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3142 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel technique to estimate the initial coordinates and velocity vector of moving targets, including those with velocities above the Nyquist limit, using a single synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor without increasing the pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The basic reasoning is that, although the returned echoes may be undersampled in the azimuth direction, their phase and amplitude are informative with respect to the moving target trajectory parameters. Therefore, the so-called blind angle ambiguity, inherent to systems using a single SAR sensor, is overcome. The proposed method samples the data in the spatial domain, along the signature curve which depends on the moving target trajectory parameters. The resulting algorithm is a highly efficient (from the computational point of view) ID matched filter. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is illustrated using simulated SAR data and real data from the MSTAR public release data set, corresponding to a static SAR scene and a static BTR-60 with simulated motion. View full abstract»

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  • Planetary Micro-Penetrator Concept Study with Biomimetric Drill and Sampler Design

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 875 - 885
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3712 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to ultraviolet flux to the surface layers of most solar system bodies, future astrobiological research is increasingly seeking to conduct subsurface penetration, drilling and sampling to detect chemical signature of extant or extinct life. To seek a compact solution to this issue, we present a micro-penetrator concept (mass < 10 kg) that is suited for planetary deployment and in situ investigation of chemical and physical properties. To draw inspiration from nature, a biomimetic drill and sampler subsystem is designed as a penetrator instrument based on the working mechanism of a wood wasp ovipositor to sample beneath the sterile layer for biomarker detection. One of the major limitations of sampling in relatively low gravity environments (such as asteroids, Mars, etc) is the need for high axial force when using conventional drills. The ovipositor drill is proposed to address this limitation by applying a novel concept of reciprocating motion that requires no external force. It is lightweight (0.5 kg), driven at low power (3 W), and able to drill deep (1-2 m). Tests have shown that a reciprocating drill is feasible and has the potential of improving drill efficiency without receiving any external force. As part of the European space agency (ESA) project on bionics and space system design [1], this study provides a conceptual design of the micro-penetrator targeted for a near earth asteroid mission. With bionics-enabling technology, the overall penetration/drilling/sampling system provides a small, light and energy efficient solution to in situ astrobiological studies, which is crucial for space exploration. Such a micro-penetrator can be used for exploration of terrestrial-type planets or other small bodies of the solar system with a moderate level of modifications. View full abstract»

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  • Design Principles of MIMO Radar Detectors

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 886 - 898
    Cited by:  Papers (69)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1135 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper considers the problem of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radars employing space-time coding (STC) to achieve diversity. To this end, after briefly outlining the model of the received echo, a suitable detection structure is derived, and its performance is expressed in closed form as a function of the clutter statistical properties and of the space-time code matrix. Interestingly, this receiver requires prior knowledge of the clutter covariance, but the detection threshold is functionally independent thereof. At the transmitter design stage, we give two criteria for code construction: the first is based on the classical Chernoff bound, the second is an information-theoretic criterion. Interestingly, the two criteria lead to the same condition for code optimality, which in turn specializes, under the assumption of uncorrelated clutter and square code matrix, in some well-known full-rate space-time codes. A thorough performance assessment is also given, so as to establish the optimum achievable performance for MIMO radar systems. View full abstract»

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  • Direct Intercept Guidance using Differential Geometry Concepts

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 899 - 919
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5064 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines the application of differential geometry to the engagement of both nonmanoeuvring and manoeuvring targets. The kinematics of the engagement for both manoeuvring and nonmanoeuvring target are developed and expressed in differential geometric terms. Two-dimensional geometry is then used to determine the intercept conditions for a straight line target and a constant manoeuvre target. The intercept conditions for both targets are developed for the case when the interceptor missile guides onto a straight line interception. These two cases are shown to have a common set of core conditions such that it enables a unified guidance law to be developed. The guidance law is shown to be globally stable using Lyapunov theory, so that guidance capture is assured for any initial condition. The analysis and guidance law design does not rely on local linearisation and can be shown to produce guidance trajectories that mirror proportional navigation for the straight line interception of a nonmanoeuvring target for which proportional navigation was originally developed. The paper finishes with simulation in two dimensions, illustrating the convergence and solution properties of the approach. View full abstract»

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  • Parametric Rao Test for Multichannel Adaptive Signal Detection

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 921 - 933
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1403 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The parametric Rao test for a multichannel adaptive signal detection problem is derived by modeling the disturbance signal as a multichannel autoregressive (AR) process. Interestingly, the parametric Rao test takes a form identical to that of the recently introduced parametric adaptive matched filter (PAMF) detector for space-time adaptive processing (STAP) in airborne surveillance radar systems and other similar applications. The equivalence offers new insights into the performance and implementation of the PAMF detector. Specifically, the Rao/PAMF detector is asymptotically (for large samples) a parametric generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT), due to an asymptotic equivalence between the Rao test and the GLRT. The asymptotic distribution of the Rao test statistic is obtained in closed form, which follows an exponential distribution under the null hypothesis H 0 and, respectively, a noncentral Chi-squared distribution with two degrees of freedom under the alternative hypothesis H 1. The noncentrality parameter of the noncentral Chi-squared distribution is determined by the output signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of a temporal whitening filter. Since the asymptotic distribution under H 0 is independent of the unknown parameters, the Rao/PAMF asymptotically achieves constant false alarm rate (CFAR). Numerical results show that these results are accurate in predicting the performance of the parametric Rao/PAMF detector even with moderate data support. View full abstract»

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  • Predictive & Adaptive MPPT Perturb and Observe Method

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 934 - 950
    Cited by:  Papers (72)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4515 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The perturb and observe (P&O) best operation conditions are investigated in order to identify the edge efficiency performances of this most popular maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique for photovoltaic (PV) applications. It is shown that P&O may guarantee top-level efficiency, provided that a proper predictive (by means of a parabolic interpolation of the last three operating points) and adaptive (based on the measure of the actual power) hill climbing strategy is adopted. The approach proposed is aimed at realizing, in addition to absolute best tracking performances, high robustness and promptness both in sunny and cloudy weather conditions. The power gain with respect to standard P&O technique is proved by means of simulation results and experimental measurements performed on a low power system. Besides the performance improvements, it is shown that the proposed approach allows possible reduction of hardware costs of analog-to-digital (A/D) converters used in the MPPT control circuitry. View full abstract»

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  • Gating Functions for Multipath Mitigation in GNSS BOC Signals

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 951 - 964
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2132 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new multipath mitigation technique is proposed for binary offset carrier (BOC) signals in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) using the concept of gating function originally conceived for the GPS coarse-acquisition (C/A) code. Specially-tailored pulses are utilized to diminish the number of false-lock points of the code discriminator response and to improve the multipath mitigation capability. The code loop includes only four real correlators (two extra correlators are required for the simplified bump-jumping algorithm with BOC(n,n) signals). Results obtained with BOC(n,n) and BOC(2n,n) signals show that this technique eliminates the multipath ranging errors for reflected rays with relative delays typically above twenty percent of the spreading code chip duration, thus comparing favorably with the conventional receiver correlation techniques. View full abstract»

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  • HRR Detector for Slow-Moving Targets in Sea Clutter

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 965 - 974
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2394 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The radar detection of targets in the presence of sea clutter has historically relied upon the radial velocity of targets with respect to the radar platform either by exploiting the relative target Dopplers (for targets with sufficient radial velocity) or by discerning the paths targets traverse from scan to scan. For targets with little to no radial velocity component, though, it can become quite difficult to differentiate targets from the surrounding sea clutter. This paper addresses the detection of slow-moving targets in sea clutter using a high resolution radar (HRR) such that the target has perceptible extent in range. Under the assumption of completely random sea clutter spikes based on an epsiv-contaminated mixture model with the signal and clutter powers known, optimal detection performance results from using the likelihood ratio test (LRT). However, for realistic sea clutter, the clutter spikes tend to be a localized phenomenon. Based upon observations from real radar data measurements, a heuristic approach exploiting a salient aspect of the idealized LRT is developed which is shown to perform well when applied to real measured sea clutter. View full abstract»

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  • Householder Multistage Wiener Filter for Space-Time Navigation Receivers

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 975 - 988
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2018 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Space-time (ST) processing in navigation receivers is attractive technology because it provides a sufficient number of degrees of freedom for cancelling a large number of wideband and narrowband jammers simultaneously. Low complexity reduced-rank receiver structures are particularly appealing because the number of filter coefficients can be much larger than the rank of the ST signal model. This paper proposes a new Householder-based multistage Wiener filter (HMSWF) structure for estimating the coefficients of an ST navigation receiver. Both floating point and fixed point arithmetic implementations are considered. The computational complexity of the HMSWF compares favorably with the other MSWF methods reported in literature. Furthermore, the use of Householder transformations at each stage ensures unitary blocking and numerically robust behavior even in finite-precision implementations. Simulations studies verify that the proposed ST navigation receiver based on the HMSWF outperforms other MSWF methods in the antijamming (A,J) task. View full abstract»

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  • Kullback-Leibler Approach to Gaussian Mixture Reduction

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 989 - 999
    Cited by:  Papers (45)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1895 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A common problem in multi-target tracking is to approximate a Gaussian mixture by one containing fewer components; similar problems can arise in integrated navigation. A common approach is successively to merge pairs of components, replacing the pair with a single Gaussian component whose moments up to second order match those of the merged pair. Salmond [1] and Williams [2, 3] have each proposed algorithms along these lines, but using different criteria for selecting the pair to be merged at each stage. The paper shows how under certain circumstances each of these pair-selection criteria can give rise to anomalous behaviour, and proposes that a key consideration should the the Kullback-Leibler (KL) discrimination of the reduced mixture with respect to the original mixture. Although computing this directly would normally be impractical, the paper shows how an easily computed upper bound can be used as a pair-selection criterion which avoids the anomalies of the earlier approaches. The behaviour of the three algorithms is compared using a high-dimensional example drawn from terrain-referenced navigation. View full abstract»

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  • Tracking of a Ballistic Missile with A-Priori Information

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1000 - 1016
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1451 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper addresses the problem of estimating the launch and impact points of a ballistic target from radar measurements. The problem has been faced under different hypotheses on the available prior knowledge. The proposed approach combines a nonlinear batch estimator with a recursive MM (multiple model) particle filter in order to attain the estimation goal. Extensive simulations assess the achievable estimation performance. View full abstract»

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  • Modified GLRT and AMF Framework for Adaptive Detectors

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1017 - 1051
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3767 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The well-known general problem of signal detection in background interference is addressed for situations where a certain statistical description of the interference is unavailable, but is replaced by the observation of some secondary (training) data that contains only the interference. For the broad class of interferences that have a large separation between signal-and noise-subspace eigenvalues, we demonstrate that adaptive detectors which use a diagonally loaded sample covariance matrix or a fast maximum likelihood (FML) estimate have significantly better detection performance than the traditional generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) and adaptive matched filter (AMI') detection techniques, which use a maximum likelihood (ML) covariance matrix estimate. To devise a theoretical framework that can generate similarly efficient detectors, two major modifications are proposed for Kelly's traditional GLRT and AMF detection techniques. First, a two-set GLRT decision rule takes advantage of an a priori assignment of different functions to the primary and secondary data, unlike the Kelly rule that was derived without this. Second, instead of ML estimates of the missing parameters in both GLRT and AMF detectors, we adopt expected likelihood (EL) estimates that have a likelihood within the range of most probable values generated by the actual interference covariance matrix. A Gaussian model of fluctuating target signal and interference is used in this study. We demonstrate that, even under the most favorable loaded sample-matrix inversion (LSMI) conditions, the theoretically derived EL-GLRT and FL-AMF techniques (where the loading factor is chosen from the training data using the EL matching principle) gives the same detection performance as the loaded AMF technique with a proper a priori data-invariant loading factor. For the least favorable conditions, our EL-AMF method is still superior to the standard AMF detector, and may be interpreted as an intelligent (data-dep- endent) method for selecting the loading factor. View full abstract»

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  • Novel DSC-IPM for Compact Converters at Elevated Temperatures

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1052 - 1058
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2025 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel two-side cooling for integrated power modules (IPMs) for improved compactness and capability for elevated temperature operations is presented. This approach applies and improves off-the-shelf products of IPM without significantly changing original packaging and fabrication process. It can reduce a device's p-n junction-temperature rise by 20% at an equivalent load, thus increasing operating ambient temperatures, which is desirable for aircraft applications. The size and volume associated with a conventional cooling mechanism can be reduced, achieving improved compactness and power density. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum radar signal for detection in clutter [Correspondence]

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1059 - 1065
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is shown that in order to maximize the detectability of a radar target in clutter whose Doppler is unknown and is uniformly distributed over the Doppler bandwidth a simple CW or narrowband signal is optimal. The optimality criterion is the average deflection coefficient, with the averaging being over target Doppler frequency. Most remarkably the result does not depend on the clutter spectrum but holds for any distribution of clutter energy with frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Impedance Calculations for Elements of Sonar Arrays by Neural-Network-Based Integration

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1065 - 1070
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (828 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a technique of neural network based integration is proposed to calculate the self-and mutual-impedances within arrays of sonar transducers. The multi-dimensional integrals appearing in self-and mutual-impedance formulations are transformed into neural-network-based integration and the final results can be found from look-up tables in mathematical handbooks. Initially, the integrand is modeled by a trained neural network. Integration on the integrand then becomes integration on the linear combination of weights and basis functions within the neural network. The results will become the linear combination of error functions which can be looked up in mathematical handbooks. Numerical simulation shows that the results calculated by the proposed method are consistent with those given in other existing studies. The proposed technique requires neither numerical nor artificial integration procedure. Due to the inherent learning and predicting property of neural network, only a small number of sampling points for the integrand are required in the proposed integration technique. View full abstract»

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  • Improved Global Range Alignment for ISAR

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1070 - 1075
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2141 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An improved global range alignment is presented for inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. The shifts of the echoes are modeled as a polynomial, and the coefficients of this polynomial are chosen to optimize a quality measure of range alignment. The shift in the time domain is carried out by introducing a phase ramp in the frequency domain in order to remove the limitation of integer steps. Because the quality measure of range alignment is calculated directly in the frequency domain, this method is computationally more efficient than the original global method. View full abstract»

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  • New Method of Chaotic Polyphase Sequences Design

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1075 - 1084
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1756 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new polyphase sequences synthesis method based on chaotic maps is presented. The correlation properties of sequences designed using this method are analyzed and proved to be almost perfect. The phase alphabet size can be any positive non-zero even, and the alphabet elements can be chosen arbitrarily by users. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this polyphase sequences design method. View full abstract»

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  • Framework and Taxonomy for Radar Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) Methods

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1084 - 1099
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The goal of radar space-time adaptive processing (STAP) is to detect slow moving targets from a moving platform, typically airborne or spaceborne. STAP generally requires the estimation and the inversion of an interference-plus-noise (I+N) covariance matrix. To reduce both the number of samples involved in the estimation and the computational cost inherent to the matrix inversion, many suboptimum STAP methods have been proposed. We propose a new canonical framework that encompasses all suboptimum STAP methods we are aware of. The framework allows for both covariance-matrix (CM) estimation and range-dependence compensation (RDC); it also applies to monostatic and bistatic configurations. Finally, we discuss a taxonomy for classifying the methods described by the framework. View full abstract»

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  • Application of the Kalman-Levy Filter for Tracking Maneuvering Targets

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1099 - 1107
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1143 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Among target tracking algorithms using Kalman filtering-like approaches, the standard assumptions are Gaussian process and measurement noise models. Based on these assumptions, the Kalman filter is widely used in single or multiple filter versions (e.g., in an interacting multiple model (IMM) estimator). The oversimplification resulting from the above assumptions can cause degradation in tracking performance. In this paper we explore the application of Kalman-Levy filter to handle maneuvering targets. This filter assumes a heavy-tailed noise distribution known as the Levy distribution. Due to the heavy-tailed nature of the assumed distribution, the Kalman-Levy filter is more effective in the presence of large errors that can occur, for example, due to the onset of acceleration or deceleration. However, for the same reason, the performance of the Kalman-Levy filter in the nonmaneuvering portion of track is worse than that of a Kalman filter. For this reason, an IMM with one Kalman and one Kalman-Levy module is developed here. Also, the superiority of the IMM with Kalman-Levy module over only Kalman-filter-based IMM for realistic maneuvers is shown by simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Explicit Expressions for the Bias and Variance of the ML Estimated Gumbel Distribution Parameters

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1107 - 1108
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (119 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Explicit expressions are derived for the bias and the variance of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator of the Gumbel distribution. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems focuses on the equipment, procedures, and techniques applicable to the organization, installation, and operation of functional systems designed to meet the high performance requirements of earth and space systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Lance Kaplan
Army Research Laboratory