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Bio-Medical Electronics, IRE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date July 1961

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): c1
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  • IRE Professional Group on Bio-Medical Electronics

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): c2
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  • [Table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 151
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  • Editorial

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 152
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  • Techniques for Obtaining Absorption Spectra on Intact Biological Samples

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 153 - 157
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Absorption spectra can be obtained on a wide range of biological samples with little or no sample preparation by using a high sensitivity, low-noise spectrophotometer with the sample in close juxtaposition with the photocathode. An instrument designed for such measurements is described, and possible applications are discussed. The spectrophotometer is a single-beam recording unit using a double-prism monochromator, 100-watt tungsten source, end-window multiplier-type phototube and an X-Y recorder. The phototube is operated at a constant anode current and a logarithmic voltmeter measures the dynode voltage, providing a photometer which is linear with density change over an opticaldensity range of 8. The noise level for samples of low density is equivalent to an optical-density change of 0.002 with a response time of 1 second for full scale pen travel. Any part or all of the wavelength region from 200 to 1200 m¿ may be scanned with a wide choice of scanning speeds. Provision is included for electrical correction of system response to give a flat baseline characteristic for a selected region of the spectrum. This permits measurements at high sensitivity on samples with high scatter loss. Versatile sample mounting arrangements permit measurement of a wide range of materials. Liquids, powders, and homogenates are measured in sample cells of appropriate size. Tissue slices and solid samples are mounted on a metal plate with an aperture in the center for the transmitted light to reach the phototube. View full abstract»

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  • Introduction to Digital Computers and Automatic Programming

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 158 - 167
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    The vastly increased capabilities that computers offer the bio-medical research worker are primarily due to the utilization of high-speed digital computers. The techniques of automatic programming are attempts to lighten the load of the programmer and coder, by making the computer itself help prepare the program or code, minimizing the amount of writing a programmer need do. From a functional point of view, three types of automatic programs can be distinguished: the algebraic automatic program that can "understand" a code written almost directly in the usual algebraic symbols; the data-manipulation automatic program that greatly facilitates the handling of large masses of data; and the simulation automatic program, which greatly facilitates model building on the computer. The role of the automatic program is to translate "pseudoinstructions," that nearly resemble ordinary language, into direct computer or "machine language" instructions. In this tutorial paper, the basic concepts of the "machine language" are described first, and then a sketch of some of the techniques for composing and utilizing automatic programming "languages" is given. View full abstract»

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  • Short Distance Broadcasting of Physiological Data

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 168 - 172
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    For the transmission of physiological data not requiring complete freedom for the subject, a direct wire system offers many practical advantages including low cost and high reliability. Such a system is particularly well adapted for bedside monitoring and for the usual studies in the clinical laboratory where the patient is required by his illness to be in a fixed position. For general purpose physiological telemetery, it is necessary to transmit a bandwidth extending to zero cycles per second. Experience has demonstrated that such transmission is possible over a direct wire circuit for a distance of at least half a mile. An over-all response time of 100 ¿sec provides an adequate bandwidth for the most rapidly changing physiological events. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow by External Collimation Following Intravenous Injection of Radioisotope

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 173 - 177
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    A technique is described which studies cerebral circulation by monitoring with external collimated scintillation detectors the passage through each cerebral hemisphere of a bolus of radioisotope injected intravenously. The test is simple, harmless, almost painless, and repeatable at frequent intervals. Radiation of the patient is minimized by use of a rapidly excreted isotope. Theoretical considerations of the test are presented. The clinical applications carried out to date are described. The test appears to give a quick relative determination of the total blood flow to each cerebral hemisphere. The possibilities of obtaining an absolute determination are considered. View full abstract»

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  • The Analysis and Interpretation of the Vibrations of the Heart, as a Diagnostic Tool and Physiological Monitor

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 178 - 181
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
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    This work has been concerned with the development of a presymptomatic diagnostic tool and with the determination of cardiac function by analysis and interpretation of the vibrations of the heart. The data processing associated with the study includes the use of time-frequency analysis and display equipment, power area measurement circuitry, and also automatic digital interval measurements. With this technique, a single channel of data can provide information concerning the heart rate, relative cardiac output, blood-pressure changes, breathing rate, and the effect of changed blood oxygen saturation. The value and application of this technique to bio-astronautical instrumentation can be great. View full abstract»

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  • EGE Records from Cortical and Deep Brain Structures during Centrifugal and Vibrational Accelerations in Cats and Monkeys

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 182 - 188
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    Electroencephalographic records have been taken from deep regions of the brains of cats and monkeys with chronically implanted electrodes during centrifugal and shaking accelerations comparable to booster forces. Histological and X-ray controls have indicated that displacement of the electrodes does not occur, and that damage to brain tissue is comparable with nonaccelerated animals. A transistorized EEG amplifier suitable for recording in satellite biopack environments has been developed. In centrifuge tests, transverse accelerations up to 8 G were associated with rhythmic "arousal" patterns of slow waves in hippocampal regions of the temporal lobe during increasing or decreasing acceleration. Longitudinal accelerations between 5 and 6 G produced blackouts after 30 to 40 seconds, with flattening of EEG records, and frequently with induction of epileptic seizure activity in temporal-lobe leads. Shaking tests suggested that vibrational acceleration may be associated with the intermittent "driving" of the cerebral rhythms, in a fashion resembling photic driving, at shaking rates from 11 to 15 cps, and from 22 to 30 cps. View full abstract»

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  • The Electrocardiogram as an Indicator of Acceleration Stress

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 189 - 191
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    By means of a transistor amplifier mounted before the slip rings of an animal centrifuge it was possible to obtain recordings of the EKG of rats under acceleration stress. With this information, a physiological end point for the tolerance of the rat to 20 G (positive acceleration) was defined as the time to reduce the heart rate of the animal from an initial state ranging from seven to nine beats per second to a final moribund state of 2 beats per second. The instrumentation and techniques employed permit the option of recovering the animal alive after approaching the limit of tolerance to acceleration. View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 191
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  • Endoradiosondes for Pressure Telemetering

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 192 - 196
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Two miniature radio transmitters have been developed for telemetering pressure values from internal body cavities. The large sonde has a volume of 4.1 cc and has a lifetime of up to three months when a mercury battery is used. It is employed for physiological studies on animals, and is attached to the wall of the gastrointestinal canal or other body cavities by sutures at operation. The small sonde has a volume of 1.0 cc and a lifetime of three weeks. It is used for gastrointestinal investigations on humans. The transducer in both sondes responds to a pressure variation of 300 cm H20 which gives a 30-Kc deviation of the 300 to 400 Kc carrier frequency. View full abstract»

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  • A Miniaturized Pneumograph Monitor

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 197 - 198
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
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    This pneumograph, by virtue of its small size and simplicity, has found application as a physiological monitor during anesthesia. The instrument measures chest and abdominal expansion and does not impede respiration or impose on the upper airway. View full abstract»

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  • Construction of a Neuron Model

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 198 - 202
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    An application of a linear programming technique to the economical construction of the neuron model introduced by McCulloch is described. Given a set of functional requirements for a neuron, a model satisfying these requirements is efficiently constructed. View full abstract»

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  • Letters to the Editor

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 203 - 204
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  • Notices

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 205
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  • PGBME Affiliates

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 206
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  • Editorial Policy for Ire Transactions on Bio-Medical Electronics

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 206-a
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  • Information for authors

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 206a
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  • Institutional listings

    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 206b
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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased publication in 1962. The current retitled publication is Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Full Aims & Scope