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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 1987

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): c2
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  • Guest Editorial Fast Opening Vacuum Switches for High-Power Inductive Energy Storage

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 629 - 634
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  • Plasma Erosion Opening Switch Research at NRL

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 635 - 648
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3165 KB)  

    This paper is a review of plasma erosion opening switch (PEOS) research performed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Several experimental and theoretical results are described to illustrate the present level of understanding and the best switching results obtained to date. Significant power multiplication has been achieved on the Gamble II generator, producing 3.5 TW with less than 10-ns rise time. Switching after nearly 1-¿s conduction time has been demonstrated on Pawn, producing a 0.2-TW 100-ns pulse. Scaling the switch to higher current, power, and conduction time should be possible based on theoretical analysis and the favorable results of scaling experiments performed thus far. View full abstract»

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  • Microsecond Plasma Opening Switches

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 649 - 653
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (997 KB)  

    This review presents the results of experiments with plasma opening switches (POS's) in which energy delivery to the storage inductor occurs on a microsecond time scale. Under these conditions, the POS insures an impedance rate of rise of ~109 ¿/s to final values of ~10-20 ¿. These parameters allow the POS to be considered as a basis for the creation of unique ~ 1013-W pulsed power generators as well as compact ~1010-W commercial generators. View full abstract»

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  • A Summary of Experimental Results from Inductive Store Pulse Compression Experiments with Plasma Opening Switches on the Pulse Power Generators Pollux and KALIF

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 654 - 666
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5568 KB)  

    Experimental results from inductive store pulse compression experiments with plasma opening switches are presented. The experiments have been performed on the high-power pulse generators Pollux and KALIF operating at nominal powers of 0.1 and 1.5 TW, respectively. A large range of switch geometries, currents, voltages, and magnetic fields have been investigated. Diode loads with falling and rising impedance characteristics have been applied. A peak-power multiplication of 2 has been demonstrated in the Pollux experiments. The power multiplication in the present experiments was limited by the lack of magnetic insulation in the switch and adjacent feed section at higher load impedances. The limitations were much more severe than predicted by laminar flow theories of magnetic insulation. Generally, magnetic insulation was superior, with diode loads having rising impedance characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Pulsed Power Compression Research by Vacuum Opening Switch at ILE Osaka

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 667 - 673
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1241 KB)  

    The performance of a vacuum fast opening switch in an inductive store pulse compression system was investigated theoretically and experimentally at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. A parameter survey for the pulsed power compression system was performed for optimizing the power amplification and efficiency. An analysis of the plasma erosion opening switch (PEOS) showed that a low-density high-injection velocity plasma and a small radius switch is desired for pulse compression. In experiments, the effect of plasma injection velocity and injection polarity on the switch operation was studied on an "inverse pinch" electron beam diode, and high-voltage and high-impedance operation were performed on an ion diode. View full abstract»

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  • The Application of a Plasma Erosion Opening Switch to a Nanosecond Generator at the Power Level of 1010 W

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 674 - 677
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (938 KB)  

    This paper is devoted to experimental studies of a short-pulse (80 ns) inductive system with a coaxial plasma erosion opening switch (PEOS), operating at the 2-5 × 1010 W level. Scalings of the PEOS and ion diode characteristics with different parameters (PEOS plasma density and velocity, PEOS electrode geometry, load impedance, type and strength of an external magnetic field) were carried out. It was seen that for the most efficient energy and power switching to the load by the PEOS, the following conditions are preferable: high velocity and low density of the plasma flow, negative polarity of the inner PEOS electrode, coincidence of the switch current and injected plasma flow directions, the absence of an external magnetic field, and the presence of an additional self-field in the PEOS region. Power enhancement of a factor of 3 and pulse shortening by a factor of 2 were obtained under optimal conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Computer Simulation of High-Power Ion Beam Generation Using the Plasma Erosion Opening Switch and Microsecond Store Systems

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 678 - 685
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1584 KB)  

    This paper deals with computer simulation of plasma erosion opening switch (PEOS) operation in the context of short-pulse high-power ion beam (HPIB) generation in microsecond store systems. The scaling of PEOS parameters and ion diode characteristics with various operating conditions was determined. The simulations showed the best PEOS characteristics for a hydrogen plasma (i.e., the lowest mass) with a high flow velocity and low density, although for some applications a plasma with A/Z > 1 may be preferable. It was shown that the efficiency of HPIB generation in the diode depends on its location relative to the PEOS, the time delay of anode plasma formation, the use of a spiral electrode in the PEOS region, and the use of an arrangement involving an ion return current bypass through the PEOS region. The optimization of the PEOS and ion diode with coaxial configurations and 100 kJ stored in the 600-kV Marx yielded a 16-percent overall efficiency HPIB generation in the diode, with a diode voltage and power of 4.2 MV and 0.42 TW, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Opening Switch Application to Inductive Energy Storage and Theoretical Study of This Technology for 14-MeV Neutron Burst Production

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 686 - 691
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (956 KB)  

    Vacuum inductive energy storage by plasma erosion opening switches (PEOS's) offers the possibility of enhancing pulsed power generator efficiency for bremsstrahlung production. Different laboratories, mainly the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), had largely developed this technology some years ago. More recently, we have done experiments and numerical simulation for a 1-TW pulsed generator. We give a comparison between simulation and experiments, and we have extended this simulation to a larger number of plasma guns. Furthermore, inductive energy techniques have been investigated theoretically to heat a dense Z-pinch plasma (DZP) and to obtain a 14-MeV neutron burst. Results, using a simple heating model to treat the plasma, indicate the feasibility of these experiments if fast opening reduces instabilities. View full abstract»

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  • Plasma Erosion Opening Switch in the Double-Pulse Operation Mode of a High-Current Electron Accelerator

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 692 - 694
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    This paper reports the results of investigations of the operation of a fast current opening switch, with a 1013-1016 plasma density produced either by dielectric surface flashover or by explosive emission of graphite. A series of two pulses was applied to two diodes in parallel. The first pulse produced plasma in the first diode which closed that diode gap by the arrival time of the second pulse. The first, shorted, diode then acted as an erosion switch for the second pulse. A factor of 2.5-3 power multiplication was obtained under optimum conditions. The opening-switch resistance during the magnetic insulation phase, neglecting the electron losses between the switch and the generating diode, exceeded 100 ¿. The duration of the rapid opening phase was less than 5 ns under optimum conditions. This method of plasma production does not require external plasma sources, and permits a wide variation of plasma density, which in turn allows high inductor currents and stored energies. View full abstract»

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  • A Self-Similar Model for Conduction in the Plasma Erosion Opening Switch

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 695 - 703
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2894 KB)  

    The conduction phase of the plasma erosion opening switch (PEOS) is characterized by combining a 1-D fluid model for plasma hydrodynamics, Maxwell's equations, and a 2-D electron-orbit analysis. A self-similar approximation for the plasma and field variables permits analytic expressions for their space and time variations to be derived. It is shown that a combination of axial MHD compression and magnetic insulation of high-energy electrons emitted from the switch cathode can control the character of switch conduction. The analysis highlights the need to include additional phenomena for accurate fluid modeling of PEOS conduction. View full abstract»

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  • Fluid Simulation of the Conduction Phase of the Plasma Erosion Opening Switch

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 704 - 714
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3516 KB)  

    The conduction phase of the plasma erosion opening switch (PEOS) is studied using a 1¿-D electromagnetic two-fluid code. The focus of this work is on understanding how two effects, a current-limiting model of electron emission, and the magnetic insulation of electrons at the cathode, determine current conduction in the plasma. Simulations are performed in the parameter regimes of the Gamble I, POP, and PBFA II pulsed power generators, and previous low-density, short-rise time simulations of the PEOS. Fluid code results are compared to a 1-D analytic theory and to the Gamble I and POP experiments. Good agreement between theory and simulation, but mixed agreement between simulation and experiment is found. Experimental B-field measurements on POP show weaker j × B compression than the simulation. Current penetration and plasma current channels qualitatively similar to experimental observation are found in the Gamble I regime. However, magnetic insulation of electrons emitted from the cathode bunches the electron flow into narrower current channels than observed experimentally. In several cases, the presence of an electron-scattering or energy-loss mechanism near the cathode must be invoked to overcome magnetic insulation and widen the current channels. View full abstract»

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  • Implicit Collisional Three-Fluid Simulation of the Plasma Erosion Opening Switch

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 715 - 724
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4766 KB)  

    The plasma erosion opening switch (PEOS) has been studied with the aid of the ANTHEM implicit simulation code. This switch consists of fill plasma injected into a transmission line. The plasma is ultimately removed by self-electrical forces, permitting energy delivery to a load. Here, ANTHEM treats the ions and electrons of the fill plasma and the electrons emitted from the transmission-line cathode as three distinct Eulerian fluids-with electron inertia retained. This permits analysis of charge separation effects, and avoids the singularities that plague conventional MHD codes at low density. E and B fields are computed by the implicit moment method, allowing for time steps well in excess of the electron plasma period ¿t >> ¿p-1, and cells much wider than a Debye length, ¿x >> ¿D. Switch dynamics are modeled as a function of the driving electrical pulse characteristics, the fill plasma parameters, and the emission properties of the transmission line walls-for both collisionless and anomalously collisional electrons. Our low-fill-density (ne ¿ 4 × 1012 electrons/cm3) collisionless calculations are in accord with earlier particle code results. Our high-density computations (ne ¿ 2 × 1013 electrons/cm3) show the opening of the switch proceeding through both ion erosion and magnetic pressure effects. The addition of anomalous electron collisions is found to diffuse the driving B field into the fill plasma, producing broad current channels and reduced magnetic pressure effects, in some agreement with NRL experimental measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Two-Dimensional MHD Simulations of Magnetic Field Penetration in the Plasma Opening Switch

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 725 - 734
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3704 KB)  

    Three mechanisms for anomalous magnetic field penetration have been investigated in computer simulations of Sandia's plasma opening switch (POS). The POS simulations have been performed using the two-dimensional (2-D) two-temperature single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code HAM [1], [2]. The three penetration mechanisms considered are 1) the Chodura model based on the ion-acoustic instability where the saturated value of the anomalous collision frequency is approximated by the ion plasma frequency; 2) a model based on the lower hybrid instability in which the anomalous collision frequency is proportional to both the ion plasma frequency and the electron drift velocity; and 3) a model that limits the ion drift velocity to the plasma influx velocity. Two-dimensional MHD calculations of the POS will be presented which show these models to be qualitatively similar for densities above a few 1013 cm-3, though at lower densities they can be quite different. The calculations are compared to experiments, and some agreement is seen with the lower hybrid model. The other models compare only marginally to experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • The Jon Beam Opening Switch

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 735 - 740
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2306 KB)  

    Plasma opening switches (POS's) have shown excellent characteristics in pulsed power applications. Proposed POS scaling predicts that the fastest opening time for a given conducted current should occur using a high-velocity low-density plasma as the switch medium. The ion beam opening switch (IBOS) uses a charge-neutral ion beam of 100-300 kV, ¿ 120 A/cm2 as the switch "plasma." Its velocity of up to 600 cm/¿s and density of ~1012/cm3 make this a very fast low-density plasma compared with typical 10 cm/¿s and 1013/cm3 POS plasmas. The IBOS has conducted ¿ 70 kA flowing in a parallel-plate transmission line driven by a 4-¿ pulser. IBOS opening time is load dependent, being ¿ 4 ns into a 15-nH load and about twice as long into a 4-¿ electron diode load. However, switch impedance is not zero during the entire conduction time, rising to ¿ 3 ¿ by the time of peak current. Peak current conducted before opening does not vary linearly with either injected ion current or switch axial length. Instead, the conduction current scales with plasma density in the switch, and is nearly independent of switch area until the area is restricted to a narrow (~1 cm) strip. View full abstract»

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  • A Simple Model for Flashboard Plasma Expansion

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 741 - 746
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1815 KB)  

    A simple model for flashboard plasma expansion is presented. It is based on the j × B force and the fact that only a fraction a of the total current flows through the expanding plasma. For the parameters under consideration, maximum velocities are roughly proportional to a and reach 70 cm/¿s for ¿ = 1. B-field profiles from the model are compared with experiment. View full abstract»

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  • Review of Plasma Flow Switch Development

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 747 - 759
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3750 KB)  

    The plasma flow switch utilizes the nonlinear and nonuniform dynamics of a plasma discharge in vacuum to accumulate magnetic energy in times of several microseconds and then release this energy to a load in times of a few hundred nanoseconds. Experiments have been performed with capacitor banks up to 6 MJ, providing currents in excess of 107 A and peak voltages over 0.5 MV. Theoretical models include simple slug dynamics coupled to lumped-circuit analyses, magnetoacoustic considerations of one- and two-dimensional aspects of the plasma flow, and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic code calculations. The present article reviews both experimental and theoretical efforts, discusses the use of the plasma flow switch to drive plasma liner implosions and high-energy ion flows, and indicates directions for plasma flow switch applications to very high current, high-energy inductive pulsed power systems. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Results from SHIVA Star Vacuum Inductive Store/Plasma Flow Switch Drven Implosions

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 760 - 765
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1026 KB)  

    Using a 1313-¿F, 3-nH, 120-kV, 9.4-MJ SHIVA Star capacitor bank, we have performed vacuum inductive store/plasma flow switch (PFS) driven implosions of low mass (200-400 ¿g/cm2) cylindrical foil liners of 2-cm height and 5-cm radius. This technique employs a coaxial discharge through a plasma armature, which stores magnetic energy over 3-4 ¿s and rapidly switches it to an imploding load as the plasma armature exits the coaxial gun muzzle. The current transferred to the load by the PFS has a rise time of less than 0.2 ¿s. With 5-MJ stored energy, we have driven fast liner implosions with a current of over 9 MA, obtaining an isotropic equivalent 2.7-TW 0.5-MJ X-ray yield. View full abstract»

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  • Simulations of a Plasma Flow Switch

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 766 - 771
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2296 KB)  

    In a portion of the experimental program using the SHIVA Star capacitor bank at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL), a cylindrical foil load is imploded using an inductive store and a plasma flow switch. We have performed a number of two-dimensional simulations of the switch and load using the MHD code MACH2. In addition to explaining the data from the first series of experiments, the simulations led to design modifications of the basic plasma flow switch that resulted in improved current delivery and in enhanced radiation yield. The experimental results are reported in a companion paper by Degnan et al. The key modification was closing portions of the vane structure. The switch must be sealed shut or else substantial current will flow in the diffuse gas that is ablated from the walls of the switch barrel. View full abstract»

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  • Pulsed Power Opening Switch Research at the University of New Mexico

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 772 - 780
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1895 KB)  

    Opening switch research at the University of New Mexico (UNM) is directed toward moderate-current (~10 kA) devices with potential applications to high-power charged particle accelerators. Two devices with the capacity for controlling gigawatt high-voltage circuits, the grid-controlled plasma flow switch and the scanned-beam switch, are under investigation. Both switches are conceptually simple; they involve little collective physics and are within the capabilities of current technology. In the plasma flow switch, the flux of electrons into a high-voltage power gap is controlled by a low-voltage control grid. Plasma generation is external to, and independent of, the power circuit. In the closed phase, plasma fills the gap so that the switch has a low on-state impedance. Pulse repetition rates in the megahertz range should be feasible. In single-shot proof-of-principle experiments, a small area switch modulated a 3-MW circuit; a 20-ns opening time was observed. The scanned-beam switch will utilize electric field deflection to direct the power of a sheet electron beam. The beam is to be alternately scanned to two inverse diodes connected to output transmission lines. The switch is expected to generate continuous-wave pulse trains for applications such as high-frequency induction linacs. Theoretical studies indicate that 10-GW devices in the 100-MHz range with 70-percent efficiency should be technologically feasible. View full abstract»

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  • Announcement IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science Special Issue on Applications of Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 781
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 1987 Index IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science Vol. PS-15

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 1 - 9
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Open the Door to Technical Information

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 9-a
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Information for authors

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 9b
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    Freely Available from IEEE

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IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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Editor-in-Chief
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