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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2  Part 2 • Date April 2007

 This issue contains several parts.Go to:  Part 1  | Part 3 

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C2
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  • Dusty Plasmas in Colonial Williamsburg

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 253 - 254
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  • PK-4: Complex Plasmas in Space—The Next Generation

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 255 - 259
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (565 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    PK-4 is an experiment designed to investigate complex plasmas in a combined dc/RF discharge under microgravity conditions on board of the International Space Station. The dc discharge is produced in a glass tube with a length of 35 cm and a diameter of 3 cm. In addition, an RF discharge can be applied by external RF coils. The setup is especially suited for studying the liquid phase of the complex plasmas, e.g., flow phenomena such as turbulence or nozzles, and forces acting on the microparticles. Experiments in the laboratory and in parabolic flights have been used to determine the charge of the microparticles as well as the ion drag force acting on them View full abstract»

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  • Formation of Cosmic Dust Bunnies

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 260 - 265
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (390 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Planetary formation is an efficient process now thought to take place on a relatively short astronomical time scale. Recent observations have shown that the dust surrounding a protostar emits more efficiently at longer wavelengths as the protoplanetary disk evolves, suggesting that the dust particles are coagulating into fluffy aggregates, "much as dust bunnies form under a bed." One poorly understood problem in this coagulation process is the manner in which the micrometer-sized charged grains form the fractal aggregate structures now thought to be the precursors of protoplanetary disk evolution. This paper examines the characteristics of such fractal aggregates formed by the collision of spherical monomers and aggregates where the charge is distributed over the aggregate structure. The aggregates are free to rotate due to the collisions and dipole-dipole electrostatic interactions. Comparisons are made for different precursor size distributions and like-charged, oppositely charged, and neutral grains View full abstract»

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  • Laser Manipulation of the Void Edge in Dusty Plasmas Under Microgravity

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 266 - 270
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (314 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Experiments on the laser manipulation of dust particles in a 3-D dust cloud under microgravity conditions are presented. The experiments have been performed on two parabolic flight campaigns in 2005 and 2006 to study the formation of the dust-free region ("void") in the center of the cloud. The manipulation laser is used to drive particles from the void edge into the void. From the particle trajectories, the forces on the particles are derived. The measured forces are compared to models of the ion drag force View full abstract»

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  • Charge of Dust on Surfaces in Plasma

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 271 - 279
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (549 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Experimental investigations are reported on the charging of dust particles resting on conducting and insulating surfaces beneath plasma. The experiment is configured to give insight into the behavior of dust on planetary surfaces exposed to solar wind plasma. In the experiments, the surfaces are agitated so that the particles drop through a small hole into a Faraday cup that measures the charge on each dust particle. Both conducting (Ni) and insulating dusts (SiO2, Al2 O3 and JSC-1 lunar regolith simulant) are investigated. The conducting surface is given a bias voltage above the floating potential to create conditions in which the electron flux is dominant or a bias voltage below the floating potential for which the ion flux is dominant. The dust charges more positively in ion-flux-dominant conditions and more negatively in electron-flux-dominant conditions. The insulating dusts retain the charge for a long period of time ( > 1 h) after the plasma is turned off. The charge decays more quickly if the surface is agitated, causing the dust to roll around, or if there is ultraviolet illumination. The conducting dust often has a lower level of charge than the insulating dust because the charge is conducted from the dust particle into the conducting surface. Conducting and insulating dusts on an insulating surface have approximately the same level of charge View full abstract»

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  • Manipulating Dust Charge Using Ultraviolet Light in a Complex Plasma

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 280 - 285
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    Making use of a 1-D particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo code, which includes the scattering and collection of plasma particles on dust immersed in the plasma, we study the effect of photodetachment by ultraviolet (UV) photons in a radio frequency dusty argon plasma. This is done by adding a UV source in the model, which results in a UV flux entering the plasma from the left side. The dust charge is reduced for dust clouds consisting of 5- mum particles at a dust density relevant for both experiments and plasma applications. Using UV photons with energies above the work function, but below the ionization threshold, at fluxes of a few tens of watts per square meter, provides an interesting tool to control the dust charge in such plasmas. This could result in a way to control the dust particle coagulation or dust transport. For very high dust densities, the dust charge is not reduced by the incident UV photons View full abstract»

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  • Secondary Emission From Glass Grains: Comparison of the Model and Experiment

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 286 - 291
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The surface potential of dust grains immersed in surrounding plasma results from the balance of many charging processes such as photoemission, electron/ion attachments, and secondary and field emissions. Since hot electrons are often present in space as well as laboratory plasmas, the understanding of the secondary electron (SE) emission process for small dust grains is of great interest because their size effects modify well-known characteristics of large samples. This paper compares the measured surface potential of SiO2 spherical dust grains with the results of the Monte Carlo model of secondary emission developed for metallic samples. It was found that 1) the model can be used for description of the secondary emission process from cosmic dust, 2) the backscattering of primary beam electrons is the most important factor for the charging of small grains, and 3) the actual value of the surface grain potential is given by the energy spectrum of SEs View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Charging Conditions on Field Ion Emission From Dust Grains

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 292 - 296
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (393 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with field ion emission (FIE) of spherical gold grains of micrometer sizes. We have analyzed the discharging characteristics measured under different conditions on one gold grain and suggested that the process limiting the discharging current is probably a diffusion of primary ions toward the grain surface. In order to confirm this hypothesis, we concentrated on the influence of the charging conditions (ion beam energy, ion species) on the discharging current. The investigations show that the ion field emission is a very complex process in which the charging conditions can change the discharging rate by an order of magnitude for a given electric field. We found that the total dose of the ions impacting the dust grain is an important parameter of the FIE. Our possible explanation is based on the implantation of the charging ions and their diffusion toward the surface of the dust grain View full abstract»

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  • The Sputtering of Dust Grains: Aspects of Experimental Observations

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 297 - 302
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dust grains are sputtered at every environment containing energetic ions (i.e., ions with energies of several kiloelectronvolts). In the laboratory, only the beam experiments would fulfil these conditions; however, in the space, ions of these energies can be found even in the solar wind. It was suggested that the sputtering is one of the most important destruction processes of micrometer-sized dust grains, and on the other hand, it would be a source of heavy species in the interplanetary medium. We simulate the space environment by trapping the dust grains in an electrodynamic quadrupole trap and by influencing them by the ion beam with a variable energy up to 5 keV. The grains are charged to high surface potentials, and thus, a strong electric field near the surface can affect the sputtering rate. The finite size and the small curvature radius of grains play an important role in the quantification of sputtering efficiency. We propose a simple sputtering model for spherical grains and compare its predictions with measurements. An interpretation of the preliminary results obtained on gold microspheres bombarded by argon ions indicates that not only the grain mass but also the grain shape is changing in the course of our experiment. We suggest that similar effects can occur in the space if the dust is exposed to collimated ion beams View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of the Kinetic Dust Temperature of a Weakly Coupled Dusty Plasma

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 303 - 308
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    Measurements of the velocity space distribution function of 1.2-mum-diameter alumina particles in an argon direct-current glow discharge dusty plasma are made using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. These distribution functions are then used to determine the kinetic temperature of the dust component. These measurements show that the kinetic temperature of the dust component is significantly larger than the other plasma components, such as electrons, ions, and background neutrals View full abstract»

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  • Observation of One-Dimensional Flows in a DC Glow Discharge Dusty Plasma

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 309 - 313
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    Modifications have been made to the Auburn dusty plasma experiment to create 1-D flows. These include the addition of a new segmented electrode with two sections that can be biased independently. By varying the bias of one section, 1-D flows have been created in a dusty plasma. Particle image velocimetry techniques are used to measure the transport. A preliminary analysis shows that the particles in the flowing cloud increase their speed as they approach the boundary of the stationary cloud (within 2 mm). This suggests the presence of a sheathlike layer at the cloud-plasma interface View full abstract»

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  • Smoky Plasma

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 314 - 322
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (181 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The mesosphere is a naturally occurring complex plasma with nanometer-sized smoke particles from the ablation of meteors that remain aloft as a consequence of their low rate of sedimentation. Methods are discussed for creating and diagnosing a relatively uniform smoky plasma in the laboratory for the purpose of investigating mesospheric physics. Metallic particles, a few nanometers in radius, are created by evaporation of metal into an inert carrier gas. The particles are transported by gas flow into a double plasma device, where they are charged by the plasma and confined by the plasma potential. Physics issues for the mesosphere that may be investigated include the origins of positively charged smoke particles and of fluctuating electric fields that have been observed by rocket-borne probes View full abstract»

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  • Relationship Between the DC Bias and the Debye Length in a Complex Plasma

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 323 - 327
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The levitation height of a dust-particle layer within an RF discharge plasma sheath is known to be related to the dc bias, the background pressure, and the Debye length. In this paper, a new experimental technique for measurement of the Debye length is introduced. This technique is based on the relationship between an externally applied dc bias and the particle levitation height and shows that under appropriate conditions, the addition of an externally applied dc bias provides a mechanism for the evaluation of the Debye length. When compared with existing techniques, this new method appears to be simpler to implement in some cases View full abstract»

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  • Stereoscopy on Yukawa Balls in Dusty Plasmas

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 328 - 331
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (209 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The static properties and the dynamics of spherically symmetric 3-D particle clusters (Yukawa balls) are determined experimentally. For that purpose, the stereoscopy with two standard video cameras as well as a three-camera high-speed system is used to simultaneously measure the positions of all particles in a Yukawa ball. The order phenomena, like shell configuration and occupation numbers, are found to be in agreement with the models and simulations. The normal modes' analysis for the Yukawa ball is presented View full abstract»

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  • Molecular Dynamics Studies of Solid–Liquid Phase Transition in 2-D Yukawa Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 332 - 336
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present systematic studies aimed at investigating the precise details of solid-liquid phase transition in 2-D classical many-particle systems interacting with the Yukawa potential. This is done by introducing and analyzing a variety of indicators, such as the bond angular order parameter, the angular distribution of the Einstein oscillations, local angular correlations, global positional correlations, and the variation of internal energy in the vicinity of the melting temperature. Our results consequently show rapid changes around Gamma=415 for kappamacr=2 of the investigated quantities View full abstract»

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  • Collective Modes in 2-D Yukawa Solids and Liquids

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 337 - 341
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (245 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report comparative studies on collective excitations in 2-D complex plasmas, in which particles interact through the Yukawa potential, encompassing both the solid and the strongly coupled liquid states. Dispersion and polarization of the collective modes in the solid state are calculated through the lattice summations, while in the liquid state, through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in conjunction with the theoretical quasi-localized charge approximation analysis. The latter closely emulates the dispersion, resulting from an angular averaging in the lattice. In general, however, the lattice dispersion is substantially different from that of the liquid. The MD simulations show the dramatic transformation of the anisotropic phonon dispersion of the crystal lattice near the solid-liquid transition into the isotropic liquid dispersion View full abstract»

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  • Beam–Plasma Interaction in Two-Dimensional Yukawa Lattices

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 342 - 345
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (430 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The beam-plasma instability displays new properties when either the beam or the plasma, or both, are strongly interacting. We have considered theoretically the case when the plasma is in the crystalline phase and forms a lattice, and the beam is moving in the lattice plane. We consider a 2-D plasma crystal in which both the grains and the beam particles interact through a realistic Yukawa potential. The beam particles are assumed to be weakly coupled to each other and to the lattice. Using the full phonon spectrum for a 2-D hexagonal Yukawa lattice, we determine and compare the transverse and longitudinal growth rates. The relationship between the beam speed and the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds, and the direction of the beam with respect to the principle axes of the lattice determine the qualitative behavior of the growth rates. For beam speeds between the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds, the transverse instability could be more important, because it appears at lower wavenumbers View full abstract»

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  • Structural Phases of Bounded Three-Dimensional Screened Coulomb Clusters (Finite Yukawa System)

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 346 - 351
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The formation of 3-D dust clusters within a complex plasma modeled as a spatially confined Yukawa system is simulated using the box_tree code. Similar to unscreened Coulomb clusters, the occurrence of concentric shells with characteristic occupation numbers was observed. Both the occupation numbers and radii were found to depend on the Debye length. Ground and low-energy metastable states of the shielded 3-D Coulomb clusters were determined for 4<N<20. The structure and energy of the clusters in different states was analyzed for various Debye lengths. Structural phase transitions, including intershell structural phase transitions and intrashell structural phase transitions, were observed for varying Debye length and the critical value for transitions calculated View full abstract»

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  • Leading the field since 1884 [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 352
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C3
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  • Affiliate Plan of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): C4
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IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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