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By Topic

Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May 1972

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Group

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): c2
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  • Editorial

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 173
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  • Automated Radiographic Diagnosis via Feature Extraction and Classification of Cardiac Size and Shape Descriptors

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 174 - 186
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7245 KB)  

    One goal of digital processing of radiographic images is to provide the radiologist with quantitative measurements of human anatomy as well as an indication as to whether or not this anatomy is within normal limits. A computer algorithm is described, designed to automatically detect, extract quantitative measurements from, and diagnose the cardiac projection present in full-size anteriorview chest radiographs. A normal-abnormal diagnosis is demonstrated utilizing abnormal data from five classes of heart disease. In addition, normal-abnormal as well as normal-differential diagnoses are demonstrated for the rheumatic heart disease class. A feature extraction algorithm is developed using several ad hoc techniques, some of which were adapted from other feature extraction uses. The extracted features are classified into diagnostic classes using linear and quadratic discriminant functions. A concurrent study of physician diagnostic accuracy is also undertaken using the averaged diagnostic rates of ten radiologists on a representative subset of the radiographs used in the computer study. View full abstract»

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  • Resolution Characteristics of Tomographic Rotating Collimator Systems

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 186 - 193
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    A brief description of the standard rotating tomographic collimator and a new magnifying tomographic collimator is given. The geometry of the apparatus is quantitatively described and the modulation transfer characteristics for the standard apparatus and for various configurations of the proposed system using various source frequencies and planar depths are calculated. The smearing function for a line source is also calculated. It is shown that planar depth resolution can be improved at the expense of decreasing geometric efficiency. The advantages of using a magnifying collimator in the tomographic scheme are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Holography and Medicine

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 194 - 205
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6416 KB)  

    Holography has emerged from the laboratory and is slowly becoming a useful tool in a variety of engineering and scientific areas. The potential exists for holography to serve as such a tool in medical and biological research. Holography can be used to form three-dimensional images. Three dimensionality is a consequence of the recording of phase information in the hologram. The presence of phase information in holographic images makes them extremely versatile and amenable to such a posteriori techniques as interferometry and dark-field imagery. Holography can also be used to analyze images, that is, to enhance image contrast and resolution, or to perform such functions as correlation analyses and pattern recognition. Moreover, the versatility of holography extends beyond the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum; holograms made with infrared, ultraviolet, microwave, or ultrasonic illumination, or ``synthetic'' holograms made using a computer can be used to produce visible images or to analyze nonvisible images. The manner in which holography's potential can be used in biomedical applications is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Mass-Balance Model of Pulmonary Oxygen Transport

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 205 - 213
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A dynamic lumped-parameter model for pulmonary gas transport has been developed to characterize the lung and predict the effect of various parameter changes. The gas side of the lung is modeled as a series and parallel arrangement of five perfectly mixed, variable-volume compartments that correspond roughly to airway and alveolar regions. The blood side of the lung is modeled as a series of perfectly mixed, constant-volume compartments that represent the pulmonary capillary bed. From nonsteady mass balances, equations are derived which yield the time course of concentration for each compartment. Model simulations indicate that the oxygen-hemoglobin reaction does not reach equilibrium in the pulmonary capillaries, an assumption commonly made in analyses of pulmonary oxygen transport. Simulations also show the extent to which breathing amplitude and rate can affect the oxygen level in the blood leaving the lung. A comparison of simulations for a normal state and chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) with identical input conditions demonstrates that the oxygen level in the blood leaving the lung is much lower in COLD. Also, the simulations are compared with experimental findings. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Characteristics of the Renal Arterial Microvasculature of the Dog Obtained by Simulation

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 213 - 221
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2269 KB)  

    To develop a measurement technique for microvascular stiffness and resistance, an iterative algorithm (NOLESQ) combining steepest descent and Taylor series (Gauss-Newton) methods was used to estimate model parameters to provide a minimal least squares error at 5-ms intervals of the predicted blood flow to the measured flow. Renal arterial pressure and flow data of high dynamic and static accuracy were used. The data were in blocks of 2500 values each (12.5-s samples). A reasonable fit was obtained with only three parameters: arterial conductance, compliance, and a steady pressure at or just beyond the glomerulae. Other models, incorporating large artery resistance, blood mass, pressure dependent conductance, and pressure dependent compliance were studied. Criteria for acceptance were reasonable values from prior knowledge of biological materials, similarity of parameter values between consecutive samples and between animals, convergence, and error of fit reduced to the noise level of the input data. View full abstract»

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  • Test of an Inverse Electrocardiographic Solution Based on Accurately Determined Model Data

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 221 - 228
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2227 KB)  

    Encouraging progress has been made recently with a multiple-dipole type of inverse electrocardiographic procedure. A vitally important feature of the procedure is constraint of equivalent dipole moments to nonnegative values by means of quadratic programming. Application of the method to data derived from purely clinical sources has great heuristic value, but suffers from the lack of undisputed baseline information against which to compare the results of inverse solution. Accordingly, in this paper we attempt to evaluate the dependability of fixed-dipole array inversion by applying the method to a series of accurately modeled situations. Generally acceptable results are obtained with the dipoles arrayed in ``favorable'' configurations, with considerably less acceptable outcome likely under ``unfavorable'' conditions. Superposition of signal noise or perturbation of equivalent dipole locations tends to degrade the quality of solution, but does not entirely vitiate it. Study of one unfavorable array shows how a competitive situation might occur which could cause ``crosstalk'' between the interventricular septum and the free wall of the right ventricle. Despite the quantitative deficiencies which become apparent when multiple-dipole inversion is essayed with accurately modeled data, the procedure continues to offer promise as a useful means of extracting intrinsic electrophysiologic information from electrocardiographic signals. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Studies to Design Safe External Pediatric Paddles for a DC Defibrillator

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 228 - 232
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2262 KB)  

    Pediatric defibrillator paddles for infants and small children have been designed for a dc defibrillator. Studies in dogs, in which paddles ranging from 3 to 9 cm in diameter were used, suggested that 5-cm paddles were optimal from the standpoint of minimal myocardial damage, skin burns, and deviation of the delivered energy from that shown by the meter of the defibrillator. Transthoracic resistance was found to be inversely related to paddle diameter according to the equation R =(450/d) -7.32, where R represents the transthoracic resistance in ohms and d represents the diameter of paddles in cm. The effect of paddle size on the peak transthoracic voltage, current, and total delivered energy is presented. Use of paddles smaller than 5 cm was associated with discharge of damagingly high voltage and current densities. The effectiveness and relative safety of the 5-cm pediatric paddle are discussed. Even though conclusions reached relative to an optimal paddle size for small patients should be restricted to the dc defibrillator used in these studies, the reported general technique and design procedure should have general applicability in the design of pediatric paddles for other types of defibrillators. View full abstract»

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  • Porous Cathodes for Implantable Hybrid Cells

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 233 - 238
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3787 KB)  

    The in vivo power output of implantable power sources using porous platinum- or palladium-black cathodes is approximately four to five times greater than ones using commercially available cathodes of platinum black dispersed in Teflon. Porous electrodes produce a much lower foreign-body reaction than electrodes with plastic binders. Comparison of BET surface-area measurements for the powders and compacted electrodes illustrate that there is an approximate 20-percent decrease in surface area following compaction. The particle size, distribution, and shape of the powders were studied with the aid of scanning electromicrographs. In vitro galvanostatic measurements were made on the implantable power sources to study the electrochemical activity before implantation. View full abstract»

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  • Capability and Limitations of Electrocardiography and Magnetocardiography

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 239 - 244
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
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    The capabilities and limitations of electrocardiography and magnetocardiography are discussed. Representing the electrical activity of the heart by an impressed current density ji, electrocardiography determines the spherical harmonic multipole expansion of its divergence (flux source), while magnetocardiography determines the spherical harmonic multipole expansion of the radial component of its curl (vortex source). View full abstract»

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  • A Technique for Time-Ordered Display of Temporal Patterns of Evoked Neuronal Unit Activity

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 244 - 246
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    A technique for photographing the ensemble effects of a series of evoked neuronal unit responses is described. The use of a counting register and a digital-to-analog converter to step the sweep after each stimulus obviates the need for a moving-film type of camera. Pattern height remains constant for any preselected number of sweeps, and for changes in stimulus frequency as well. Provision is also included for presentation of unit discharges in dot form or unit slow-wave activity in analog form. View full abstract»

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  • Operating Table Controlling Water Balance and Temperature of Cats

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 246 - 247
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (465 KB)  

    A special operating table for cats has been developed. It maintains the body weight within ±5 gm by means of a built-in load transducer system controlling an infusion pump. The table has a conventional temperature control. View full abstract»

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  • Bladder Volume Sensing by Local Distension Measurement

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 247 - 248
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (634 KB)  

    Restoration of volitional control of the micturition reflex requires the use of bladder volume sensors. A method of measuring bladder volume by monitoring local distension has been developed in the laboratory. Tests conducted in experimental animals yielded 15 percent accuracy with bladder volume at micturition reflex threshold. View full abstract»

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  • The Cardiac Disaster Alarm

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 248 - 251
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    A simple cardiac monitoring system (called the disaster alarm) is described in this short communication. The system provides a simplified form of cardiac monitoring for patients on regular hospital wards who do not require continuous observation. View full abstract»

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  • An Apparatus for Producing Mechanical Step Pulses for Biorheologic Studies

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 251 - 252
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A device to produce displacement step pulses for studying viscoelastic wave propagation in biological specimens was developed on the basis of condenser discharge through a solenoid. The amplitude and rise time of the pulse step can be adjusted by varying the condenser capacity, charging voltage, and distance between the armature and the electromagnet. View full abstract»

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  • Abstracts of dissertations

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 252 - 254
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  • Keyword abstracts

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 255 - 256
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  • Contributors

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 256 - 259
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  • Announcement

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 260
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering contains basic and applied papers dealing with biomedical engineering. Papers range from engineering development in methods and techniques with biomedical applications to experimental and clinical investigations with engineering contributions.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Bin He
Department of Biomedical Engineering