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Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Oct. 2005

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  • IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine - October 2005. Vol. 41 No. 4

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 0_1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 0_2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Motion compensation errors: effects on the accuracy of airborne SAR images

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1338 - 1352
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (651 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work addresses the study of the effect of residual uncompensated motion errors due to positioning measurement instrument and digital elevation model inaccuracies on the accuracy of airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. It is shown that these not only introduce phase errors following pure geometric considerations, but they also cause additional aberrations related to their interaction with the SAR processing procedure. Extension to the repeat pass airborne interferometry is also included to show their impact on the resulting interferograms. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Cramer-Rao bound for target tracking in clutter

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1154 - 1167
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, there have been several new results for an old topic, the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). Specifically, it has been shown that for a wide class of parameter estimation problems (e.g. for objects with deterministic dynamics) the matrix CRLB, with both measurement origin uncertainty (i.e., in the presence of false alarms or random clutter) and measurement noise, is simply that without measurement origin uncertainty times a scalar information reduction factor (IRF). Conversely, there has arisen a neat expression for the CRLB for state estimation of a stochastic dynamic nonlinear system (i.e., objects with a stochastic motion); but this is only valid without measurement origin uncertainty. The present paper can be considered a marriage of the two topics: the clever Riccati-like form from the latter is preserved, but it includes the IRF from the former. The effects of plant and observation dynamics on the CRLB are explored. Further, the CRLB is compared via simulation to two common target tracking algorithms, the probabilistic data association filter (PDAF) and the multiframe (N-D) assignment algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • A non-Bayesian segmenting tracker for highly maneuvering targets

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1168 - 1177
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2032 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The segmenting track identifier (STI) is introduced as a new methodology for tracking highly maneuvering targets. This nonBayesian approach dynamically partitions a target track into a sequence of track segments, making hard estimates of when the target's maneuvering mode transitions occur, and then estimates the parameters of the target model for each segment. STI is compared with two variable structures interacting multiple model (VS-IMM) algorithms through simulations, where it is shown to have a three fold performance advantage in median absolute turn rate estimation errors, as well as better position estimation for very highly maneuvering targets. STI is also shown to outperform a Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) fixed-interval smoother when estimates are retrospectively derived, and STI accurately characterize the temporal pattern of maneuvers. View full abstract»

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  • Unified approach to missile guidance laws: a 3D extension

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1178 - 1199
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since the proportional navigation guidance law was first introduced, many of the researchers had proposed different methodologies to investigate the corresponding performances of all the existing guidance laws. Even though a unified approach was proposed a few years ago, other authors found that under the proposed framework, all the existing guidance laws, namely ideal proportional navigation (IPN), true proportional navigation (TPN), and pure proportional navigation (PPN), were indeed special cases of the mentioned general guidance law. However, the results were restricted to two-dimensional space. In this paper, the author not only extends the results to three-dimensional space, but also to general IPN (GIPN), general TPN (GTPN), and PPN. Unlike conventional researchers, a modified polar coordinate (MPC) is adopted. It is shown that with the property of this MPC, for the line of sight (LOS) based guidance laws (GIPN and GTPN) the number of differential equations required to fully describe the relative dynamics can be reduced from six to three, however, for the missile's velocity-based guidance law, i.e., PPN, five differential equations are required. All the terms of differential equations involve only products and additions of variables. For all the mentioned guidance laws in this paper, only two transformed variables are required to describe the capture region, while the third variable is required to provide the condition of finite turn rate. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of data transfer protocols over space communications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1200 - 1223
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5738 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The work presented here concerns the study and the investigation of data transmission mechanisms, employed above the network layer of the protocol stack, used to transmit a data file through an end-to-end path composed of low Earth orbit (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) portions. A link built in the unexplored band W connects the Earth station to a LEO satellite (called DAVID). The communication among DAVID and other sites is performed by means of an inter-satellite link in Ka band, which connects the LEO satellite to a GEO one (called ARTEMIS) and the latter to the Earth stations. The main peculiarities of the investigated scenario consist of the visibility of a LEO satellite, limited to a few minutes, and of the only partial availability over time of a return link on the GEO path. LEO visibility may seriously affect the data communication because it implies suspend/resume mechanisms to match nonvisibility periods. The partial unavailability of the return link makes (transmission control protocol) TCP-based solutions barely applicable and implies the design of effective protocol architectures, in order to guarantee a reliable data communication. Several investigations about alternative novel architectures have been produced in order to individuate solutions that meet all the network requirements in terms of service reliability, exploitation of the network resources, and overall service time. The analysis is two-fold: on one hand the attention has been addressed to the LEO path, highlighting the features offered by a transport layer splitting approach and by an application-based solution exploiting the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) protocol stack, whose performance is compared with the results provided by the TCP/IP protocol stack, commonly used in the Internet (where IP stands for Internet Protocol). Concerning CEO path, assuming the return link only partially available, two alternatives of the CCSDS protocol stack have been investigated: the first one implies the use of a negative acknowledgement scheme, the second one does not require any availability of a return link. The two paths together compose the end-to-end communication, which is also globally analyzed on the basis of the performance offered by the solutions presented for the t- wo portions. All the results have been obtained by using a simulator developed for the aim. View full abstract»

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  • Sequential Monte Carlo methods for multitarget filtering with random finite sets

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1224 - 1245
    Cited by:  Papers (252)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Random finite sets (RFSs) are natural representations of multitarget states and observations that allow multisensor multitarget filtering to fit in the unifying random set framework for data fusion. Although the foundation has been established in the form of finite set statistics (FISST), its relationship to conventional probability is not clear. Furthermore, optimal Bayesian multitarget filtering is not yet practical due to the inherent computational hurdle. Even the probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter, which propagates only the first moment (or PHD) instead of the full multitarget posterior, still involves multiple integrals with no closed forms in general. This article establishes the relationship between FISST and conventional probability that leads to the development of a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) multitarget filter. In addition, an SMC implementation of the PHD filter is proposed and demonstrated on a number of simulated scenarios. Both of the proposed filters are suitable for problems involving nonlinear nonGaussian dynamics. Convergence results for these filters are also established. View full abstract»

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  • Recursive mode star identification algorithms

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1246 - 1254
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2276 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Star identification can be accomplished by several different available algorithms that identify the stars observed by a star tracker. However, efficiency and reliability remain key issues and the availability of new active pixel cameras requires new approaches. Two novel algorithms for recursive mode star identification are presented here. The first approach is derived by the spherical polygon search (SP-search) algorithm, it was used to access all the cataloged stars observed by the sensor field-of-view (FOV) and recursively add/remove candidate cataloged stars according to the predicted image motion induced by camera attitude dynamics. Star identification is then accomplished by a star pattern matching technique which identifies the observed stars in the reference catalog. The second method uses star neighborhood information and a catalog neighborhood pointer matrix to access the star catalog. In the recursive star identification process, and under the assumption of "slow" attitude dynamics, only the stars in the neighborhood of previously identified stars are considered for star identification in the succeeding frames. Numerical tests are performed to validate the absolute and relative efficiency of the proposed methods. View full abstract»

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  • Survey of maneuvering target tracking. Part V. Multiple-model methods

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1255 - 1321
    Cited by:  Papers (139)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1185 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This is the fifth part of a series of papers that provide a comprehensive survey of techniques for tracking maneuvering targets without addressing the so-called measurement-origin uncertainty. Part I and Part II deal with target motion models. Part III covers measurement models and associated techniques. Part IV is concerned with tracking techniques that are based on decisions regarding target maneuvers. This part surveys the multiple-model methods $the use of multiple models (and filters) simultaneously - which is the prevailing approach to maneuvering target tracking in recent years. The survey is presented in a structured way, centered around three generations of algorithms: autonomous, cooperating, and variable structure. It emphasizes the underpinning of each algorithm and covers various issues in algorithm design, application, and performance. View full abstract»

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  • Robust adaptive radar detection in the presence of steering vector mismatches

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1322 - 1337
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (705 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we consider the problem of robust radar detection in the presence of Gaussian disturbance with unknown covariance matrix. We design and assess three new robust adaptive detectors, capable of operating in the presence of unknown discrepancies between the nominal and the actual steering vector. Remarkably the new decision rules exhibit a bounded constant false alarm rate (CFAR) behavior and allow, through the regulation of a design parameter, to trade off target sensitivity with sidelobes energy rejection. Finally, computer simulations show that the proposed detectors achieve a visible performance improvement, in many situations of practical interest, over the traditional adaptive detection algorithms, especially in the presence of severe steering vector mismatches. View full abstract»

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  • Motion compensation errors: effects on the accuracy of airborne SAR images

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1338 - 1352
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (651 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

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  • Fault tolerant solid state mass memory for space applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1353 - 1372
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3650 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an innovative fault tolerant solid state mass memory (FTSSMM) architecture is described. Solid state mass memories (SSMMs) are particularly suitable for space applications and more in general for harsh environments such us, for example, nuclear accelerators or avionics. The presented FTSSMM design has been entirely based on commercial off the shelf (COTS) components. In fact, cost competitive and very high performance SSMMs cannot be easily implemented by using space qualified components, due the technological gap and very high cost characterizing these components. In order to match the severe reliability requirements of space applications a COTS-based apparatus must be designed by using suitable system level methodologies (Kluth, 1996 and Fichna, 1998). In the proposed architecture, error-correcting codes are used to strengthen the commercial dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips, while the system controller has been designed by applying suitable fault tolerant design techniques. Different from other proposed solutions, our architecture fully exploits the reconfiguration capabilities of Reed-Solomon (RS) codes, discriminates between permanent and transient faults reducing the use of spare elements, and provides dynamic reconfiguration and graceful degradation capability, i.e., the FTSSMM performances are gracefully reduced in case of permanent faults, maintaining part of the system functionality. The paper shows the FTSSMM design methodology, the architecture, the reliability analysis, some simulation results, and a description of its implementation based on fast prototyping techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Tracking for maneuvering target trajectories via the 3D circular filter

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1373 - 1382
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (997 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A circular prediction algorithm is proposed, which integrates the measured data into the filter and constrains the prediction to lie on a smooth curve modeled by an arc of a circle. The circular prediction is entirely defined in relation to three measurements in three-dimensional space. It is therefore not necessary to calculate the center and the radius of the circle. To obtain the statistics of the circular prediction, the unscented transformation has been utilized. The proposed hybrid filter combines the circular prediction and a constant velocity prediction by utilizing the covariance intersection (CI). This combined prediction can be updated with the subsequent measurement using a linear estimator. The proposed technique is compared with standard filters and the interacting multiple model (IMM) approach on a benchmark trajectory which includes coordinated turns and straight line maneuvers. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of spaceborne bistatic synthetic aperture radar

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1383 - 1395
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (790 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on a model developed for evaluating major system performance of a spaceborne bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for remote sensing applications. The procedure accounts for formation flying aspects. It is particularly aimed at comparison of monostatic and bistatic cases, and, as a test case, it is applied to study a novel configuration, based on a small satellite equipped with a receiving-only antenna orbiting in tandem with a large, noncooperative transmitting spacecraft, the Italian COSMO-SkyMed mission. Numerical results and plots show the effectiveness of the procedure as a mission design tool and put in evidence key issues and characteristics of the proposed spaceborne bistatic formation. View full abstract»

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  • Multitarget tracking using the joint multitarget probability density

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1396 - 1414
    Cited by:  Papers (65)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (677 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work addresses the problem of tracking multiple moving targets by recursively estimating the joint multitarget probability density (JMPD). Estimation of the JMPD is done in a Bayesian framework and provides a method for tracking multiple targets which allows nonlinear target motion and measurement to state coupling as well as nonGaussian target state densities. The JMPD technique simultaneously estimates both the target states and the number of targets in the surveillance region based on the set of measurements made. We give an implementation of the JMPD method based on particle filtering techniques and provide an adaptive sampling scheme which explicitly models the multitarget nature of the problem. We show that this implementation of the JMPD technique provides a natural way to track a collection of targets, is computationally tractable, and performs well under difficult conditions such as target crossing, convoy movement, and low measurement signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). View full abstract»

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  • Planck-LFI 44 GHz back end module

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1415 - 1430
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1903 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work describes the principle of operation, assembly and performance of one branch of the 44 GHz back end module (BEM) for the Planck low frequency instrument (LFI). This subsystem constitutes a fully representative branch of the qualification-model version (QM). It includes waveguide to microstrip transition, GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) low noise amplifiers (LNA), bandpass filter, square-law detector and dc amplifier. The fundamentals of the design of the RF part are described and all of the components have been tested individually before integration. Using single tone and wideband noise stimuli, the output voltage has been measured for several input powers, in order to obtain the sensitivity factor of the complete BEM. The effective bandwidth and the equivalent noise temperature have been calculated from the measurements, taking into account the frequency dependence on the noise source and the BEM. Finally, the low frequency output power spectrum has been obtained and a maximum 1/f knee frequency around 200 Hz has been measured with a 3 dB output signal video bandwidth above 50 KHz. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated power and attitude control with two flywheels

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1431 - 1449
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5826 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Energy storage and attitude control are two distinct subsystems of the typical satellite. Energy storage is provided using batteries and active attitude control is accomplished with control moment gyroscopes or reaction wheels. A system mass savings can be achieved if these two subsystems are combined using multiple flywheels for simultaneous kinetic energy storage and momentum transfer. This paper develops, simulates, and experimentally demonstrates the control algorithms to accomplish integrated power and single-axis attitude control using two flywheels. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of a single-switch quadratic buck converter

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1450 - 1456
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (303 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

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  • Simultaneous transmission of multiple signals through a shared array aperture

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1457 - 1463
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2199 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

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  • ISAR imaging using an emulated multistatic radar system

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1464 - 1472
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1646 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of a monostatic radar configuration limits the ability of an inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) system to image targets in certain geometries. By employing multistatic geometries this limitation may be overcome. This paper discusses the emulation of multistatic geometries, via sea surface multipath reflections, using a monostatic system. This application capitalises on the advantages provided by both monostatic and bistatic systems. The possibility of obtaining ISAR images using these emulated multistatic radar configurations is first theoretically discussed and then verified using experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Multibaseline cross-track SAR interferometry using interpolated arrays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1473 - 1482
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1285 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

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  • Particle filter track-before-detect application using inequality constraints

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1483 - 1489
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1888 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

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  • 2005 Index - IEEE Aerospace & Electronic Systems Society (IEEE-Aess)

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 0_3 - 1_9
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  • See us on the web...

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems focuses on the equipment, procedures, and techniques applicable to the organization, installation, and operation of functional systems designed to meet the high performance requirements of earth and space systems.

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Editor-in-Chief
Lance Kaplan
Army Research Laboratory