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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6  Part 1 • Date Dec. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • Guest Editorial Special Issue on Ion Sources

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1741 - 1742
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  • Ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS): importance of nonlinear plasma-wave interaction

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1743 - 1762
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS), ions are produced in a highly ionized microwave heated plasma contained in a minimum-B magnetic trap. Recent experiments have revealed that the absorption of electromagnetic wave energy is accompanied by a weak ion sound turbulence, a signature of a decay instability of the electromagnetic plasma wave excited by the admitted microwave. Ions are heated by the ion sound waves more effectively than by electron ion collisions. In case of gas mixtures ("gas-mixing"), it is possible to heat preferentially the lighter species under appropriate conditions. As confinement of ions is best at low ion temperatures, selective ion heating enhances losses of the preferentially heated ion component, reducing at the same time losses of the less effectively heated ions. Experimental results are compared with a theory of the sketched processes. We further (qualitatively) discuss open questions like plasma transport in highly ionized multi-component plasma contained by conducting walls, direct influence of the weak ion sound turbulence on plasma transport, and the action of ponderomotive forces in the so-called resonance zones. View full abstract»

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  • Physics of electron beam ion traps and sources

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1763 - 1777
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    This paper presents the basic physics underlying the operation of electron beam ion traps and sources, with the machine physics underlying their operation being described in some detail. Predictions arising from this description are compared with some diagnostic measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Laser ion sources

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1778 - 1785
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Laser ion sources (LIS) are capable of delivering short pulses of highly charged ions of almost any element, with high intensity. In this paper, the basic processes of the laser interaction with plasma generated from a solid target will be discussed. The application of the laser-plasma theory will be applied to the subsystems of the LIS, and some examples of ion beam properties given, with a more detailed description of the implementation of a LIS at ITEP, Moscow. Finally the parameters for a LIS for high-current, low charge-state, long pulse operation will be discussed, along with transverse magnetic confinement, and the possibilities for injecting a laser plasma into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. View full abstract»

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  • Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1786 - 1798
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A variety of H- ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator Hon sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H- production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Positive and negative ion sources for magnetic fusion

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1799 - 1813
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The positive or negative ion sources which form the primary components of neutral beam injection systems used in controlled nuclear fusion using magnetic confinement have to meet simultaneously several demanding requirements. This paper describes the underlying physics of modern positive ion sources, which provide the required high proton fraction (>90%) and high current density (≈2 kA/m2) at a low source pressure (0.4 Pa) with a high electrical efficiency and uniformity across the accelerator grids. The development of negative ion sources, which are required if high energy neutral beams are to be produced, is described, and the present understanding of the physics of negative ion production in sources is explained. The paper reports that negative ion sources have achieved many of the parameters required of sources for the neutral beam injectors of future fusion devices and reactors, >200 A/m2 of D- at low source pressure, <0.3 Pa, with a low co-extracted electron content. The development needed to meet all the requirements of future systems is briefly discussed. View full abstract»

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  • The operational phase of negative ion beam systems on JT-60U and LHD

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1814 - 1831
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews the operational phase of the negative-ion-based neutral beam systems on the JT-60U tokamak in Naka, Japan and the large helical device (LHD) stellarator in Toki, Japan. These systems were the first high power negative ion beam systems to be deployed for any application, and thus represented large advances in the state of the art for negative ion sources and accelerators, especially since the ions used were hydrogen and deuterium, which have only a modest electron affinity. This paper reviews the systems, the principal problems encountered, and the improvements they engendered, as well as the progress of these systems to the present time. The role of neutral beams in fusion is also discussed, and some of the contributions of the negative ion systems to the physics programs of JT-60U and LHD are briefly reviewed. These systems have been central to the success of JT-60U and LHD, and the knowledge gained about their characteristics should provide a strong basis for the development of the next generation of negative-ion-based neutral beams for ITER and other large fusion devices. View full abstract»

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  • Open problems in the physics of volume H-/D- sources

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1832 - 1844
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Old and new problems in the physics of magnetic multipole sources for the production of negative H-/D- ions are presented and discussed. We emphasize particularly, in this kind of plasmas, both the vibrational and electron nonequilibrium energy distributions, the role of Rydberg states in enhancing the negative ion production, the production of vibrationally excited states by atomic recombination on surfaces through different mechanisms, and the enhancement of negative ion concentrations in pulsed discharges. View full abstract»

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  • Volume production negative hydrogen ion sources

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1845 - 1871
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2936 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We review the evolution of volume production negative hydrogen ion sources since the discovery in 1977 of the new phenomenon, designated as volume production and attributed to dissociative electron attachment of low energy electrons to rovibrationally excited molecules. The experimental verification in 2005 of the reality of this mechanism is reported. The magnetically filtered tandem sources, using hot filaments or inductively coupled radio frequency discharges, proposed in order to make use of the volume production mechanism, are used as continuous wave sources for cyclotrons and short pulse sources for synchrotrons. The extraction physics, required to correlate the negative ion and electron densities near the extraction opening with the extracted currents, is discussed taking into account the recently measured H-/D- ion temperatures. It is also shown that the extracted negative ion current can be predicted from the directed flow velocity (measured by two laser photodetachment) and the negative ion density measured in the extraction region plasma. Progress in modeling the volume production negative hydrogen ion sources is briefly summarized. Main attention has been paid to some recent topics, such as negative ion temperature and specific for two negative species plasmas transport in a weak transverse magnetic field. A new view on the potential of volume production making use of the vibrationally excited molecules produced on surfaces (plasma electrode, walls) by recombinative desorption is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Ion sources for fusion plasma diagnostics

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1872 - 1900
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Various probing beams have been developed and used for plasma diagnostics in thermonuclear fusion research for magnetic confinement. The required beam current, beam size, energy, beam characteristics such as divergence, energy spread, and emittance, etc., as well as ion species are different depending on the purpose of diagnostics, target plasma size and parameters. Hydrogen beams are used for charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) and motional stark effect (MSE) spectroscopy. Suitable beam energy for CHERS ranges in the area of 50 keV/amu, and a small beam divergence is required for MSE measurements. Heating beams are often used as diagnostic beams by sharing. Neutral lithium probing beams have been used as effective tools for measurement of density and fluctuations. A heavy ion beam probe (HIBP), made from alkali metal ions, is injected directly without neutralization to measure plasma potential and density, as well as their fluctuations. Recent progress in magnetic fusion experiments has resulted in advancement of the development of negative ion sources, such as He- and Li- sources for alpha-particle measurement, because of their advantages with regard to efficient neutralization in the high-energy region, and an Au- source for HIBP with the application of tandem acceleration. View full abstract»

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  • High current ion sources and injectors for induction linacs in heavy ion fusion

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1901 - 1910
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source. View full abstract»

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  • Ion beams and their applications in high-resolution probe formation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1911 - 1930
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2624 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The most critical demand for high-brightness ion beams emerged from the realm of industrial applications of focused ion beams and it was met by using liquid metal ion source technology. Although recognized as a successful technology, liquid metal ion sources have major limitations in view of beam species. Noncontaminating ion beam species with beam brightness comparable to liquid metal ion source, i.e., ∼106 A cm-2 sr-1 and energy spread of ∼1 eV will be ideal for many cutting-edge applications including ion beam milling, mask repair, and imaging studies. This paper attempts to bring out the essential points in the development of high-resolution probe forming beams. With this specific objective in view, this study is based on an analysis of point sources and then a variety of other sources, under the general classification of "broad" source (primarily plasma sources), are discussed. Several sources in this category including a Penning-type source, a multicusp source, and new-generation high-charged state sources seem to have merits for circumventing the limitations of liquid metal ion sources, although further research is needed to improve the beam brightness and advance the state-of-the art. View full abstract»

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  • Vacuum arc ion sources: recent developments and applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1931 - 1943
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
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    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved over the past 20 years into a standard laboratory tool for the production of high current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. The primary application of this kind of source has evolved to be ion implantation for material surface modification. Another important use is for injection of high current beams of heavy metal ions into the front ends of particle accelerators, and much excellent work has been carried out in recent years in optimizing the source for reliable accelerator application. The source also provides a valuable tool for the investigation of the fundamental plasma physics of vacuum arc plasma discharges. As the use of the source has grown and diversified, at the same time, the ion source performance and operational characteristics have been improved in a variety of different ways also. Here we review the growth and status of vacuum arc ion sources around the world and summarize some of the applications for which the sources have been used. View full abstract»

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  • Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition: a review of physics, technology, and applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1944 - 1959
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
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    After pioneering work in the 1980s, plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) and plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBIID) can now be considered mature technologies for surface modification and thin film deposition. This review starts by looking at the historical development and recalling the basic ideas of PBII. Advantages and disadvantages are compared to conventional ion beam implantation and physical vapor deposition for PBII and PBIID, respectively, followed by a summary of the physics of sheath dynamics, plasma and pulse specifications, plasma diagnostics, and process modeling. The review moves on to technology considerations for plasma sources and process reactors. PBII surface modification and PBIID coatings are applied in a wide range of situations. They include the by-now traditional tribological applications of reducing wear and corrosion through the formation of hard, tough, smooth, low-friction, and chemically inert phases and coatings, e.g., for engine components. PBII has become viable for the formation of shallow junctions and other applications in microelectronics. More recently, the rapidly growing field of biomaterial synthesis makes use of PBII and PBIID to alter surfaces of or produce coatings on surgical implants and other biomedical devices. With limitations, also nonconducting materials such as plastic sheets can be treated. The major interest in PBII processing originates from its flexibility in ion energy (from a few electron volts up to about 100 keV), and the capability to efficiently treat, or deposit on, large areas, and (within limits) to process nonflat, three-dimensional workpieces, including forming and modifying metastable phases and nanostructures. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE order form for reprints

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1960
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c3
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
1428 Miracerros Loop South
Santa Fe, NM  87505  87505  USA
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